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Presented by Julie Esparza Brown, EdD Applying the RTI Model for Literacy with English Language Learners.

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1 Presented by Julie Esparza Brown, EdD jebrown@pdx.edu jebrown@pdx.edu Applying the RTI Model for Literacy with English Language Learners

2 Presentation Goals Define RTI and its promise and perils for ELL students Examine screening and progress monitoring tools for ELLs Define and differentiate reading instruction and intervention Identify evidence-based and culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions for each tier Define the ESL specialist’s role as a member of the intervention team Questions??

3 ELL Students Students whose home language (L1) is other than English (L2) and who are in the process of learning English. ELL students are a diverse group:  U.S. born – second, third, fourth generation  Foreign born – early or late arrival  Formal instruction in L1  No instruction in L1, interrupted schooling  Formal instruction only in L2 upon entering U.S. schools The term “ELL” student does NOT include fluent bilingual students.

4 ELL Students Many students live in linguistically isolated areas (in home country or U.S.). In U.S. schools, ELL students are also often linguistically isolated. They have:  Limited exposure to Standard English  Limited opportunities to interact with speakers who are proficient in Standard English  Limited opportunities to obtain additional help with homework from peers who speak Standard English

5 ELL Students The majority of them:  are U.S. born and have received all of their education in American schools.  achieve oral fluency in everyday language but lag in measures of academic success and tasks requiring academic language proficiency.

6 What Do You Need to Ask About an ELL Student Who is Struggling? Is achievement both at a lower level and occurring at a substantially slower rate when compared to “true peers”? You must ask questions related to:  Student’s history  Learning context  Learning content

7 Levels of English Proficiency Teachers must be aware of the student’s level of English proficiency when planning core instruction and choosing interventions. Typically ELL students show high levels of language growth in the first couple of years but the growth levels off as content becomes more difficult.

8 Definitions of Language Concepts

9 Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language Development Communication Skills 1. Pre-production, Beginning or Entering Emphasis is on listening comprehension activities designed to teach students to recognize the meaning of words used in communicative contest. Students may respond by: Performing an act Pointing to an item or picture Gesturing or nodding Saying yes or no Naming objects or pictures

10 Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language Development Communication Skills 2. Early Production, Early Intermediate or Emerging Students access and produce linguistic units in the following ways: List of words Yes/no answers One words answers from either/or questions One word answers from general questions Two word string and short phrases Simple sentences

11 Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language Development Communication Skills 3. Speech Emergence, Intermediate or Developing Students use a wider range of vocabulary and the sentences they produce become longer and more complex. Students response may include: Short phrases Longer phrases Complete sentences where appropriate since native speech is not always made up of complete sentences Narration

12 Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language Development Communication Skills 4. Intermediate Fluency, Early Advanced or Expanding The students often know what he/she wants to say but searches for acceptable language patterns. Makes complex statements States opinions Report an event Gives instructions Participates in extended discourse

13 Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language Development Communication Skills 5. Advanced Fluency, Advanced or Bridging The student comprehends most conversation and academic discourse but sometimes requires repetition. Meaning is usually clear, but vocabulary and structures are used inappropriately at times. The student reads and writes, with some difficulty, materials that are commensurate with his/her cognitive development but demonstrates some problems in grasping intended meaning.

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15 Progress Monitor Student’s Language Acquisition Student’s English language development should be monitored. Consider:  Can they participate in the oral language of a mainstream classroom  Can the student read and write in English at levels similar to mainstream grade-level peers? To their “true peers”  Whether the student reads and/or writes in L1 at grade level?  Whether the student needs more intensive and explicit instruction in English language development?  Would instruction in L1 be beneficial?

16 Appropriate Student Responses for Language Acquisition Stages

17 Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of Language Acquisition - Preproduction/Early Production Stages Shared reading Concepts about print Read aloud, listening post SSR Chants Choral/Echo Reading Dramatization/Role play Puppetry/finger plays Flannel board stories Recreations Interactive journals Language Experience Approach Alphabet games Book publishing Brainstorming/webbing Cloze activities Compare/contrast stories using illustrations Concentration games

18 Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of Language Acquisition – Speech Emergence Guided reading Story mapping Reader’s theater Innovations Process writing (emphasis on prewriting/drafting) Book talks Critical thinking questions/activities Idiomatic expressions Language focus lessons Literature circles Pair/share writing Pen pals Reciprocal teaching Retelling stories Scripting Syntax Surgery Vocabulary development activities All of the activities from previous slide, PLUS:

19 Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of Language Acquisition – Intermediate/Advanced Fluency  Process writing (all steps)  Journal writing  Reader’s workshop  Directed reading  Research projects  Creative dramatics  Public speaking/formal presentations  Use of scaffolding to allow access to grade level/age appropriate narrative and expository texts  Continue with (modified- enriched) strategies previously introduced  Debates  Feature analysis  Interviews  Literature response  Word studies (root words, prefixes, suffixes, word families)  Write directions All of the activities from previous slide, PLUS:

20 Dynamic Assessment for Language (Miller, Gillam & Pena)

21 Oracy Instructional Guide A language proficiency assessment and intervention program.

22 Fourth Grade Slump “In fourth grade, an alarming number of students’ reading comprehension starts a drastic decline and rarely recovers. Early delays in oral language come to be reflected in low levels of reading comprehension, leading to low levels of academic success. If we are to increase children’s ability to profit from education, we will have to enrich their oral language development during the early years of schooling. Schools could do much more than they do now to foster the language development of less-advantaged children and children for whom English is a second language.” Andrew Biemiller American Educator Spring 2003

23 Language Slump Many ELL students are stuck at the intermediate level of English proficiency. Why? Because we have not identified the gap between the language a student knows and what is required to succeed academically. How do we do this?

24 Teach Academic English “Academic language is learned…from teachers and from textbooks. It is learned through frequent exposure and practice over a long period of time. The most reliable sources of academic language are written texts. They serve, however, as the basis for language development only with instructional help. Often explicit teaching of language structures and uses is the most effective way to help ELL students.” Wong-Fillmore and Snow, 2000

25 Systematic ELD A Focused Approach to Systematic ELD Instruction – Susana Dutro

26 Systematic ELD Clear purpose (language function and needed language form) backward mapped from lesson objective Meaningful, engaging and culturally relevant topics Instructional sequence  I do it ( modeling, direct instruction)  We do it (guided, interactive instruction)  You do it (independent – collaborative and solo) A pace that is brisk yet appropriate

27 Systematic ELD Clearly identify proficiency level of each students Students do at least 50% of the talking Connect reading, writing, listening and speaking Explicitly build receptive and expressive language

28 Language Functions Language functions common to academic texts:  Cause and effect  Compare and contrast  Elaboration  Proposition and Support (problem/solution)  Sequencing Source: Susana Dutro

29 Additionally… ELL students must navigate:  Participating in classroom discussions  Expressing and defending opinions  Social courtesies in formal and informal settings  Expressing time relationships  And much more…

30 Determining What Language to Teach Vocabulary specific to the topic  What are we talking or reading about? Functional language connecting topic vocabulary in sentences  What are we saying about it?

