Presentation on theme: "MARKETING OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES: A STUDY OF LIBRARIANS PERCEPTION Presented By Mukesh Pathak, Assistant Librarian Dr. Amit Jain, Associate."— Presentation transcript:
MARKETING OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES: A STUDY OF LIBRARIANS PERCEPTION Presented By Mukesh Pathak, Assistant Librarian Dr. Amit Jain, Associate Professor JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur
Abstract This paper explains the concept of marketing in libraries and reveals the attitude and behavior of library professionals regarding marketing concept in India. The study conducted using standardized scale shows the perception of professionals on scales of Promarketing, Antimarketing and Marketing Knowledge & Experience. The study also reveals relative importance of promotional activities carried out by the libraries. 2
Marketing Concept & Definition Marketing in libraries implies reviewing the customer needs and popularizing products & services offered by the libraries so that the objective of maximum utilization of the library resources can be achieved. According to Kotler (2010) “Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and organizations obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging value with others.” The Chartered Institute of Marketing, UK defined “Marketing as the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably” 3
Needs of Library Information Service (LIS) Marketing The challenge of being self-sustained and optimization of benefits are common to public library, academic library attached to institutions and special library. The ability of libraries to promote their information products and services to users effectively by improving available services, developing new services, timely procurement of information products like books, journals, proceedings, reports etc. make it useful to all stakeholders. 4
Libraries are created for the users, as they are center of all library activities. To understand their needs, service requirements libraries need to use marketing techniques to achieve the levels of highest user satisfaction with minimal financial requirements. The cost of print, online resources, operational costs, facilities are increasing day by day, to recover these costs to some extent libraries can expand their services to the other users and can offer Institutional membership, personal membership, visiting membership. This is only possible after applying effective marketing strategies. 5
Librarian’s perceptions on marketing Marketing concept for nonprofit organization is influenced after the article by Kotler and Levy (1969) “Broadening the Concept of Marketing”. There is evidence that interest in marketing among librarians is increasing now (Shontz, Parker & Parker, 2004). Most of the writings have focused on discussion of the application of marketing in the libraries and guidebooks, workshops demonstration has been done on marketing techniques. Perception and attitude of librarians towards “Marketing” is more important than its application, because if they have positive attitude then only able to understand and implement effectively. 6
Review of Librarian’s Perception Studies A study by Shontz, Parker and Parker (2004) “What do Librarians Think about Marketing?: A survey of Public Librarians Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services” concluded that public librarians are becoming aware of the importance of marketing library services specially administrators and public service librarians are more positive than reference and technical service librarians. Caplan’s (2011) article “Changing Perception” explains that the best marketing plan based on objectives, mission, vision and values of library can provide maximum level of satisfaction to its user. 7
Parker, Kaufman-Scarborough and Parker’s (2007) study “Libraries in transition to a marketing orientation: are librarians’ attitudes a barrier?” Explained that some library systems have started developing marketing culture which requires staff’s positive attitude towards marketing and very few studies have been conducted to examine the attitudes of librarians towards marketing in systematic ways. Singh (2009) concluded that the positive marketing attitude of library leaders are more required for the market oriented behavior of library. 8
Rationale of the Study Available studies have been conducted in foreign context. To check perception of librarians in Indian context this study has been designed by using established scales. The study provides good insight into the psyche of librarians and suggests ways to promote marketing of LIS. Objectives of the Study To know librarians’ perception of Marketing of Library and Information Services. To find relative importance of various promotional activities carried by librarian for Marketing of Library and Information Services. To study impact of librarians qualification, experience and prior exposure to marketing on his/ her perception towards marketing of LIS. 9
