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1Presented by Julie Esparza Brown, EdD email@example.com Applying the RTI Model for Literacy with English Language LearnersPresented by Julie Esparza Brown, EdD
2Presentation GoalsDefine RTI and its promise and perils for ELL studentsExamine screening and progress monitoring tools for ELLsDefine and differentiate reading instruction and interventionIdentify evidence-based and culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions for each tierDefine the ESL specialist’s role as a member of the intervention teamQuestions??
3ELL StudentsStudents whose home language (L1) is other than English (L2) and who are in the process of learning English.ELL students are a diverse group:U.S. born – second, third, fourth generationForeign born – early or late arrivalFormal instruction in L1No instruction in L1, interrupted schoolingFormal instruction only in L2 upon entering U.S. schoolsThe term “ELL” student does NOT include fluent bilingual students.
4ELL StudentsMany students live in linguistically isolated areas (in home country or U.S.). In U.S. schools, ELL students are also often linguistically isolated.They have:Limited exposure to Standard EnglishLimited opportunities to interact with speakers who are proficient in Standard EnglishLimited opportunities to obtain additional help with homework from peers who speak Standard English
5The majority of them: ELL Students are U.S. born and have received all of their education in American schools.achieve oral fluency in everyday language but lag in measures of academic success and tasks requiring academic language proficiency.
6What Do You Need to Ask About an ELL Student Who is Struggling? Is achievement both at a lower level and occurring at a substantially slower rate when compared to “true peers”?You must ask questions related to:Student’s historyLearning contextLearning content
7Levels of English Proficiency Teachers must be aware of the student’s level of English proficiency when planning core instruction and choosing interventions.Typically ELL students show high levels of language growth in the first couple of years but the growth levels off as content becomes more difficult.
9Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language DevelopmentCommunication SkillsPre-production,Beginning or EnteringEmphasis is on listening comprehension activities designed to teach students to recognize the meaning of words used in communicative contest.Students may respond by:Performing an actPointing to an item or pictureGesturing or noddingSaying yes or noNaming objects or pictures
10Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language DevelopmentCommunication Skills2. Early Production,Early Intermediateor EmergingStudents access and produce linguistic units in the following ways:List of wordsYes/no answersOne words answers from either/or questionsOne word answers from general questionsTwo word string and short phrasesSimple sentences
11Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language DevelopmentCommunication Skills3. Speech Emergence,Intermediate orDevelopingStudents use a wider range of vocabulary and the sentences they produce become longer and more complex.Students response may include:Short phrasesLonger phrasesComplete sentences where appropriate since native speech is not always made up of complete sentencesNarration
12Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language DevelopmentCommunication SkillsIntermediate Fluency,Early Advanced or ExpandingThe students often know what he/she wants to say but searches for acceptable language patterns .Makes complex statementsStates opinionsReport an eventGives instructionsParticipates in extended discourse
13Language Acquisition Stages Language Acquisition Stages/Stages of Language DevelopmentCommunication Skills5. Advanced Fluency,Advanced orBridgingThe student comprehends most conversation and academic discourse but sometimes requires repetition. Meaning is usually clear, but vocabulary and structures are used inappropriately at times. The student reads and writes, with some difficulty, materials that are commensurate with his/her cognitive development but demonstrates some problems in grasping intended meaning.
15Progress Monitor Student’s Language Acquisition Student’s English language development should be monitored.Consider:Can they participate in the oral language of a mainstream classroomCan the student read and write in English at levels similar to mainstream grade-level peers? To their “true peers”Whether the student reads and/or writes in L1 at grade level?Whether the student needs more intensive and explicit instruction in English language development?Would instruction in L1 be beneficial?
16Appropriate Student Responses for Language Acquisition Stages
17Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of Language Acquisition - Preproduction/Early Production StagesShared readingConcepts about printRead aloud, listening postSSRChantsChoral/Echo ReadingDramatization/Role playPuppetry/finger playsFlannel board storiesRecreationsInteractive journalsLanguage Experience ApproachAlphabet gamesBook publishingBrainstorming/webbingCloze activitiesCompare/contrast stories using illustrationsConcentration games
18Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of Language Acquisition – Speech Emergence All of the activities from previous slide, PLUS:Guided readingStory mappingReader’s theaterInnovationsProcess writing (emphasis on prewriting/drafting)Book talksCritical thinking questions/activitiesIdiomatic expressionsLanguage focus lessonsLiterature circlesPair/share writingPen palsReciprocal teachingRetelling storiesScriptingSyntax SurgeryVocabulary development activities
19Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of Language Acquisition – Intermediate/Advanced Fluency All of the activities from previous slide, PLUS:Process writing (all steps)Journal writingReader’s workshopDirected readingResearch projectsCreative dramaticsPublic speaking/formal presentationsUse of scaffolding to allow access to grade level/age appropriate narrative and expository textsContinue with (modified-enriched) strategies previously introducedDebatesFeature analysisInterviewsLiterature responseWord studies (root words, prefixes, suffixes, word families)Write directions
20Dynamic Assessment for Language (Miller, Gillam & Pena)
21Oracy Instructional Guide A language proficiency assessment and intervention program.