31 Knowing the Student How long has the child been enrolled at current school? Where was child born? If child was foreign born:  At what age did the child immigrate?  Did he/she attend school in country of origin?  Was it a rural or urban school?  Was child making adequate progress? What type of instruction has the student had:  Model of ELD or bilingual, if any  Instructional model in other country  What has been their access to core curriculum If child was born in U.S.:  What immigration generation are they (e.g., parents immigrated here, student is second generation)  Have they attended preschool? In English? Native language? What is the first language the child:  Spoke  Heard At what age did the child speak first words? At what age was the second language introduced?

32 Inappropriate and ineffective instructional programs MUST be ruled out before proceeding to a referral. The learning environment must be observed on more than one occasion and during different times of the day. Is there a disproportionate number of ELL students (or any other subgroup) who are struggling academically within that classroom? Knowing the Learning Ecology

33  Is scientifically-based instruction occurring that considers the students:  Level of English language proficiency  Level of native language proficiency  Experiential background  Cultural background and acculturation  At the school level, is the child’s language and culture seen as an asset? Are all families encouraged to participate in school activities?

34 Knowing the Learning Ecology Does the teacher understand and/or speak the student’s primary language? What strategies does the teacher use to ensure the comprehensibility of the instruction (such as GLAD, SIOP)? Are modifications in the instruction made? What kind of feedback is given to the student? Does the student receive pull-out instruction by either ELD or SpEd staff? If so, what “core” instruction is the student missing?

35 Knowing the Learning Ecology What does the teacher do to involve the student? How is the student allowed to demonstrate knowledge and skills? Is the student able to complete independent work? Is the student instructed in homogenous or heterogenous groupings? Does the student actively participate in group work? How appropriate is the curriculum both linguistically and culturally?

36 Targeting the Specific Areas that Need Support “A problem is best defined as a discrepancy between a desired state and what is occurring?” Batsche et al. (2007)

37 The Importance of Oral Language Proficiency Reading in any language is dependent upon a child’s oral language abilities in that language in order to comprehend what is decoded. Reading instruction, however, should not wait until students are orally proficient. Research (Kwan & Willows, 1998) also seems to show that for young children, explicit, systematic instruction in L2 sounds/symbols benefits phonemic awareness and it does not appear to be dependent to sound/symbol instruction in L1.

38 The Importance of Oral Language in Literacy Development Children cannot comprehend what they are reading in a language they cannot speak and understand. It appears that readers must be familiar with a minimum of 95% of the vocabulary in the text to comprehend. Droop and Verhoeven (2003) found that extensive vocabulary training is crucial for efficient L2 reading comprehension.

39 Cultural Differences

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42 What Do These Gestures Mean in Other Cultures Point at something in the room with your index finger.  In the Middle and Far East it is impolite to point with the index finger. Use an open hand or your thumb instead. Form a circle with finger to indicate “OK.”  In Brazil and German, this gesture is obscene. In Japan it means “money.” In France is means “worthless.” Pat a student on the head.  The head is a repository of the soul to Buddhists. Wave hand with the palm facing outward to greet someone.  In Europe, waving the hand back and forth can mean “No.” This is a serious insult in Nigeria if the hand is too close to another person’s face. Nod head up and down to say “Yes.”  In Bulgaria and Greece, this means “No.”

43 Culture Quiz Adapted from everything ESL.net Q: You are a middle school teacher with a new student from Mexico. You suspect she is not literate in their native language but wonder why she doesn’t seem to respond to the ESL/ELD teacher when he speaks Spanish. What do you think the problem may be?

44 Culture Quiz A: The student is from Mexico who does not speak Spanish but is from a rural village where a Mayan dialect is spoken.

45 Culture Quiz Q: Your new Somali Bantu students do not seem to be able to sit still at their desks. Even though you give them constant breaks to walk around and stretch, they are continually out of their seats. What’s the problem?

46 Culture Quiz A: These students come from a persecuted tribe in rural Somalia. Many children from this area have probably never been in school. They may have never sat in a chair.

47 Culture Quiz Q: Hui is a 6 th grade student in your class who speaks no English. He has an allergy and his nose runs constantly. He uses his fingers instead of a tissue. You and the class are upset by his behavior while Hui is unaware of the impact of this behavior. What should you do?

48 Culture Quiz A: Give him a pack of tissues and teach him what we do in the U.S. when our nose is runny. In some cultures handkerchiefs and tissues are not used.

49 Culture Quiz Q: You are a fifth grade teacher. Your new student from South America does not seem to celebrate the birthday you have marked on the classes’ birthday calendar. Is this a religious observance?

50 Culture Quiz A: Children in many South American cultures celebrate their Saint’s Day rather than their birthday.

51 Why is the Field Moving to Response to Intervention?

52 Definition of Specific Learning Disability 34 CFR 300.7 10) Specific learning disability is defined as follows: (i) General. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

53 Definition of Specific Learning Disability (ii) Disorders not included. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

54 IDEA, November 19, 2004 Congress passed new bill reauthorizing The “Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act” States can no longer require local school districts to use the discrepancy formula (IQ-Achievement) when identifying LD students Implies that local school districts MAY or MAY NOT use the discrepancy formula

55 Changes in LD Determination in IDEA 2004 In the newly reauthorized IDEA, eligibility and identification criteria for LD have changed [614(b)(6)(A)- (B)]:  When determining whether a child has a specific learning disability  The LEA is not required to consider a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.  The LEA may use a process that determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation. The last bullet is commonly known as Response to Intervention (RTI).

56 Changes to SLD Eligibility Requirements 34 CFR 300.307 - 311 & OAR 581-015-2170 Added progress monitoring component (all) Added option of RTI No “severe discrepancy” required Research-based “pattern of strengths and weaknesses” Observation – before or during Exclusionary factors remain

57 Response to Intervention RTI is not required but may be used to determine if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventions as a part of the evaluation procedures [§1414(b)(6)(B)].

58 Benefits of RTI for ELLs The process places an emphasis on appropriate, high-quality core instruction (in general education). Provides interventions when students begin to struggle rather than waiting for a series of meetings to begin support. Uses data to inform instruction. Links assessment data to instruction. Requires collaboration across disciplines (ESL/Bilingual, General Education, Special Education, Reading)

59 RTI Models Experts promote two distinct RTI models (Bradley, Danielson, & Hallahan, 2002; Fuchs, Mock, Morgan & Young, 2003), though in reality most school districts use a combination of the two (NASDSE, 2006). Both models outline tiers or stages of interventions.

60 RTI Standard Treatment Protocol: the same empirically validated treatment is used for all children with similar problems and achievement is measured against specified benchmarks (NASDE).

61 RTI Flexible Problem –Solving: problems are defined behaviorally, interventions are planned specifically for the targeted student and are provided over a reasonable period of time, performance is measured in the natural setting, and students’ progress is compared to that of peers (NASDE).

62 Problem-solving Team Group of qualified professionals Parents Regular classroom teacher Person qualified to conduct individual diagnostic evaluations (school psychologist, speech pathologist, etc.) QUESTION: When an ELL student is a concern, what “qualified” professional should be part of the problem-solving team?

