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Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 1 Cluster Resource Management: Scalable Approaches Ning Li Jordan Parker Mid-semester Status.

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Presentation on theme: "Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 1 Cluster Resource Management: Scalable Approaches Ning Li Jordan Parker Mid-semester Status."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 1 Cluster Resource Management: Scalable Approaches Ning Li Jordan Parker Mid-semester Status Report CS 736 – Fall 2000

2 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 2 Why Study Cluster Resource Management? Clusters have become increasingly popular for large parallel computing. –Web Servers Clusters are becoming increasingly large to the order of thousands of nodes. Clusters are providing multiple services.

3 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 3 Multiple Services: Example An Internet Service Provider is hosting many different websites for clients –How do you schedule according to the amount of bandwidth a client is paying for? Proportional Share Cluster Reserves Our technique more scalable.

4 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 4 Overview Introduction / Reason for Research Related Work Infrastructure Evaluation

5 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 5 Related Work Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, David E. Culler, Alan Mainwaring, Scheduling with Implicit Information in Distributed Systems, Sigmetrics'98 Conference on the Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems Armando Fox, Steven D. Gribble, Yatin Chawathe, Eric A. Brewer, Cluster-Based Scalable Network Services, Proc Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP-16), St-Malo, France, Oct M. Aron, P. Druschel, and W. Zwaenepoel. Cluster reserves: A mechanism for resource management in cluster-based network servers. In Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS 2000, June Waldspurger, C.A. and Weihl, W.E., Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Mangement, Proceedings of the First Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, Monterey CA, November 1994, pp NS – Network Simulator Manual,

6 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 6 What make us different? Goal: to provide a scalable solution for resource management. Other papers focused primarily on just having good management –This often meant 1 manager for all the nodes. –Clearly this could present a scalable bottleneck Effectiveness: Other solutions probably better for smaller clusters, we hope to be better for large (>1000 nodes) clusters.

7 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 7 The Management Scheme Cluster Reserves with multiple managers –Mainly a comparison A new Lottery like algorithm (Banks) A hierarchal management network

8 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 8 Infrastructure The Hierachal Algorithms Use NS to simulate our algorithms

9 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 9 Hierarchal View

10 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 10 A Problem and a Solution Problem: not scalable Solution: Hierarchy! + Fault Tolerance (a nice little example, perhaps with 2 level managers)

11 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 11 Approach 1: modify "Cluster Reserves" optimization algorithm –use it when manager manages nodes –AND when level_n+1 manager manages level_n managers.

12 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 12 Approach 2: introduce bank account mechanism –use bank algorithm for manager managing nodes –use transfer strategy for level_n+1 manager managing level_n managers

13 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 13 Problem Specification: N: # of nodes in a cluster S: # of service classes T: a vector of N elements, T_i: resource (# of tickets) on node I T_total: total resource in cluster (not in "cluster" paper) r and u: NxS matrices, r_ij and u_ij: the percentage resource allocation and resource usage, respectively, at node i for service class j. D: a vector of S elements, D_j: the desired percentage resource allocation for service class j over the cluster. Input: r and u and the vector T and D Output: a NxS matrix R, R_ij: the new percentage resource allocation for service class j on node i.

14 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 14 Solution Step 1: Compute the least feasible deviation between desired and actual allocations. S | N | Minimize sum|sum R_ij*T_i - T_total*D_j| (1) j=l|i=1 | Resource allocations on any cluster-node should sum to no more than 100. S for any i in 1..N, sum R_ij <= 100 j=1 On any node, new allocation should be no more than the usage if the node is not a resource sink, i.e. if previous allocation exceeds the usage. for any i,j R_ij u_ij

15 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 15 Solution Step 2: Compute the new resource allocations s.t. 1) the deviation computed in the first step is achieved, and 2) the computed resource allocations are close to the ideal allocation (D) (different from paper, to see which is better) N S Minimize sum sum(R_ij - D_j)^2 (2) i=l j=1

16 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 16 A New Idea/Addition Distribute unassigned cluster resource to service classes who need it Since manager has the knowledge of when and how much resource a service class contributed before, it can give appropriate priorities to those classes when assigning unused resource.