22Fourth Grade Slump“In fourth grade, an alarming number of students’ reading comprehension starts a drastic decline and rarely recovers. Early delays in oral language come to be reflected in low levels of reading comprehension, leading to low levels of academic success.If we are to increase children’s ability to profit from education, we will have to enrich their oral language development during the early years of schooling.Schools could do much more than they do now to foster the language development of less-advantaged children and children for whom English is a second language.”Andrew BiemillerAmerican EducatorSpring 2003PLEASE connect this to higher grade levels: HS and Middle school students who need assistance with literacy
23Language SlumpMany ELL students are stuck at the intermediate level of English proficiency.Why? Because we have not identified the gap between the language a student knows and what is required to succeed academically.How do we do this?
24Teach Academic English “Academic language is learned…from teachers and from textbooks. It is learned through frequent exposure and practice over a long period of time.The most reliable sources of academic language are written texts. They serve, however, as the basis for language development only with instructional help.Often explicit teaching of language structures and uses is the most effective way to help ELL students.”Wong-Fillmore and Snow, 2000
26Systematic ELDClear purpose (language function and needed language form) backward mapped from lesson objectiveMeaningful, engaging and culturally relevant topicsInstructional sequenceI do it ( modeling, direct instruction)We do it (guided, interactive instruction)You do it (independent – collaborative and solo)A pace that is brisk yet appropriate
27Clearly identify proficiency level of each students Systematic ELDClearly identify proficiency level of each studentsStudents do at least 50% of the talkingConnect reading, writing, listening and speakingExplicitly build receptive and expressive language
28Language functions common to academic texts: Cause and effectCompare and contrastElaborationProposition and Support (problem/solution)SequencingSource: Susana Dutro
29ELL students must navigate: Additionally…ELL students must navigate:Participating in classroom discussionsExpressing and defending opinionsSocial courtesies in formal and informal settingsExpressing time relationshipsAnd much more…
30Determining What Language to Teach Vocabulary specific to the topicWhat are we talking or reading about?Functional language connecting topic vocabulary in sentencesWhat are we saying about it?
31Knowing the Student If child was born in U.S.: How long has the child been enrolled at current school?Where was child born?If child was foreign born:At what age did the child immigrate?Did he/she attend school in country of origin?Was it a rural or urban school?Was child making adequate progress?What type of instruction has the student had:Model of ELD or bilingual, if anyInstructional model in other countryWhat has been their access to core curriculumIf child was born in U.S.:What immigration generation are they (e.g., parents immigrated here, student is second generation)Have they attended preschool? In English? Native language?What is the first language the child:SpokeHeardAt what age did the child speak first words?At what age was the second language introduced?
32Knowing the Learning Ecology Inappropriate and ineffective instructional programs MUST be ruled out before proceeding to a referral.The learning environment must be observed on more than one occasion and during different times of the day.Is there a disproportionate number of ELL students (or any other subgroup) who are struggling academically within that classroom?
33Knowing the Learning Ecology Is scientifically-based instruction occurring that considers the students:Level of English language proficiencyLevel of native language proficiencyExperiential backgroundCultural background and acculturationAt the school level, is the child’s language and culture seen as an asset? Are all families encouraged to participate in school activities?
34Knowing the Learning Ecology Does the teacher understand and/or speak the student’s primary language?What strategies does the teacher use to ensure the comprehensibility of the instruction (such as GLAD, SIOP)?Are modifications in the instruction made?What kind of feedback is given to the student?Does the student receive pull-out instruction by either ELD or SpEd staff? If so, what “core” instruction is the student missing?What is GLAD? Is this a California term? We definitely use and are familiar with SIOP in NY.
35Knowing the Learning Ecology What does the teacher do to involve the student?How is the student allowed to demonstrate knowledge and skills?Is the student able to complete independent work?Is the student instructed in homogenous or heterogenous groupings? Does the student actively participate in group work?How appropriate is the curriculum both linguistically and culturally?
36Targeting the Specific Areas that Need Support “A problem is best defined as a discrepancy between a desired state and what is occurring?”Batsche et al. (2007)
37The Importance of Oral Language Proficiency Reading in any language is dependent upon a child’s oral language abilities in that language in order to comprehend what is decoded.Reading instruction, however, should not wait until students are orally proficient.Research (Kwan & Willows, 1998) also seems to show that for young children, explicit, systematic instruction in L2 sounds/symbols benefits phonemic awareness and it does not appear to be dependent to sound/symbol instruction in L1.
38The Importance of Oral Language in Literacy Development Children cannot comprehend what they are reading in a language they cannot speak and understand.It appears that readers must be familiar with a minimum of 95% of the vocabulary in the text to comprehend.Droop and Verhoeven (2003) found that extensive vocabulary training is crucial for efficient L2 reading comprehension.