63 Response to Intervention Intensive assistance, as part of general education support system Research-based instruction in general education classroom Intensive instruction, Possibly special education

64 Response to Intervention (RTI) Defined RTI is a process of instruction, assessment, and intervention that allows schools to: Identify struggling students early through universal screening Provide appropriate instructional interventions (intervene early) Increase the likelihood that students can be academically successful by providing appropriate supports Regularly monitor progress

65 What is progress monitoring? 34 CFR 300.309(b) Purpose is to rule out lack of appropriate instruction in reading and math as reason for underachievement.  Instruction: Before (or as part of) referral process, student had appropriate instruction in reg ed settings by qualified personnel.  Assessment: Student had repeated assessments of achievement at regular intervals & results provided to parents

66 INTENSIVE STRATEGIC CORE/BENCHMARK Tier I Tier II Tier III Time Program Group Size INTENSIVE CORE + SUPPLEMENTAL CORE with Differentiated instruction Model of Instructional Intervention to allow access and progress in the core curriculum that is adjusted for students’ language proficiency levels and cultural backgrounds Two or more years below grade level One to two years below grade level standards Achieving grade level standards, but may require additional assistance

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68 Two Common Models The two most common RTI models are:  Standard Treatment Protocol  Problem-Solving The critical question is: “What model is best for culturally and linguistically diverse students?”

69 Standard Treatment Model The same empirically validated treatment is used for all children with similar problems and achievement is measured against benchmarks (NASDSE, 2006). The interventions are chosen from an approved list. Proponents argue that this is the most research-based of the RTI approaches, and leaves less room for error in professional judgment (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Yet the standard protocol model requires research-based interventions and there are only a few programs that have been researched specifically with ELLs and/or students in low SES communities. For example, a program may not provide enough focus on oracy and vocabulary for English language learners.

70 The Problem-solving Model External and within child factors (student’s ecology) can be considered in intervention planning and instruction. Professional expertise and teamwork is valued and necessary. When an ELL student is a focus on concern, some team members must have expertise in second language acquisition and effective instruction for ELLs. The key is that “problem solving” should occur until effective solutions to student difficulties are found.

71 Problem-Solving Model (NASDSE, 2005)

72 “Some… have suggested that multi-tier systems might use either a problem- solving method … or a standard treatment protocol approach. This is an artificial distinction. All RTI systems must consider implementing the best features of both approaches” (NASDSE, 2005). The Reality

73 The Promise of RTI for ELLs… Since RTI focuses on the impact of instruction, it is an opportunity to finally address the issue of access of core curriculum and adequate, appropriate, rigorous instructional opportunities.

74 Discuss RTI is predicated upon appropriate and adequate instruction for all students in the general education classroom? Question:  Is this scenario happening in your school?  If not, what are the resources that you need to make this happen?

75 Assumptions Underlying RTI that May Be Problematic for ELL Students

76 Assumption 1 “Evidence-based instruction” is good instruction for everyone. English language learners who have been taught with “evidence- based interventions” have been provided with sufficient opportunities to learn.

77 Reality 1 Population validity, ecological validity, construct validity are essential if research results are to be generalized - yet frequently seem to be ignored. Experimental research studies tell us what works best with the majority of students in a research sample, not all students.

78 Students who fail to respond to research-based instruction have some sort of learning problem or internal deficit, and perhaps even a learning disability. Assumption 2

79 Reality 2 To conclude that failure resides within students when they do not progress with a certain intervention, and then move them onto the second or third tier in an RTI model or decide they belong in special education without considering other factors is problematic. NCCREST

80 Learning to read in one’s second language is similar to learning to read in one’s first language; therefore instructional approaches that have been found through research to be effective with mainstream English- speaking students are appropriate for serving ELLs. Assumption 3

81 While children “break the code” only once, the process of reading in a second language is impacted by the structure of that language. Most of the current research does not take into account language proficiency, acculturation, and experiential differences. Thus, the research outcomes cannot be generalized for ELL students. Reality 3

82 Tier 1 – Core Instruction with Support in the “Big Five” Components

83 Tier 1 Instruction Research-based reading curriculum (core) implemented with fidelity by general education teachers. Instruction must be adapted to all student’s experiential, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Students who struggle in reading receive targeted instruction on specific goals and progress is closely monitored. Assessments Universal screening for all students given three – four times per year. Progress is more closely monitored for the students receiving interventions.

84 Reading Their World Research (Lonigan et al., 1999; Lundberg, Frost, & Petersen, 1988; Vadasy, Jenkins, & Pool, 2000) indicates that instruction focused on reading and phonological processing skills can be used to attenuate the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage if children receive instruction in the prereading stage, before reading failure takes place.

85 Differences Between Reading Instruction and Intervention Instruction Includes the “Big Five” reading components Is evidence-based Multiple teaching methods are used to meet the needs of the whole group Instructional pacing and sequence generally not based on mastery Intervention Includes the “Big Five” reading components Is evidence-based Targets specific skill deficits Uses direct instruction methods (i.e., systematic, explicit, feedback) Meets the individual needs of students Instructional pacing and sequencing based on mastery Source: Richards & Leafstedt (2010)

86 Tier 1 Interventions Occur in the general education classroom Goals and objectives are clear to students teacher talk is minimized High student response rate Teacher provides specific positive feedback frequently Teachers may use hand gestures and other signals rather than words to cue student responses

87 Defining Interventions Scientifically proven interventions:  scientific results have been published in peer- reviewed journals using the scientific rigor described in the definition of NCLB. Research based interventions:  methods, content, materials, etc., were developed in guidance from the collective research and scientific community. Evidence-based interventions:  specific data is available that shows the intervention improves student outcomes.

88 Guiding Principles for Intervention with ELs (Richards & Leafstedt, 2010) Interventions must be:  Explicit  Use direct instruction techniques  Delivered in small groups Gersten et al., 2007 recommend:  Provide multiple opportunities for students to respond to questions and practice reading both words and sentences while teachers give students immediate and clear feedback when errors are made.  At least 30 minutes per day must be devoted to small group intervention.  Ongoing training and support must be provided to all interventionists.  Vocabulary instruction must be included to teach content words in addition to common words, phrases and expressions necessary for school success.

89 Which Students Should Receive Interventions? Students who perform below grade- level benchmarks (relative to an appropriate normative reference such as their “true peer group”). Decisions should be made on individual students through:  Teacher observation and judgment, AND  Screening and progress monitoring results

90 Summary of Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Instruction is needed in the “big five” components of reading: Phonemic awareness Phonics (aka alphabetic principle)  Letter-sound knowledge  Sounding out words (decoding)  Reading connected textg Fluency Vocabulary Text comprehension Early reading skills (preschool – 2 nd grade)

91 Summary of Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Instruction in these key components is necessary but not sufficient. Becoming literate in L2 depends on the quality of teaching through content coverage, intensity or thoroughness of instruction. With high-quality reading instruction and intervention, students who struggle with reading may only need temporary support or remediation rather than special education services.