Methodology Present study has been conducted using instrument with Seven- point Likert-scale and items for the scale were adopted from pervious study conducted by Shontz, Parker and Parker (2004) for public librarians in New Jersey. The instrument consists of three scales viz, Promarketing, Antimarketing, and Marketing Knowledge and Experience. An online questionnaire was mailed on LIS forum (http://lislinks.com), MANLIBNET group mail, Linkedin group mail and e-mailed to some librarians for getting their responses.http://lislinks.com Only 60 responses were received from the various library professionals involved in different library environments and activities. All responses are analyzed using SPSS version 16. 10
Analysis and Findings 11 Sample Profile By Type of Library 63.33% respondents employed in College / University library 23.33% respondents employed in Special Library 10% respondents employed in School Library Rest of the respondents are employed in either Retired or other By Job Responsibility 60% respondents engaged Library Administration 15% respondents engaged Technical Section 10% respondents engaged Reference Rest of the respondents are either engaged Circulation or other By Qualification 28.33% respondents M.Lib.I.Sc. 25% respondents M.Phil 23.33% respondents PhD Rest of the respondents are either B.Lib.I.Sc. or Others
12 Table 4 Descriptive Statistics and scale reliability for Promarketing, Antimarketing and Marketing Knowledge and Experience Note: 7=strongly agree; 1=strongly disagree ScalesStatement or ItemRespondentsMeanAlpha Coefficient Promarketing Marketing is relevant to the needs of libraries605.17 0.869 Libraries should market themselves more like business do604.32 Knowing more about marketing techniques would be helpful to my work604.92 Library need marketing to survive in an increasingly competitive environment 605.22 Library school programs should require a course in marketing604.73 Advertising and promotion are important to my library604.95 Antimarketing Marketing is primarily used to persuade people to buy things they do not really need 603.60 0.812 Marketing is too costly for most libraries603.90 It is more difficult to apply marketing techniques to libraries than to businesses 603.97 Marketing uses up resources that could be better used to provide more services 604.80 Marketing is mostly hype and hustle603.68 Marketing is inconsistent with the professionalism of a librarian603.90 Marketing is unnecessary because we barely have enough resources to meet current demand for library services 603.32 If a library already provides a full range of services, there is not much need for marketing 603.57 Libraries do not need marketing because people already know what services we offer 603.18 Marketing Knowledge and Experience I am knowledgeable about marketing techniques604.27 0.799 I have been personally involved in marketing library services604.20 Advertising-promotion is a large part of my work603.85 Attracting new patrons is a large part of my work604.33 Developing new services is a large part of my work604.62
13 Table 5 Importance of Marketing Related Activities ActivitiesRespondentsMeanStd. Deviation Knowledge of Advertising / Promotion604.931.593 Mailings / Newsletters605.251.622 User Surveys605.271.686 Attracting new Users605.421.690 Developing new services605.521.712 Table 5 shows the mean score and standard deviation of marketing related activities. Mean of each activity is 4 and high shows importance of all marketing activities with “Attracting new Users” and “Developing new services” rated as most important”
14 Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig. Promarketing Between Groups11.41042.8531.454.229 Within Groups107.940551.963 Total119.35059 Antimarketing Between Groups20.16445.0414.238.005 Within Groups65.424551.190 Total85.58759 Marketing Knowledge and Experience Between Groups1.4274.357.171.952 Within Groups114.562552.083 Total115.98959 Table 6 ANOVA of Mean Scores on Promarketing, Antimarketing, Marketing Knowledge and Experience Attitude Scale, By Qualification Significant differences were found in case of Antimarketing and Post HOC analysis using Tukey’s HSD was done to further explore the differences. (Table 7)
15 Multiple Comparisons Antimarketing Tukey HSD (I) Your highest qualification (J) Your highest qualification Mean Difference (I- J) Std. ErrorSig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower BoundUpper Bound B.Lib.I.Sc.M.Lib.I.Sc..12346.680141.000-1.79482.0417 M.Phil-1.12593.68979.484-3.0714.8195 PhD.32593.68979.990-1.61952.2714 Other-.58025.72710.930-2.63091.4704 M.Lib.I.Sc.B.Lib.I.Sc.-.12346.680141.000-2.04171.7948 M.Phil-1.24938 *.38130.015-2.3248-.1740 PhD.20247.38130.984-.87291.2778 Other-.70370.44526.516-1.9595.5521 M.PhilB.Lib.I.Sc.1.12593.68979.484-.81953.0714 M.Lib.I.Sc.1.24938 *.38130.015.17402.3248 PhD1.45185 *.39825.005.32872.5750 Other.54568.45986.759-.75131.8426 PhDB.Lib.I.Sc.-.32593.68979.990-2.27141.6195 M.Lib.I.Sc.-.20247.38130.984-1.2778.8729 M.Phil-1.45185 *.39825.005-2.5750-.3287 Other-.90617.45986.294-2.2031.3908 OtherB.Lib.I.Sc..58025.72710.930-1.47042.6309 M.Lib.I.Sc..70370.44526.516-.55211.9595 M.Phil-.54568.45986.759-1.8426.7513 PhD.90617.45986.294-.39082.2031 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. Table 7 Post HOC-HSD analysis for Qualification and Antimarketing Table 7 describes influences of qualification on Antimarketing attitude scale in detail. There were differences in perception of respondents with PhD qualification, M.Phil and M.Lib.I.Sc. Where respondents with M.Phil qualification slightly agreed on Antimarketing.