42What Do These Gestures Mean in Other Cultures Point at something in the room with your index finger.In the Middle and Far East it is impolite to point with the index finger. Use an open hand or your thumb instead.Form a circle with finger to indicate “OK.”In Brazil and German, this gesture is obscene. In Japan it means “money.” In France is means “worthless.”Pat a student on the head.The head is a repository of the soul to Buddhists.Wave hand with the palm facing outward to greet someone.In Europe, waving the hand back and forth can mean “No.” This is a serious insult in Nigeria if the hand is too close to another person’s face.Nod head up and down to say “Yes.”In Bulgaria and Greece, this means “No.”
43Culture Quiz Adapted from everything ESL.net Q: You are a middle school teacher with a new student from Mexico. You suspect she is not literate in their native language but wonder why she doesn’t seem to respond to the ESL/ELD teacher when he speaks Spanish. What do you think the problem may be?We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
44Culture QuizA: The student is from Mexico who does not speak Spanish but is from a rural village where a Mayan dialect is spoken.We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
45Culture QuizQ: Your new Somali Bantu students do not seem to be able to sit still at their desks. Even though you give them constant breaks to walk around and stretch, they are continually out of their seats. What’s the problem?We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
46Culture QuizA: These students come from a persecuted tribe in rural Somalia. Many children from this area have probably never been in school. They may have never sat in a chair.We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
47Culture QuizQ: Hui is a 6th grade student in your class who speaks no English. He has an allergy and his nose runs constantly. He uses his fingers instead of a tissue. You and the class are upset by his behavior while Hui is unaware of the impact of this behavior. What should you do?We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
48Culture QuizA: Give him a pack of tissues and teach him what we do in the U.S. when our nose is runny. In some cultures handkerchiefs and tissues are not used.We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
49Culture QuizQ: You are a fifth grade teacher. Your new student from South America does not seem to celebrate the birthday you have marked on the classes’ birthday calendar. Is this a religious observance?We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
50Culture QuizA: Children in many South American cultures celebrate their Saint’s Day rather than their birthday.We need a different activity. These are ESL teachers who understand modifications and comprehensible input.
51Why is the Field Moving to Response to Intervention?
52Definition of Specific Learning Disability 34 CFR ) Specific learning disability is defined as follows: (i) General. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
53Definition of Specific Learning Disability (ii) Disorders not included. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
54IDEA, November 19, 2004Congress passed new bill reauthorizing The “Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act”States can no longer require local school districts to use the discrepancy formula (IQ-Achievement) when identifying LD studentsImplies that local school districts MAY or MAY NOT use the discrepancy formula
55Changes in LD Determination in IDEA 2004 In the newly reauthorized IDEA, eligibility and identification criteria for LD have changed [614(b)(6)(A)-(B)]:When determining whether a child has a specific learning disabilityThe LEA is not required to consider a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.The LEA may use a process that determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation.The last bullet is commonly known as Response to Intervention (RTI).
56Added progress monitoring component (all) Added option of RTI Changes to SLD Eligibility Requirements 34 CFR & OARAdded progress monitoring component (all)Added option of RTINo “severe discrepancy” requiredResearch-based “pattern of strengths and weaknesses”Observation – before or duringExclusionary factors remain
57Response to Intervention RTI is not required but may be used to determine if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventions as a part of the evaluation procedures [§1414(b)(6)(B)].
58Benefits of RTI for ELLs The process places an emphasis on appropriate, high-quality core instruction (in general education).Provides interventions when students begin to struggle rather than waiting for a series of meetings to begin support.Uses data to inform instruction.Links assessment data to instruction.Requires collaboration across disciplines (ESL/Bilingual, General Education, Special Education, Reading)
59RTI ModelsExperts promote two distinct RTI models (Bradley, Danielson, & Hallahan, 2002; Fuchs, Mock, Morgan & Young, 2003), though in reality most school districts use a combination of the two (NASDSE, 2006). Both models outline tiers or stages of interventions.
60RTIStandard Treatment Protocol: the same empirically validated treatment is used for all children with similar problems and achievement is measured against specified benchmarks (NASDE).
61RTIFlexible Problem –Solving: problems are defined behaviorally, interventions are planned specifically for the targeted student and are provided over a reasonable period of time, performance is measured in the natural setting, and students’ progress is compared to that of peers (NASDE).
62Problem-solving Team Group of qualified professionals Parents Regular classroom teacherPerson qualified to conduct individual diagnostic evaluations (school psychologist, speech pathologist, etc.)QUESTION: When an ELL student is a concern, what “qualified” professional should be part of the problem-solving team?