92 Summary of Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Approaches similar to English-Only (EO) populations are effective with adjustments given such as more focus with particular phonemes and combinations of phonemes in English that do not exist in their L1. There is an additional component that is critical for ELLs:  Oral language development

93 Phonological Awareness Phonics/ Decoding Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Relationship among the Five Components of Reading Source: Richards & Leafstedt (2010)

94 ELLs At-Risk Research shows that it is possible to identify ELLs at-risk for reading difficulties because of underdeveloped phonological awareness skills and/or difficulty learning sound-symbol correspondence. These students have trouble “cracking the code” in any language. Do not take a “wait and see” attitude due to lack of English proficiency and assume the skills will develop along with their L2. These students need explicit and intensive instruction and/or intervention in phonemic/phonological awareness and phonics (explicit, systematic, and intensive)

95 Screening and Assessment In order to plan meaningful intervention, one must know the problem. Screening/assessment and progress monitoring should occur in the following areas:  First and second language proficiency  The big five components of reading  Phonemic awareness  Phonics  Fluency  Vocabulary  Comprehension  Acculturation

96 Screening Consistently strong measures of future reading growth are measures of phonemic awareness and fluency in naming letters of the alphabet. This is true in both English and Spanish. Students’ oral language proficiency alone is not a valid predictor of reading success or failure but it is important to take into account and it may have more of an impact as students get older. Source: Sylvia Linan-Thompson (2009)

97 Language of Screening Measures For students in bilingual education programs use grade appropriate measures that:  Match the language of reading instruction, often native language, initially  In both the native language and English during the transition process  English when students are ready to exit and are no longer receiving reading instruction in the native language Students in English immersion programs with ELD/ESL support:  Use grade appropriate measure in English Source: Sylvia Linan-Thompson (2009)

98 Progress Monitoring – A Critical Component “Progress monitoring is a scientifically based practice that is used to assess students’ academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class.” from the National Center on Student Progress Monitoring

99 How Does Progress Monitoring Work? To implement: The student’s current levels of performance are determined Goals are identified for learning that will take place over time The student’s academic performance is measured on a regular basis (weekly or monthly) Progress toward meeting the student’s goals is measured by comparing expected and actual rates or learning. Based on these measurements, teaching is adjusted as needed.

100 Progress Monitoring for Literacy The following slide has references for the most widely used screening and progress monitoring tools. Both the DIBELS and Aimsweb have Spanish tools available. The Spanish DIBELS – IDEL – has a larger normative database at this time than Aimsweb (MIDE)

101 Slide taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team Sources for Reliable and Valid Monitoring Tools (Sanford & Putnam, 2008) National Center on Student Progress Monitoring (studentprogress.org) DIBELS (dibels.uoregon.edu - Free to Oregon Schools ) – IDEL (Spanish) AIMSWEB (www.aimsweb.com) – MIDE (Spanish)www.aimsweb.com Easy CBM (www.easycbm.com) Monitoring Progress of Basic Skills (Fuchs & Fuchs; Reproducible masters) The ABC’s of CBM (Hosp, Hosp,& Howell)

102 Outcomes Driven Model in a Picture Nonsense Word Fluency Mid-year cutoff at risk Mid-year cutoff low risk Increase intensity of Intervention: 1) Increase intervention fidelity 2) Increase time 3) Smaller Group Size 1. Identify Need for Support2. Validate Need for Support3. Plan and Implement Support4. Evaluate and Modify Support5. Review Outcomes Outcomes Driven Model in a Picture Implement a Research-Based Intervention Good, 2007

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104 Measures by Grade Level and Language Programs KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic awareness Letter naming Alphabetic principle Structural analysis Oral reading fluency

105 Difference of Disorder Activity

106 Measures by Grade Level and Language Programs For students in English immersion program with ELD, use grade-appropriate measures in English. For students in bilingual programs, use grade- appropriate measures that match the language of reading instruction; could be L1, initially. During transition, assess in both languages. Assess in English when students are ready to exit ELD/ESL program and are not receiving L1 reading instruction. For students in dual-language programs, assess in both languages. Source: Linan-Thompson and Ortiz (2009)

107 Struggling Readers All struggling readers need explicit instruction in each of the reading components, sometimes independently of the others until they gain some skill in that area. Then, students need to be directly taught how the components fit together in order to read successfully.

108 Interventions for the Building Blocks of Reading

109 How Much Time is Needed for Interventions? Students in kindergarten and first grade who receive small group interventions for 20 – 30 minutes, three to five days a week will make adequate growth in PA and phonics (Richards & Leafstedt, 2010). Some students with core phonological deficits may need more frequent and intense interventions. Ehri et al. (2001) found that interventions must be provided at least 30 minutes a week for ten weeks to achieve results.

110 How Much Time is Needed for Interventions? For very low-performing students, 20 to 30 minutes, three to five times per week for ten weeks may be needed. For students with LD, generally 45 or more minutes of intervention five days per week for more than ten weeks is necessary (Vaughn & Roberts, 2007). REMEMBER – ELLs need the above, PLUS a component of oral language development added to their intervention sessions.

111 Where should we begin with ELs? Typically, the first reading component to teach is phonemic awareness, a subskill of the broader term phonological awareness (PA). PA begins developing early; before children learn letter names and sounds. PA is a main pillar of early reading; without it students will struggle to learn to read. There is some research on ELs, however, that says that alphabetic knowledge may precede and facilitate the acquisition of phonological awareness in English (Chiappe, Siegel, and Gottardo, 2002).

112 Phonemic Awareness “The ability to manipulate phonemes either by segmenting, blending, or changing individual phonemes within words to create new words” (Torgensen, Wagner, & Rashotte, 1994, p. 276).

113 Why Teach Phonemic Awareness? Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read during their first two years of school (National Reading Panel, 2000; Linan-Thompson & Vaughn, 2007). Even beginning EL students can acquire these skills if given explicit instruction. It appears that English proficiency is not needed although students at the first stage of English will have difficulty.

114 Hierarchy for Teaching PA 1. Detecting rhyming sounds 2. Identifying words with the same initial sound 3. Isolating the initial sound 4. Categorizing onsets and rimes 5. Isolating middle and ending sounds 6. Blending sounds into words 7. Segmenting or dividing sounds 8. Adding phonemes 9. Deleting phonemes 10. Substituting phonemes

115 PA Screening Measures When choosing screening measures for ELL students consider:  If the measure has been normed on ELLs  Does it allow you to accurately predict those ELL students who will later have difficulties in reading?  Does it allow you to differentiate between high, average, and low performers?  Does it tell you what PA skills need to be taught to the student?  Does it have multiple forms so that you can administer it more than one time per year?

116 PA Screening Measures Standardized assessments:  Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA)  Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Curriculum-based measure:  Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (DIBELS) Bottom line: the screeners should pinpoint the skills that a student has and needs, monitor progress regularly and helps you adjust instruction based on the student’s response to instruction.

117 Phonemic Awareness for ELLs Must be fun and fit within children’s cultural schema. Use group settings for comfort of students. English is a stress-timed language so syllables have longer or shorter durations depending on whether they are stressed or unstressed. In many other languages, such as Spanish, syllables have approximately equal duration.

118 Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle, The cow jumped over the moon, The little dog laughed to see such sport, And the dish ran away with the spoon.

119 Sample Passage for Phonemic Awareness – Is This Appropriate for ELLs? A whale came by sail. A shrimp came by blimp. A snail came by rail. A loon came by balloon. An albatross came across. A stingray came by the day. A tuna came around noon-a. A sardine came at 12:19. A clam came by pram. A dolphin came a-golfin’. The pike took a hike. A shark came after dark. The electric eel came and made a big deal.

120 Phonemic Awareness for ELLs It may be beneficial to teach phonemic awareness in the student’s native language. Research shows that the skill is transferable (Durgunoglu, Nagy & Hancin-Bhatt, 1993). Be aware of sounds in English that do not exist in the student’s native language. They may be more difficult to hear and say and need to be explicitly taught.