16 Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig. Promarketing Between Groups4.95941.240.596.667 Within Groups114.391552.080 Total119.35059 Antimarketing Between Groups14.11643.5292.716.039 Within Groups71.472551.299 Total85.58759 Marketing Knowledge and Experience Between Groups9.24742.3121.191.325 Within Groups106.742551.941 Total115.98959 Table 8 ANOVA of Mean Scores on Promarketing, Antimarketing, Marketing Knowledge and Experience Attitude Scale, By Experience Significant differences were found in case of Antimarketing and Post HOC analysis using Tukey’s HSD was done to further explore the differences. (Table 9)
17 Multiple Comparisons Antimarketing Tukey HSD (I) Number of years of experience (J) Number of years of experience Mean Difference (I-J)Std. ErrorSig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower BoundUpper Bound 5 or fewer 6 to 10-.37895.39373.871-1.4894.7315 10 to 15-.46667.45251.840-1.7429.8096 15 to 20.60741.72097.916-1.42602.6408 21 or more.81111.44150.363-.43412.0563 6 to 10 5 or fewer.37895.39373.871-.73151.4894 10 to 15-.08772.431891.000-1.30581.1304 15 to 20.98635.70821.635-1.01102.9837 21 or more1.19006 *.42034.049.00462.3756 10 to 15 5 or fewer.46667.45251.840-.80961.7429 6 to 10.08772.431891.000-1.13041.3058 15 to 201.07407.74249.601-1.02003.1682 21 or more1.27778.47584.069-.06432.6198 15 to 20 5 or fewer-.60741.72097.916-2.64081.4260 6 to 10-.98635.70821.635-2.98371.0110 10 to 15-1.07407.74249.601-3.16821.0200 21 or more.20370.73584.999-1.87162.2790 21 or more 5 or fewer-.81111.44150.363-2.0563.4341 6 to 10-1.19006 *.42034.049-2.3756-.0046 10 to 15-1.27778.47584.069-2.6198.0643 15 to 20-.20370.73584.999-2.27901.8716 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. Table 9 Post HOC-HSD analysis for Experience and Antimarketing Table 9 describes influences of experience on Antimarketing attitude scale in detail. There were differences in perception of respondents experience of 6 to 10 and 21 or more where respondents with 21 or more slightly agreed on Antimarketing.
Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig. Promarketing Between Groups.7561.370.546 Within Groups118.594582.045 Total119.35059 Antimarketing Between Groups.0011.976 Within Groups85.586581.476 Total85.58759 Marketing Knowledge and Experience Between Groups.2591.130.720 Within Groups115.731581.995 Total115.98959 18 Table 10 ANOVA of Mean Scores on Promarketing, Antimarketing, Marketing Knowledge and Experience Attitude Scale, By Marketing as Part of Course No significant differences were found in mean scores of respondents with marketing as part of course and without in case of promarketing, Antimarketing and Marketing Knowledge and Experience.
Discussion College / University librarians are becoming aware of marketing concept in library field and majority of them are engaged in library administration. Mean score of promarketing items are 4 and above in table 4 shows that majority of respondents are in favor of promarketing activities whereas antimarketing mean ranges under 4 which shows that majority of respondents disagree with antimarketing items except one “Marketing uses up resources that could be better used to provide more services” where librarians slightly agreed. This could be due to the fact that librarians are more service oriented so they may be in perception that resources deployed on marketing can be better used in library services to achieve the ultimate goal of library i.e. user satisfaction. Whereas marketing knowledge and experience scales mean score shows their knowledge and experience is high. Marketing knowledge should be spread effectively among professionals by showing them practically how and where they can implement it for the maximum utilization of resources and services by users. Workshops and seminars should be conducted regularly with practical or through case studies that will motivate professionals more. 19
Perception and attitude will be change if the proper knowledge of concept is disseminated to the professionals for increasing uses and importance of their library collections. Although the finding of the study are based on a small sample making this study less generalizable but it opens up new vistas of research to further explore and investigate the domain in details. It is recommended to conduct a detailed psychographic analysis with a larger sample to future researchers. There is more scope for research in this area to find out the perfect ways and implementation techniques of marketing activities in the libraries in Indian context. 20
References 21 Caplan, Audra. 2011. Changing perception. Public Libraries. Vol. 50 No. 1: 6-7 Chartered Institute of Marketing (UK). Marketing. CIM Resource Glossary. Accessed October 2013. http://www.cim.co.uk/Resources/Jargonbuster.aspxhttp://www.cim.co.uk/Resources/Jargonbuster.aspx Grunewald, J. P., Felicetti, L. A., and Stewart, K. L. 1990. The effect of marketing seminars on the attitudes of librarians. Public Library Quarterly, Vol. 10 No. 2: 3-10. Kotler, Philip..et.al. 2010. Principles of marketing: a south Asian perspective. New Delhi: Pearson. Kotler, Philip and Levy, S. J. 1969. Broadening the concept of marketing. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 33: 10-15. Parker, Richard, Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol and Parker, Jon C. 2007. Libraries in transition to a marketing orientation: are librarians’ attitudes a barrier?. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol.12: 320-337 (DOI:10.1002/nvsm.295) Shontz, Marilyn., Parker, Jon C., and Parker, Richard. 2004. What do librarians think about marketing?: a survey of public librarians attitudes toward the marketing of library services. Library Quarterly, Vol. 41 No. 1: 63-84