63Response to Intervention Intensive instruction,Possibly specialeducationIntensive assistance,as part ofgeneral educationsupport systemResearch-basedinstructionin general educationclassroom
64Response to Intervention (RTI) Defined RTI is a process of instruction, assessment, and intervention that allows schools to:Identify struggling students early through universal screeningProvide appropriate instructional interventions (intervene early)Increase the likelihood that students can be academically successful by providing appropriate supportsRegularly monitor progress
65What is progress monitoring? 34 CFR 300.309(b) Purpose is to rule out lack of appropriate instruction in reading and math as reason for underachievement.Instruction: Before (or as part of) referral process, student had appropriate instruction in reg ed settings by qualified personnel.Assessment: Student had repeated assessments of achievement at regular intervals & results provided to parents
66CORE/BENCHMARK Tier III Tier II Tier I STRATEGIC INTENSIVE Model of Instructional Intervention to allow access and progress in the core curriculum that is adjusted for students’ language proficiency levels and cultural backgroundsINTENSIVETier IIITime Program Group SizeINTENSIVETwo or more years below grade levelTier IISTRATEGICCORE +SUPPLEMENTALOne to two years below grade level standardsTier ICORE withDifferentiated instructionAchieving grade level standards, but may require additional assistanceCORE/BENCHMARK
68The two most common RTI models are: Two Common ModelsThe two most common RTI models are:Standard Treatment ProtocolProblem-SolvingThe critical question is:“What model is best for culturally and linguistically diverse students?”
69Standard Treatment Model The same empirically validated treatment is used for all children with similar problems and achievement is measured against benchmarks (NASDSE, 2006).The interventions are chosen from an approved list.Proponents argue that this is the most research-based of the RTI approaches, and leaves less room for error in professional judgment (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006).Yet the standard protocol model requires research-based interventions and there are only a few programs that have been researched specifically with ELLs and/or students in low SES communities.For example, a program may not provide enough focus on oracy and vocabulary for English language learners.
70The Problem-solving Model External and within child factors (student’s ecology) can be considered in intervention planning and instruction.Professional expertise and teamwork is valued and necessary.When an ELL student is a focus on concern, some team members must have expertise in second language acquisition and effective instruction for ELLs.The key is that “problem solving” should occur until effective solutions to student difficulties are found.
72The Reality“Some… have suggested that multi-tier systems might use either a problem-solving method … or a standard treatment protocol approach. This is an artificial distinction. All RTI systems must consider implementing the best features of both approaches” (NASDSE, 2005).
73The Promise of RTI for ELLs… Since RTI focuses on the impact of instruction, it is an opportunity to finally address the issue of access of core curriculum and adequate, appropriate, rigorous instructional opportunities.
74DiscussRTI is predicated upon appropriate and adequate instruction for all students in the general education classroom?Question:Is this scenario happening in your school?If not, what are the resources that you need to make this happen?
75Assumptions Underlying RTI that May Be Problematic for ELL Students
76Assumption 1“Evidence-based instruction” is good instruction for everyone. English language learners who have been taught with “evidence-based interventions” have been provided with sufficient opportunities to learn.
77Reality 1Population validity, ecological validity, construct validity are essential if research results are to be generalized - yet frequently seem to be ignored.Experimental research studies tell us what works best with the majority of students in a research sample, not all students.
78Assumption 2Students who fail to respond to research-based instruction have some sort of learning problem or internal deficit, and perhaps even a learning disability.
79Reality 2To conclude that failure resides within students when they do not progress with a certain intervention, and then move them onto the second or third tier in an RTI model or decide they belong in special education without considering other factors is problematic.NCCRESTThus, we promote a systems approach to reform that entails looking across multiple layers of the home, community, school, and society-at-large (Klingner, Artiles, et al., in press; Miramontes, Nadeau, & Commins, 1997; Shanklin et al., 2003).Debates about instructional methods and considerations of student performance should be framed within the larger context of how literacy practices interrelate with issues of social practice, culture, and power across these levels (Gee, 1999).Our point is that to conclude that failure resides within students when they do not progress with a certain intervention, and then move them onto the second or third tier in an RTI model or decide they belong in special education without considering other factors is problematic.
80Assumption 3Learning to read in one’s second language is similar to learning to read in one’s first language; therefore instructional approaches that have been found through research to be effective with mainstream English-speaking students are appropriate for serving ELLs.
81Reality 3While children “break the code” only once, the process of reading in a second language is impacted by the structure of that language.Most of the current research does not take into account language proficiency, acculturation, and experiential differences.Thus, the research outcomes cannot be generalized for ELL students.
82Tier 1 – Core Instruction with Support in the “Big Five” Components
83Tier 1InstructionResearch-based reading curriculum (core) implemented with fidelity by general education teachers.Instruction must be adapted to all student’s experiential, cultural and linguistic backgrounds.Students who struggle in reading receive targeted instruction on specific goals and progress is closely monitored.AssessmentsUniversal screening for all students given three – four times per year.Progress is more closely monitored for the students receiving interventions.
84Reading Their WorldResearch (Lonigan et al., 1999; Lundberg, Frost, & Petersen, 1988; Vadasy, Jenkins, & Pool, 2000) indicates that instruction focused on reading and phonological processing skills can be used to attenuate the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage if children receive instruction in the prereading stage, before reading failure takes place.