17 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 17 Approach 2: Bank Account Mechanism Each manager has a bank. Each bank has an account for each service class. In the account is the # of tickets saved and when they are deposited. Depositing, drawing, and transferring tickets together are used to achieve both performance isolation and resource utilization.

18 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 18 Bank Algorithm: part 1 Checking each service class j on each node i: compare previous ticket usage u_ij, allocation r_ij and desired allocation D_j 1 u_ij D_j: R_ij = min(u_ij,D_j) deposit D_j - R_ij to its bank account if it's greater than 0 3 u_ij = r_ij and r_ij < D_j: R_ij = D_j (or R_ij = u_ij + k, where k is a small #) 4 u_ij = r_ij and r_ij >= D_j: R_ij = D_j

19 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 19 Bank Algorithm: part 2 let t_i be # of tickets currently allocated on node i IF t_i >= T_i normalize the tickets so that t_i = T_i ELSE check balance B_ij in bank account for class j in case 4 above

20 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 20 Bank Algorithm: part 2 (continued) option 1: check classes in decreasing balance order let b_ij = min(B_ij, h), where h is a relatively small # R_ij += b_ij, and draw b_ij from j's bank account t_i += b_ij until t_i >= T_i option 2: check all classes in case 4 above with balance >= 0 allocate T_i - t_i tickets to these classes proportional to their bank account, and draw from bank account accordingly

21 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 21 Bank Algorithm: part 3 assign to classes in case 4 above proportional to their share or their need if there are still unassigned tickets.

22 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 22 Notes and Other Strategies: Note: Tickets in bank account has a time-stamp associated with it, and will expire after getting certain age. Strategy: Manager could force some compensation if t_i >= T_i on all the nodes before adjustment, and some classes have high balance in their accounts. Manager could allocate a reasonable amount of tickets as in option 2 above, then normalize so that t_I gets equal to T_i. Strategy: Some class on some node may choose to reserve some tickets for its use on this same node in the near future, but not deposit them in the bank. We'll check this option.

23 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 23 Transfer Strategy: Very simple Based on the previous usage report from lower-level managers, current manager transfers from one account to another where tickets are badly needed.

24 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 24 Transfer Strategy: More detailed (if needed) check class-manager pair in decreasing usage/share order, i.e. check those classes that need more tickets most check j's account on other managers l, where usage/share is low transfer min(B_lj,b) tickets from j's acccount on manager l to j's account on manager i, where b is a constant

25 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 25 Thinking of better strategies. :-) Any Ideas

26 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management Network View

27 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 27 Full Network Overview WAN

28 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 28 Failure Design Essentially tried to create a structure similar to a tree structure Thus we try to delete nodes and deal with the recovery similar to removing a node from a tree

29 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 29 Minor Node(6) Failure

30 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 30 1 st Level Manger(2) Failure

31 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 31 2 nd Level Manger(1) Failure

32 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 32 Node Insertion Simply find a manager with nodes to fill If there is no space simply make a leaf node into a manager

33 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 33 Why discuss failure? Not relevant to the performance of our scheduler, we don’t even plan to simulate it (unless we have lots of free time), but … It does show that the network layout we’ve designed could easily handle failures Making the tree balance itself and handling failures could be relatively straight forward

34 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 34 Network Simulator - NS Our Components –A new Agent Class: RsrcAgent Agents are servers running on a node –A script to create ns input file Specifies network layout –Number of Nodes –Nodes per Manager Specifies the request trace

35 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 35 NS implementation status Look at code

36 Ning Li Jordan Parker Scalable Cluster Resource Management 36 Evaluation NS should make it easy Just extract information from nodes about load balance More importantly look at the rate queries get handled by the nodes


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