121 Common Underlying Proficiencies Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt 1993 L1 phonemic awareness predicts L1 word recognition L1 phonemic awareness predicts L2 word recognition Conclusion: common underlying process— metalinguistic awareness is not language specific Would training students in PA in Spanish enhance their ability to read in English? Yes!

122 Transferable Skills The following skills can be taught in L1 because they are transferable: Notions about print, or functional awareness, can be applied to the second language. Phonemic awareness skills Reading strategies transfer:  Monitoring comprehension  Identifying and repairing comprehension problems  Forming hypothesis  Using genre characteristics  Inferencing  Questioning the author  Relating new information to existing schema

123 Transferable Skills It is imperative to know a student’s literacy skills in L1 in order to know how to help them figure out what skills will transfer to L2. Bilingual students report that they use both languages to help them in reading; older students try to translate sentences or think of similar sounding words (cognates) to comprehend an unknown word.

124 Phonics Phonics includes knowledge of letter- sound correspondence and how to apply them to reading and spelling. This is sometimes called the “alphabetic principle.” Phonics skills develop as students are introduced to the alphabet and sounds. The skills will continue to develop as they become more proficient readers. Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)

125 Phonics for ELL Students Phonics: an approach where children are taught to decode words by using and applying their knowledge of the relationship between letters and individual sounds to read. In order to read, children have to understand the relationship between letters and sounds; this is especially difficult for ELL students.

126 Effective Phonic Programs for ELLs Effective components:  Follows a defined sequence  Skills are explicitly taught  Includes direct teaching of sets of letter-sound relationships  Each instructional set includes major sound- spelling relationships of both consonants and vowels.  Teach linguistic patterns and  Bring meaning to words

127 Effective Phonic Programs for ELLs Should include books and stories with decodable text and opportunities for students to write their own stories using the letter-sound relationships they are learning. For most students, two years of phonics within their reading instruction is sufficient but some may require more instruction if they are learning both a new language and a new process. Older ELL students who are literate in their L1 will need phonics instruction to learn the structure of English.

128 What Elements to Include in Phonics Instruction Include :  Print awareness  Alphabetic knowledge  Phonological and phonemic awareness  Alphabetic principle  Decoding  Irregular/high-frequency words  Reading practice with decodable text ELL students, however, need more than just learning letter-sound relationships in isolation – they must apply their knowledge to text.

129 Phonics for ELL Students To benefit from a phonics program, students should be at an early intermediate level of English. Phonics instruction, however, could be delivered in the native language because these skills transfer to English. Again, students may have difficulty discriminating unfamiliar sounds in English. Using students’ own writing is a good source for phonics instruction.

130 Predictors of Reading Success Letter naming Regular and irregular word reading

131 Fluency Fluency is the ability to read quickly and accurately. When a reader is a fluent they can accurate decode and then they can read with expression. Fluency grows are students gain more knowledge of phonics and increase their vocabulary. Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)

132 Fluency There are three components to fluency instruction:  Accurate word recognition  Automatic word recognition  Appropriate prosody or inflection (reading as though they understand the text) EL students need opportunities for  Oral repeated readings  Feedback  Reading a wide range of text  Being read aloud to Accuracy is the first piece of what ELLs need; they need to bridge word meaning and fluency.

133 Fluency for ELLs With ELL students, we need to understand the source of their oral reading errors. Students must read appropriate, independent-level text  Fewer than five mistakes in every 100 words – or if you have more mistakes than you can count on one hand, it is too difficult ELLs benefit from reading and rereading text with proficient models with support for word meaning.

134 Fluency for ELLs Audiobooks are a good source for becoming familiar with text Around 20 minutes per day should be devoted to fluency-related activities. Research suggests that three or four readings is effective for many students (Sindelar, Monda & O’Shea, 1990).

135 Fluency for ELLs Provide explicit instruction in fluency-related activities: Make our thinking processes visible through well- structured think-alouds Organize lessons so a few new strategies or skills are introduced by building on learned material Pace instruction so that it is brisk but not too fast that students fall behind Provide background knowledge and new vocabulary as part of every lesson Use visual supports (pictures, gestures, graphs) so that key ideas, words and concepts are made real Provide feedback and correction

136 Slides taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team Fluency “may be almost a necessary condition for good comprehension and enjoyable reading experiences” (Nathan & Stanovich, 1991, pg. 176). If a reader has to spend too much time and energy figuring out what the words are, she will be unable to concentrate on what the words mean (Coyne, Kame’enui, & Simmons, 2001). Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension ( National Institute for Literacy (2001)

137 Fluency ELL students can learn to decode fairly easily and can easily become “word callers” – decoders but not comprehenders! The key is to comprehend what is decoded. Fluency should not be expected for beginning ELLs.

138 Slides taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team 138 Frustration: How it Feels to Read Without Fluency

139 Fluency Assessment The most valuable way to monitor fluency for ELL students is through timed measures of words read correctly in one minute. It is beneficial to have students keep track of their own progress (graphing) The goal is to average a gain of 1.5 words per week over several weeks

140 Fluency Assessment There are limited norm samples for reading fluency with ELL students but consider ELL students need to make 1.5 years progress each year in order to reach benchmarks Aimsweb, Dibels, Texas Primary Reading Inventory Fluency Probes, Gray Oral Reading Texts are possible measures. To assess expressive reading: http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/teaching/vocabulary /fluency

141 Vocabulary Vocabulary, the understanding of the meaning of words, begins developing early in a child’s life and well before they enter school. Vocabulary knowledge impacts the understanding of written words and reading comprehension. Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)

142 Vocabulary English-speaking children must learn approximately 3,000 new words each year (Honig, 1999). Among English speakers, Hart and Risley (2003) found that there can be a difference in word knowledge as high as 30,000 depending on SES. ELL students need to learn many more words:  Specific vocabulary for a lesson  To build oral vocabulary  To transition from oral to the written form of the language because in order to read words, one must have the word as part of their oral vocabulary

143 More Than One “Vocabulary” Students need:  Reading vocabulary – words in print that we recognize or figure out as they read and words for writing; reading vocabulary is usually larger than writing one  Oral vocabulary – listening and speaking vocabularies; listening vocabulary is generally larger than speaking one

144 Stages of Knowing a Word Never heard of the word before Heard of it but have no idea what it means Recognize generally what it means but cannot provide a specific description Know the word well and can use it and understand meaning when the word is used orally or in writing

145 Stages of Knowing a Word Goal is to move as many words as possible from stage 1 to 4. With ELL students, you must provide instruction that will result in deep understanding of the word and not so they repeat the sounds, Using ESL strategies such as pictures, gestures and objects are necessary.

146 Words Represent Two Dimensions A label  Older students may only need to learn a new label for a known concept A concept  If the word is not in a child’s oral or reading vocabulary; they will need to learn both the concept and then the label

147 Vocabulary This is a critical component because of how a lack of vocabulary impacts comprehension. Vocabulary should be taught in context and not through isolated word lists. Use visual aids and graphic organizers when possible.

148 Fish can have swim eat breathe get caught fins tail scales gills A Tree Map

149 Tree Map Students at the beginning level can build sentences by selecting a topic, identifying verbs related to the topic, and categorizing what they know about the topic. Then, they can use the map to build sentences that tell about the topic:  Fish have fins.  Fish can swim.  Fish can breathe.  Fish have gills.