85Differences Between Reading Instruction and Intervention Includes the “Big Five” reading componentsIs evidence-basedTargets specific skill deficitsUses direct instruction methods (i.e., systematic, explicit, feedback)Meets the individual needs of studentsInstructional pacing and sequencing based on masteryInstructionIncludes the “Big Five” reading componentsIs evidence-basedMultiple teaching methods are used to meet the needs of the whole groupInstructional pacing and sequence generally not based on masterySource: Richards & Leafstedt (2010)
86Tier 1 Interventions Occur in the general education classroom Goals and objectives are clear to studentsteacher talk is minimizedHigh student response rateTeacher provides specific positive feedback frequentlyTeachers may use hand gestures and other signals rather than words to cue student responses
87Defining Interventions Scientifically proven interventions:scientific results have been published in peer-reviewed journals using the scientific rigor described in the definition of NCLB.Research based interventions:methods, content, materials, etc., were developed in guidance from the collective research and scientific community.Evidence-based interventions:specific data is available that shows the intervention improves student outcomes.
88Guiding Principles for Intervention with ELs (Richards & Leafstedt, 2010) Interventions must be:ExplicitUse direct instruction techniquesDelivered in small groupsGersten et al., 2007 recommend:Provide multiple opportunities for students to respond to questions and practice reading both words and sentences while teachers give students immediate and clear feedback when errors are made.At least 30 minutes per day must be devoted to small group intervention.Ongoing training and support must be provided to all interventionists.Vocabulary instruction must be included to teach content words in addition to common words, phrases and expressions necessary for school success.
89Which Students Should Receive Interventions? Students who perform below grade-level benchmarks (relative to an appropriate normative reference such as their “true peer group”).Decisions should be made on individual students through:Teacher observation and judgment, ANDScreening and progress monitoring results
90Fluency Vocabulary Text comprehension Phonemic awareness Summary of Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and YouthInstruction is needed in the “big five” components of reading:Phonemic awarenessPhonics (aka alphabetic principle)Letter-sound knowledgeSounding out words (decoding)Reading connected textgFluencyVocabularyText comprehensionEarly reading skills (preschool – 2nd grade)
91Instruction in these key components is necessary but not sufficient. Summary of Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and YouthInstruction in these key components is necessary but not sufficient.Becoming literate in L2 depends on the quality of teaching through content coverage, intensity or thoroughness of instruction.With high-quality reading instruction and intervention, students who struggle with reading may only need temporary support or remediation rather than special education services.
92There is an additional component that is critical for ELLs: Summary of Report from the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and YouthApproaches similar to English-Only (EO) populations are effective with adjustments given such as more focus with particular phonemes and combinations of phonemes in English that do not exist in their L1.There is an additional component that is critical for ELLs:Oral language development
93Relationship among the Five Components of Reading Phonics/DecodingFluencyPhonological AwarenessVocabularyComprehensionSource: Richards & Leafstedt (2010)
94ELLs At-RiskResearch shows that it is possible to identify ELLs at-risk for reading difficulties because of underdeveloped phonological awareness skills and/or difficulty learning sound-symbol correspondence.These students have trouble “cracking the code” in any language.Do not take a “wait and see” attitude due to lack of English proficiency and assume the skills will develop along with their L2.These students need explicit and intensive instruction and/or intervention in phonemic/phonological awareness and phonics (explicit, systematic, and intensive)
95Screening and Assessment In order to plan meaningful intervention, one must know the problem.Screening/assessment and progress monitoring should occur in the following areas:First and second language proficiencyThe big five components of readingPhonemic awarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehensionAcculturation
96ScreeningConsistently strong measures of future reading growth are measures of phonemic awareness and fluency in naming letters of the alphabet.This is true in both English and Spanish.Students’ oral language proficiency alone is not a valid predictor of reading success or failure but it is important to take into account and it may have more of an impact as students get older.Source: Sylvia Linan-Thompson (2009)
97Language of Screening Measures For students in bilingual education programs use grade appropriate measures that:Match the language of reading instruction, often native language, initiallyIn both the native language and English during the transition processEnglish when students are ready to exit and are no longer receiving reading instruction in the native languageStudents in English immersion programs with ELD/ESL support:Use grade appropriate measure in EnglishSource: Sylvia Linan-Thompson (2009)
98Progress Monitoring – A Critical Component “Progress monitoring is a scientifically based practice that is used to assess students’ academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class.”from the National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
99How Does Progress Monitoring Work? To implement:The student’s current levels of performance are determinedGoals are identified for learning that will take place over timeThe student’s academic performance is measured on a regular basis (weekly or monthly)Progress toward meeting the student’s goals is measured by comparing expected and actual rates or learning.Based on these measurements, teaching is adjusted as needed.
100Progress Monitoring for Literacy The following slide has references for the most widely used screening and progress monitoring tools.Both the DIBELS and Aimsweb have Spanish tools available.The Spanish DIBELS – IDEL – has a larger normative database at this time than Aimsweb (MIDE)
101Slide taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team Sources for Reliable and Valid Monitoring Tools (Sanford & Putnam, 2008)National Center on Student Progress Monitoring (studentprogress.org)DIBELS (dibels.uoregon.edu - Free to Oregon Schools) – IDEL (Spanish)AIMSWEB (www.aimsweb.com) – MIDE (Spanish)Easy CBM (www.easycbm.com)Monitoring Progress of Basic Skills (Fuchs & Fuchs; Reproducible masters)The ABC’s of CBM (Hosp, Hosp,& Howell)Slide taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team
102Outcomes Driven Model in a Picture 3. Plan and Implement Support4. Evaluate and Modify Support5. Review OutcomesOutcomes Driven Model in a PictureOutcomes Driven Model in a Picture2. Validate Need for Support1. Identify Need for SupportImplement a Research-Based InterventionIncrease intensity of Intervention: 1) Increase intervention fidelity 2) Increase time 3) Smaller Group SizeMid-year cutoff low riskNonsense Word FluencyMid-year cutoff at riskGood, 2007102
106Measures by Grade Level and Language Programs For students in English immersion program with ELD, use grade-appropriate measures in English.For students in bilingual programs, use grade-appropriate measures that match the language of reading instruction; could be L1, initially. During transition, assess in both languages. Assess in English when students are ready to exit ELD/ESL program and are not receiving L1 reading instruction.For students in dual-language programs, assess in both languages.Source: Linan-Thompson and Ortiz (2009)
107Struggling ReadersAll struggling readers need explicit instruction in each of the reading components, sometimes independently of the others until they gain some skill in that area.Then, students need to be directly taught how the components fit together in order to read successfully.
108Interventions for the Building Blocks of Reading
109How Much Time is Needed for Interventions? Students in kindergarten and first grade who receive small group interventions for 20 – 30 minutes, three to five days a week will make adequate growth in PA and phonics (Richards & Leafstedt, 2010).Some students with core phonological deficits may need more frequent and intense interventions.Ehri et al. (2001) found that interventions must be provided at least 30 minutes a week for ten weeks to achieve results.
110How Much Time is Needed for Interventions? For very low-performing students, 20 to 30 minutes, three to five times per week for ten weeks may be needed.For students with LD, generally 45 or more minutes of intervention five days per week for more than ten weeks is necessary (Vaughn & Roberts, 2007).REMEMBER – ELLs need the above, PLUS a component of oral language development added to their intervention sessions.
111Where should we begin with ELs? Typically, the first reading component to teach is phonemic awareness, a subskill of the broader term phonological awareness (PA).PA begins developing early; before children learn letter names and sounds.PA is a main pillar of early reading; without it students will struggle to learn to read.There is some research on ELs, however, that says that alphabetic knowledge may precede and facilitate the acquisition of phonological awareness in English (Chiappe, Siegel, and Gottardo, 2002).
112Phonemic Awareness“The ability to manipulate phonemes either by segmenting, blending, or changing individual phonemes within words to create new words” (Torgensen, Wagner, & Rashotte, 1994, p. 276).
113Why Teach Phonemic Awareness? Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read during their first two years of school (National Reading Panel, 2000; Linan-Thompson & Vaughn, 2007).Even beginning EL students can acquire these skills if given explicit instruction.It appears that English proficiency is not needed although students at the first stage of English will have difficulty.
114Hierarchy for Teaching PA Detecting rhyming soundsIdentifying words with the same initial soundIsolating the initial soundCategorizing onsets and rimesIsolating middle and ending soundsBlending sounds into wordsSegmenting or dividing soundsAdding phonemesDeleting phonemesSubstituting phonemes
115PA Screening MeasuresWhen choosing screening measures for ELL students consider:If the measure has been normed on ELLsDoes it allow you to accurately predict those ELL students who will later have difficulties in reading?Does it allow you to differentiate between high, average, and low performers?Does it tell you what PA skills need to be taught to the student?Does it have multiple forms so that you can administer it more than one time per year?
116PA Screening Measures Standardized assessments: Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA)Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)Curriculum-based measure:Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (DIBELS)Bottom line: the screeners should pinpoint the skills that a student has and needs, monitor progress regularly and helps you adjust instruction based on the student’s response to instruction.
117Phonemic Awareness for ELLs Must be fun and fit within children’s cultural schema.Use group settings for comfort of students.English is a stress-timed language so syllables have longer or shorter durations depending on whether they are stressed or unstressed. In many other languages, such as Spanish, syllables have approximately equal duration.
118Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle, The cow jumped over the moon, The little dog laughed to see such sport, And the dish ran away with the spoon.
119Sample Passage for Phonemic Awareness – Is This Appropriate for ELLs? A whale came by sail.A shrimp came by blimp.A snail came by rail.A loon came by balloon.An albatross came across.A stingray came by the day.A tuna came around noon-a.A sardine came at 12:19.A clam came by pram.A dolphin came a-golfin’.The pike took a hike.A shark came after dark.The electric eel came and made a big deal.
120Phonemic Awareness for ELLs It may be beneficial to teach phonemic awareness in the student’s native language.Research shows that the skill is transferable (Durgunoglu, Nagy & Hancin-Bhatt, 1993).Be aware of sounds in English that do not exist in the student’s native language. They may be more difficult to hear and say and need to be explicitly taught.
121Common Underlying Proficiencies Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt 1993L1 phonemic awareness predicts L1 word recognitionL1 phonemic awareness predicts L2 word recognitionConclusion: common underlying process—metalinguistic awareness is not language specificWould training students in PA in Spanish enhance their ability to read in English? Yes!