150 Tree Map Students at the intermediate level can use this to learn to combine sentences:  Fish have fins and a tail so they can swim.  Fish have gills so they can breathe. Students at the advanced level can practice condensing ideas into academic structures:  Gills allow fish to breath, while fins and tails enable swimming.

151 Comprehension Comprehension is the ability to make meaning of text. It includes phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency and vocabulary. Comprehension initially develops as listening comprehension as children hear books read aloud. Later, students put all of the components of reading together to read with understanding. Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)

152 Comprehension The most difficult reading component for ELL students is comprehension. ELL students generally learn the foundational skills but struggle with comprehension. One reason is to read with comprehension requires an extensive vocabulary. Comprehension cannot be taught through rote instruction.

153 Comprehension “The starting point for teachers is to ensure that the student has adequate word and world knowledge to understand the text that he or she is reading. Of greatest importance is to assure students that reading comprehension is ‘sense making’.” Linan-Thompson & Vaughn (2007)

154 Comprehension Linan-Thompson & Vaughn (2007) suggest you rate yourself on the following questions. (1) never (2) sometimes (3) whenever needed Ask students to predict by using title, pictures, keywords Provide opportunities to use their background knowledge with critical components of text

155 Comprehension Identify language demands of text and preteach what is needed Teach students to monitor the words and concepts they do not understand by taking notes; be sure to follow up Ask students question you know they can answer and then scaffold responses to meet language needs Teach students how to construct mental images (using the minds eye)

156 Comprehension Model and teach students how to clarify any confusing parts Model and teach students to develop questions about what they are reading and then question peers Give ample response time and opportunities to practice responding Provide practice in summarizing and integrating information from text

157 Discuss What types of interventions (and for which academic areas) are in place in your system now? Are they effective for all students? What can be done differently?

158 Summarizing the Research These factors correlate with later reading achievement in L1 and/or L2:  Phonological awareness  Print awareness  Alphabetic knowledge  Rapid naming Assessing these skills may provide early predictors of reading and help identify students who may benefit from additional literacy instruction.

159 Adapting Instructional Materials – Proficiency Level Does the information to be presented lend itself to a visual/graphic depiction, outline, simplified prose version, audiotape, live demonstration, or use of an alternative text? Visuals and graphic depictions such as charts, graphs, Venn diagrams, maps, timelines, and clusters are suitable as introductory formats because they tend to be labeled with fewer words. Outlines, simplified prose versions, and alternative texts will offer more of a challenge. Adapted from Short (1989)

160 Adapting Instructional Materials – Proficiency Level Use of original text where only specific key ideas have been highlighted (excluding extraneous details) is appropriate to intermediate level students. In general, it is best to vary the format of the presentation. Exposing students to different formats will cater to different learning styles and proficiency levels within the group as well as make lessons interesting. Adapted from Short (1989)

161 Adapting Instructional Materials – Prior Knowledge In this step, lessons move from the known to unknown, and from the concrete to the abstract. Relate materials, as much as possible, to student experiences. To relate materials to personal experiences, initiate conversations that lead into class discussions linking topic to students' personal life experiences. Adapted from Short (1989)

162 Adapting Instructional Materials – Text Vocabulary can be simplified, but key technical terms must be retained. New vocabulary should be clearly introduced (and defined before a reading) and reinforced within the adapted materials. Use simple verb tense, such as present, simple past, and simple future. Simplify word order in sentences by eliminating clauses and rewriting the sentence in a subject-verb-object format. Write in the active voice, limiting the use of pronouns and relative clauses. Adapted from Short (1989)

163 Adapting Instructional Materials – Alternative Assignments Simplify the objectives and amount of materials student is responsible for learning. Modify the length and difficulty of assignments. Ask students to express the main ideas of their learning by drawing a picture, map, or other diagram. Use cooperative pairs or groups to share material. Allow students to respond in their native language to express knowledge. Adapted from Short (1989)

164 What About Grammar? Should we explicitly teach grammar to ELL students? Discuss with your neighbor.

165 Rationale for Teaching Grammar to ELL Students In the last decade, we have had the notion that grammar instruction had no place in a communicative classroom. Grammar was equated with “drill and kill” lessons. We seemed to think that students could absorb all the grammar they needed from communication activities and could learn it through books and experiences. We realize that grammar, like other areas, needs to be explicitly and systematically taught IN CONTEXT.

166 Key Points in Grammar Instruction for ELLs Instruction must be age and language proficiency appropriate Features to be taught must be carefully selected There should be a balance between accuracy and fluency activities Students must be given effective corrective feedback It MUST be taught in authentic contexts:  Teachable moments  With a text that frequently uses that grammatical feaeture  Through language experience activities

167 Grammar for ELL Students Within the eight parts of speech, each presents specific difficulties for ELL students.  Nouns  Verbs  Adjectives  Pronouns  Conjunctions  Prepositions  interjections

168 Nouns Common ELL errors:  Use lowercase letters with proper nouns.  Use the definite article the with abstract nouns. (You must have the patience.)  Confuse a count noun to a non-count noun. (We have many homeworks.) A person, place, thing, or quality.

169 Verbs Shows action or being (existence).

170 Pronouns A word that can replace, or substitute, for a noun.

171 Adjectives A word that describes a noun or pronoun.

172 Adverbs A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

173 Conjunctions A word that connects parts of a sentence together. Conjunctions link words, phrases, and clauses.

174 Prepositions A word that shows the relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and the rest of the sentence.

175 Interjections A word that expresses strong feeling or emotion.

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177 Discuss Discuss : What Do ELL Students Need? All educators (including administrators): recognize that educating ELL students if their responsibility understand that they are a heterogeneous group Use students’ languages and cultures as resources Create strong links between home, school and community Provide equitable access to core curriculum and other educational programs

178 Culturally Responsive Educators Culturally responsive educators respond effectively to people with different worldviews and experiences They frame instruction/behavior management/assessment through multicultural frames of references

179 Hasn’t Instruction Always Been Culturally Responsive? Yes, it has. However, it has been culturally responsive to students who are primarily middle class and European American.

180 “Culture is to Humans as Water is to Fish”

181 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Culturally responsive pedagogy validates and affirms students’ cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference and learning styles to make curricular experiences relevant. It uses these resources in all subjects taught in schools rather than packaging “cultural” experiences and events

182 Culturally Responsive Instructional Environments Basic Instructional Sequences Instructional Strategies Instructional Techniques

183 Basic Instructional Sequences Pre-teach the language Provide culturally-meaningful content and use all learning modalities Teach students how to record the experience beginning with using visual organizers while emphasizing hands-on experiences, talking and writing Model expectations by showing students exactly how to begin and what a finished product might look like

184 Basic Instructional Sequences (p. 2) Provide small group opportunities and include English proficient role models Ask for student input from their cultural perspectives Monitor comprehension by frequently clarifying concepts with students. Rather than asking if they understand and accepting a nod, ask students to restate or show their understanding.

185 Instructional Strategies “Funds of Knowledge” – build in each students’ life experiences rather than viewing students’ backgrounds as a deficit. Parents should be used as resources to identify the “funds of knowledge” Include various ethnic and cultural groups within the context of core curriculum Include multiple voices and perspectives within the curriculum such as when learning about the Civil War, etc. Give students opportunities to think critically about social issues meaningful to their daily lives

186 Tier 2

187 Instruction Intensive, explicit intervention for a specified period of time (3 to 5 days a week, 30 minutes per day for 10 to 12 weeks) provided by a general education teacher or other personnel. For ELL students, there must be additional time spend on oracy in the language of the literacy instruction. Assessments Weekly, biweekly, or monthly progress monitoring (CBM) during intervention.