122Transferable SkillsThe following skills can be taught in L1 because they are transferable:Notions about print, or functional awareness, can be applied to the second language.Phonemic awareness skillsReading strategies transfer:Monitoring comprehensionIdentifying and repairing comprehension problemsForming hypothesisUsing genre characteristicsInferencingQuestioning the authorRelating new information to existing schema
123Transferable SkillsIt is imperative to know a student’s literacy skills in L1 in order to know how to help them figure out what skills will transfer to L2.Bilingual students report that they use both languages to help them in reading; older students try to translate sentences or think of similar sounding words (cognates) to comprehend an unknown word.
124PhonicsPhonics includes knowledge of letter-sound correspondence and how to apply them to reading and spelling. This is sometimes called the “alphabetic principle.” Phonics skills develop as students are introduced to the alphabet and sounds. The skills will continue to develop as they become more proficient readers.Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)
125Phonics for ELL Students Phonics: an approach where children are taught to decode words by using and applying their knowledge of the relationship between letters and individual sounds to read.In order to read, children have to understand the relationship between letters and sounds; this is especially difficult for ELL students.
126Effective Phonic Programs for ELLs Effective components:Follows a defined sequenceSkills are explicitly taughtIncludes direct teaching of sets of letter-sound relationshipsEach instructional set includes major sound-spelling relationships of both consonants and vowels.Teach linguistic patterns andBring meaning to words
127Effective Phonic Programs for ELLs Should include books and stories with decodable text and opportunities for students to write their own stories using the letter-sound relationships they are learning.For most students, two years of phonics within their reading instruction is sufficient but some may require more instruction if they are learning both a new language and a new process.Older ELL students who are literate in their L1 will need phonics instruction to learn the structure of English.
128What Elements to Include in Phonics Instruction Print awarenessAlphabetic knowledgePhonological and phonemic awarenessAlphabetic principleDecodingIrregular/high-frequency wordsReading practice with decodable textELL students, however, need more than just learning letter-sound relationships in isolation – they must apply their knowledge to text.
129Phonics for ELL Students To benefit from a phonics program, students should be at an early intermediate level of English.Phonics instruction, however, could be delivered in the native language because these skills transfer to English.Again, students may have difficulty discriminating unfamiliar sounds in English.Using students’ own writing is a good source for phonics instruction.
130Predictors of Reading Success Letter namingRegular and irregular word reading
131FluencyFluency is the ability to read quickly and accurately. When a reader is a fluent they can accurate decode and then they can read with expression. Fluency grows are students gain more knowledge of phonics and increase their vocabulary.Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)
132Fluency There are three components to fluency instruction: Accurate word recognitionAutomatic word recognitionAppropriate prosody or inflection (reading as though they understand the text)EL students need opportunities forOral repeated readingsFeedbackReading a wide range of textBeing read aloud toAccuracy is the first piece of what ELLs need; they need to bridge word meaning and fluency.
133Fluency for ELLsWith ELL students, we need to understand the source of their oral reading errors.Students must read appropriate, independent-level textFewer than five mistakes in every 100 words – or if you have more mistakes than you can count on one hand, it is too difficultELLs benefit from reading and rereading text with proficient models with support for word meaning.
134Audiobooks are a good source for becoming familiar with text Fluency for ELLsAudiobooks are a good source for becoming familiar with textAround 20 minutes per day should be devoted to fluency-related activities.Research suggests that three or four readings is effective for many students (Sindelar, Monda & O’Shea, 1990).
135Fluency for ELLsProvide explicit instruction in fluency-related activities:Make our thinking processes visible through well-structured think-aloudsOrganize lessons so a few new strategies or skills are introduced by building on learned materialPace instruction so that it is brisk but not too fast that students fall behindProvide background knowledge and new vocabulary as part of every lessonUse visual supports (pictures, gestures, graphs) so that key ideas, words and concepts are made realProvide feedback and correction
136Slides taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team Fluency provides a bridge betweenword recognition and comprehension(National Institute for Literacy (2001)Fluency “may be almost a necessary condition for good comprehension and enjoyable reading experiences” (Nathan & Stanovich, 1991, pg. 176).If a reader has to spend too much time and energy figuring out what the words are, she will be unable to concentrate on what the words mean (Coyne, Kame’enui, & Simmons, 2001).Slides taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team
137The key is to comprehend what is decoded. FluencyELL students can learn to decode fairly easily and can easily become “word callers” – decoders but not comprehenders!The key is to comprehend what is decoded.Fluency should not be expected for beginning ELLs.