188 Tier 2 – Strategic Interventions Interventions should be taught using a direct instruction (di) approach. Direct instruction has seven critical features:  An explicit step-by-step strategy  Development of mastery at each step  A process for correction of student errors  Gradual fading from teacher-directed activities toward independent work  Use of adequate and systematic practice with a range of examples  Increased opportunities for student responses  Cumulative review of newly learned concepts

189 Tier 2 – Strategic Interventions Direct instruction techniques(Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997). This framework includes four major stages: (1) you explicitly show students how to use the skill or strategy (I do) (2) students practice the skill under your supervision--and you give frequent corrective feedback and praise (we do) (3) students use the skill independently in real academic situations (you do), and (4) students use the skill in a variety of other settings or situations ("generalization"). To avoid overloading your students with more new information than they can absorb, teach only one strategy at a time and make sure that your students have thoroughly mastered each strategy before teaching them another.

190 Tier 2 – Strategic Interventions Effective instruction  Group format  Multiple opportunities for practice  Teaching to mastery  Teaching procedures Source: Sylvia Linan Thompson (2008)

191 Example of an Explicit Correction Procedure Praise student for correct responses. Students are led to a correct answer when they have responded incorrectly; the incorrect response is ignored. In this example (Richards & Leafstedt, 2010), a correction staircase is used to ensure that students are led to the right answer as well as giving them an opportunity to respond independently to the original task.

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193 Teacher-Made Scripted Lessons Direct instruction principles can be applied through teacher-made scripted lessons. This instructional model is very effective with diverse learners. Research indicates that students taught through this intervention spend more time in active engagement and exhibit increases in academic achievement (Rieth & Evertson, 1988). These are explicit lessons that include (Hoover, 2009)  Presentation of new material  Guided practice  Modeling of proper steps and sequence  Informal initial assessment of the acquisition of acquired knowledge and skills

194 Tier 2 Critical Question: Does the student’s achievement continue to be both lower and slower than a “true” peer?  Is the child responding to interventions but just more slowly than peers?  Do interventions continue to consider child’s oral language needs and cultural background?

195 Tier 2 for ELL Students Thompson (2008) found the following specific factors appear to have contributed to the success of the intervention:  Use of comprehensive reading instruction that explicitly and systematically builds English language skills during reading instruction  Explicit teaching of English letter/sound correspondences, word patterns, and spelling rules  Introduction of skills in isolation and practice in context She also found that while only a few ELLs have difficulty acquiring the foundational skills needed for accurate and automatic word reading, the majority struggle with:  Fluency  Vocabulary  comprehension

196 Tier 2 Reading Interventions Comprehensive reading interventions that include:  Phonological awareness  Word attack  Fluency  Comprehension  Vocabulary Provide multiple opportunities for practice; ELLs need practice speaking For ELLs, a critical component is at least 10 minutes per day (in addition to reading intervention) of oral language development in the same language as their core instruction (Linan-Thompson)

197 The Research on Read Naturally De La Colina, Parker, Hasbrouck, and Lara- Alecio (2001) investigated the use of Read Naturally, an intensive reading intervention that uses repeated reading, teacher modeling, and progress monitoring, using Spanish materials, in 1 st and 2 nd grade students. This interventions led to measurable improvements in fluency and comprehension.

198 Read Well - English The effectiveness of Read Well with ELs was investigated by Denton et al. (2004). This program combines systematic, explicit phonics instruction with practice in decodable text and contextualized vocabulary and comprehension instruction. The Read Well students showed more growth in word identification but not in word attack (pseudowords) or comprehension. The researchers speculated that the lack of effect on comprehension could be that the program does not have systematic instruction for vocabulary.

199 Many ELLs Continue to Struggle – Why? Language skills play a significant role in reading fluency; familiarity with syntax, morphology, and words and their meanings impact students’ reading fluency and in turn comprehension. For ELLs, working memory may be further taxed by the fact that they may also be translating words read into their home language to access meaning.

200 Types of Word Learning Learning a new word representing a known concept (perhaps they know the concept in their native language). Learning a new meaning for a known word Clarifying and enriching the meaning of a known word – finer distinction or connotation in meaning and usage of words

201 Components of Vocabulary Development Program Fluent, wide reading about the subject areas Explicit research-informed instruction across the subject areas Balanced instruction in content area classes (outside of English/ELD) with lesson specific terminology linked to content standards and high-use academic words Balanced instruction in English language arts/ELD Narrow reading of informational texts Development of word knowledge (prefixes, suffixes, word roots) (Katie Kinsella)

202 Components of Vocabulary Development Program Develop context analytical skills A focus on high-incidence Latin prefixes and suffixes A focus on high-incidence academic word families Structured opportunities to apply newly taught words in speaking and writing Meaningful, frequent assessment Teach students productive study systems Provide appropriate dictionaries Accountability for explicit instruction and meaningful assessment (Katie Kinsella)

203 “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.” ~Ludwig Wittgenstein

204 Stages of Knowing a Word Never heard the word before Heard of it but have no idea what it means Recognize generally what it means but cannot provide a specific description Know the word well and can use it and understand meaning when the word is used orally or in writing (Dale, 1965)

205 Use Direct Instruction Techniques The following slide give an example of a “script” to teach a vocabulary lesson that was developed by Sylvia Linan-Thompson.

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210 Effective Components Model pronouncing words Student-friendly definition and discussion Checking for understanding Powerful sentences

211 Characteristics of Content Area Texts Use more complex sentence structures Organize concepts in different ways Include more complex ideas Integrate graphic sources of information Includes domain-specific vocabulary Require more extensive background knowledge

212 Characteristics of Vocabulary to Develop Concepts Becomes abstract and is expressed with longer words with more general meaning  Rain  Precipitation Fits into larger theories  Water cycle Fits into hierarchies  Weather system precipitation cycle rain Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2002

213 Characteristics of Vocabulary to Develop Concepts Differentiates between similar concepts  Sleet/hail  Typhoons/hurricanes Describes conceptual relationships  Opposites, subsets, causality, correlations Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2002

214 Discuss - Planning Identify 1 – 2 areas in which ELLs need more practice Where can you increase language exposure and use? Can they practice with partners? What changes would it take?

215 Tier 3

216 Instruction More intensive, sustained intervention Parent consent may be requested for a special education evaluation Interventions must continue to be experientially, culturally and linguistically responsive. Assessments Weekly or biweekly progress monitoring

217 Tier 3 – Intensive Interventions Tier 3 is conceptualized differently by many researchers and practitioners. Some conclude that after students have made little or no progress in previous tiers, the data should be sufficient to make special education eligibility decisions. Others say that intensive individualized instruction is a component of Tier 3 but not necessarily special education. Some conclude that if students don’t make sufficient progress after a period of time in Tier 3 intensive interventions then a full comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation should occur after receiving signed consent.

218 Tier 3 Critical question: Does achievement continue to be both slower and lower than “true” peers?  How many rounds of Tier 2 interventions have occurred?  If the student gets referred for a comprehensive evaluation, are both native language and English assessments used and interpreted within a least biased framework?

219 Tier 3 for ELL Students Students who continue to struggle can be provided with more intensive interventions at this tier Intervention programs in this tier replace the core program Interventions should continue to be culturally and linguistically appropriate Progress monitoring should be done by a team  The team should include members with expertise in culturally and linguistically responsive instruction and research-based instructional strategies

220 Decision-making at Tier 3 Referral to this tier could mean a referral for a psychoeducational evaluation to determine  Special education eligibility  Disorders in basic psychological processes (in federal definition of SLD)  Patterns of strengths and weaknesses (see Technical Assistance Paper at http://www.ospaonline.com/PatternsStrengthWesk. http://www.ospaonline.com/PatternsStrengthWesk. htmlhtml)

221 Difference or Disorder: Language Impairments Gutierrez-Clellen and DeCurtis (1999) studied ELL students and found that children without language impairment provided formal definitions 50% of the time whereas this number was only 19% for children with language impairment. Children without language impairment used superordinate categories (e.g., animal) rather than the generic term (e.g., “una cosa” – a thing).

222 Language Impairments Children without language impairments also provided more specific details about the object. “If the quality of definitions is considered a metalinguistic skill, then it can be expected to correlate across the two languages (Durgunoglu, 2002, p. 199). The quality of formal definitions was correlated with reading comprehension across languages.

223 To Ensure that ELL Students are Appropriately Placed into Special Education… Student study teams, pre-referral teams, RTI teams, and multidisciplinary teams must be knowledgeable about:  Second language acquisition patterns  Challenges faced by children whose L1 is not English  Effective instructional strategies for ELL students

224 Referral Process Must include  Informing parents of need for assessment plan  informed consent will initiate the assessment  Legal timelines to develop assessment plan  Time begins to complete assessment  Timeline for holding IEP team meeting

225 Prevalence of SLD Statistically about 12% of U.S. students are receiving special education services. Of those, 5% are qualified as a student with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD). Therefore, approximately 12% of your ELL students should be receiving special education services. Of those, 5% of your ELL students should be receiving special education services under the category of Specific Learning Disability (SLD)

226 Reasons why ELL students are referred to Special Education #1 Poor/Low Achievement #2 Behavioral Problems #3 Oral Language Related (Acquisition or Delay) #4 Reading Problems #5 Learning Difficulties #6 Socio-emotional Difficulties #7 Diagnosis for Particular Handicapping Condition #8 Written Language #9 Low Attention Span #10 Unable to Understand and/or follow directions Source: Ochoa, Robles-Pina, Garcia, & Breunig, 1999

227 Multiple Data Sources The benefit of valid and reliable screening processes, instruction and interventions in Tiers 1 and II can be used as sources of data during assessment process Standardized assessments in L1 and L2 are recommended at Tier 3 as long as instruments are build on research-based cognitive ability theories such as Cattell-Horn-Carroll. The WJ-III and Woodcock-Munoz (Spanish version of WJ-III) are useful. The broad abilities measured by the above instruments have a substantial research base on the relationship of each broad ability to achievement areas.

228 Second Language Acquisition vs. Possible Disability Pair Share  When an ELL student is not meeting expected benchmarks for academic progress, what are appropriate next steps to help rule out normal language acquisition as the primary factor?  What steps are used in your district?

229 Bottom Line… Students must demonstrate the academic difficulties in both languages, not just English, in order for it to possibly be a disorder.

230 Remember… Realize ELL students are working very hard so their difficulties do not necessarily reflect a lack of effort, motivation, or commitment. ELL students need multiple and ongoing opportunities to try out/draft/rehearse the assigned work before it is evaluated. Examine our own prejudices, attitudes, ideologies, belief systems and how these affect our practices, decisions and behaviors. Recognize that students’ written work may reflect their culturally-determined understanding of how texts and organized and what to include.

231 Critical Questions: What the Research Does Not Say - Yet What is the Best Way to Teach English Language Development? Effective second language instruction provides a combination of:  explicit teaching This helps students directly learn the vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and pronunciation of English  opportunities to use English in meaningful ways This helps students to practice what they have learned with partners and in other settings. Studies also indicate that students tend to achieve more when this ELD instruction occurs during a separate period, and not as a tie into content areas. Source: Alcala Turner, Flores & Parker, 2009

232 What Does All This Mean to the ESL/ELD Teacher? You play a unique role in ELL students’ lives. You are both an educator and an advocate. You are a critical member of the problem-solving team when an ELL student is a focus of concern because you understand second language acquisition and cultural differences and how these can impact academic success (although both of these factors can also be considered unique strengths). You can help plan interventions appropriate for student’s language acquisition level. On the other hand, only special educators (including speech/language specialists, school psychologists, special education teachers) can determine that a students has a disability but you can help them determine when a child seems to be struggling more than his “true peers.”

233 What Does All This Mean to the ESL/ELD Teacher? Besides being a child advocate, you must be a civil rights advocate. That means, you should ensure that no child is ever found eligible to receive special education services and given a disability label simply because the system has no other resource to provide the child intensive interventions. Remember, what is the percentage of any group that data shows should be receiving special education services? Services under the category of SLD?

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235 References August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second language learners: A report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc. Batsche, G., Elliott, J., Graden, J.L., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J.F., Prasse, D., et al. (2007). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.Gl., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.

236 References Brown, J.E., & Doolittle, J. (2008). A cultural, linguistic, and ecological framework for response to intervention with English language learners. Boulder, CO: National Center for Culturally Relevant Educational Systems. Available for download at http://www.nccrest.org/publications/briefs.html Carrillo, M. (1994). Development of phonological awareness and reading acquisition: A study in Spanish language. Reading and Writing, 6(3), 279- 298. Crockett, D.P., & Brown, J.E. (2009). Multicultural practices and response to intervention. In J. Jones (Ed.), The psychology of multiculturalism in the schools. Bethesda, MA: National Association of School Psychology. Durgunoglu, A.Y., Nagy, W., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1993). Cross language transfer of phonological awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 453-465. Jimenez Gonzales, J.E., & Hernandez Valle, I. (2000). Word identification and reading disorders in the Spanish language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(1), 44-60.

237 References Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Baca, L., & Hoover, J. (Eds.) (in revision). English Language Learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or learning disabilities? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Klingner, J. K., & Bianco, M. (2006). What is special about special education for culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities? In B. Cook & B. Schirmer (Eds.), What is special about special education? Austin, TX: PRO- ED. Klingner, J. K., & Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural considerations with response to intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 108-117.

238 References Klingner, J. K., Sorrells, A., & Barrera, M. (2007). Three- tiered models with culturally and linguistically diverse students. In D. Haager, J. Klingner, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Validated reading practices for three tiers of intervention. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Orosco, M. J. (2007). Response to intervention with Latino English language learners: A school-based case study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder).

239 Helpful Websites National Center on Response to Intervention rti4success.org National Center for Progress Monitoring www.studentprogress.org Barahona Center for Study of Books in Spanish http://csbs.csusm.edu/csbs/www.book_eng.book_home?lang= SP

240 For More Information… Julie Esparza Brown, EdD Assistant Professor in Special Education Portland State University P.O. Box 751 Portland, OR 97201-0751 (503) 725-4696 jebrown@pdx.edu


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