138Frustration: How it Feels to Read Without Fluency THIS IS WITH 80% ACCURACY!138Slides taken from various sources thanks to DIBELS/IDEL Research Team
139The goal is to average a gain of 1.5 words per week over several weeks Fluency AssessmentThe most valuable way to monitor fluency for ELL students is through timed measures of words read correctly in one minute.It is beneficial to have students keep track of their own progress (graphing)The goal is to average a gain of 1.5 words per week over several weeks
140Fluency AssessmentThere are limited norm samples for reading fluency with ELL students but consider ELL students need to make 1.5 years progress each year in order to reach benchmarksAimsweb, Dibels, Texas Primary Reading Inventory Fluency Probes, Gray Oral Reading Texts are possible measures.To assess expressive reading:
141VocabularyVocabulary, the understanding of the meaning of words, begins developing early in a child’s life and well before they enter school. Vocabulary knowledge impacts the understanding of written words and reading comprehension.Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)
142VocabularyEnglish-speaking children must learn approximately 3,000 new words each year (Honig, 1999).Among English speakers, Hart and Risley (2003) found that there can be a difference in word knowledge as high as 30,000 depending on SES.ELL students need to learn many more words:Specific vocabulary for a lessonTo build oral vocabularyTo transition from oral to the written form of the language because in order to read words, one must have the word as part of their oral vocabulary
143More Than One “Vocabulary” Students need:Reading vocabulary – words in print that we recognize or figure out as they read and words for writing; reading vocabulary is usually larger than writing oneOral vocabulary – listening and speaking vocabularies; listening vocabulary is generally larger than speaking one
144Stages of Knowing a Word Never heard of the word beforeHeard of it but have no idea what it meansRecognize generally what it means but cannot provide a specific descriptionKnow the word well and can use it and understand meaning when the word is used orally or in writing
145Stages of Knowing a Word Goal is to move as many words as possible from stage 1 to 4.With ELL students, you must provide instruction that will result in deep understanding of the word and not so they repeat the sounds,Using ESL strategies such as pictures, gestures and objects are necessary.
146Words Represent Two Dimensions A labelOlder students may only need to learn a new label for a known conceptA conceptIf the word is not in a child’s oral or reading vocabulary; they will need to learn both the concept and then the label
147Use visual aids and graphic organizers when possible. VocabularyThis is a critical component because of how a lack of vocabulary impacts comprehension.Vocabulary should be taught in context and not through isolated word lists.Use visual aids and graphic organizers when possible.
148Fish have can A Tree Map swim fins eat tail breathe scales get caught gills
149Tree MapStudents at the beginning level can build sentences by selecting a topic, identifying verbs related to the topic, and categorizing what they know about the topic.Then, they can use the map to build sentences that tell about the topic:Fish have fins.Fish can swim.Fish can breathe.Fish have gills.
150Tree MapStudents at the intermediate level can use this to learn to combine sentences:Fish have fins and a tail so they can swim.Fish have gills so they can breathe.Students at the advanced level can practice condensing ideas into academic structures:Gills allow fish to breath, while fins and tails enable swimming.
151ComprehensionComprehension is the ability to make meaning of text. It includes phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency and vocabulary. Comprehension initially develops as listening comprehension as children hear books read aloud. Later, students put all of the components of reading together to read with understanding.Adapted from Richards and Leafstedt (2010)
152ComprehensionThe most difficult reading component for ELL students is comprehension.ELL students generally learn the foundational skills but struggle with comprehension.One reason is to read with comprehension requires an extensive vocabulary.Comprehension cannot be taught through rote instruction.
153Comprehension“The starting point for teachers is to ensure that the student has adequate word and world knowledge to understand the text that he or she is reading. Of greatest importance is to assure students that reading comprehension is ‘sense making’.”Linan-Thompson & Vaughn (2007)
154ComprehensionLinan-Thompson & Vaughn (2007) suggest you rate yourself on the following questions.(1) never (2) sometimes (3) whenever neededAsk students to predict by using title, pictures, keywordsProvide opportunities to use their background knowledge with critical components of text
155ComprehensionIdentify language demands of text and preteach what is neededTeach students to monitor the words and concepts they do not understand by taking notes; be sure to follow upAsk students question you know they can answer and then scaffold responses to meet language needsTeach students how to construct mental images (using the minds eye)
156ComprehensionModel and teach students how to clarify any confusing partsModel and teach students to develop questions about what they are reading and then question peersGive ample response time and opportunities to practice respondingProvide practice in summarizing and integrating information from text
157DiscussWhat types of interventions (and for which academic areas) are in place in your system now?Are they effective for all students?What can be done differently?
158Summarizing the Research These factors correlate with later reading achievement in L1 and/or L2:Phonological awarenessPrint awarenessAlphabetic knowledgeRapid namingAssessing these skills may provide early predictors of reading and help identify students who may benefit from additional literacy instruction.
159Adapting Instructional Materials – Proficiency Level Does the information to be presented lend itself to a visual/graphic depiction, outline, simplified prose version, audiotape, live demonstration, or use of an alternative text?Visuals and graphic depictions such as charts, graphs, Venn diagrams, maps, timelines, and clusters are suitable as introductory formats because they tend to be labeled with fewer words.Outlines, simplified prose versions, and alternative texts will offer more of a challenge.Adapted from Short (1989)
160Adapting Instructional Materials – Proficiency Level Use of original text where only specific key ideas have been highlighted (excluding extraneous details) is appropriate to intermediate level students.In general, it is best to vary the format of the presentation.Exposing students to different formats will cater to different learning styles and proficiency levels within the group as well as make lessons interesting.Adapted from Short (1989)
161Adapting Instructional Materials – Prior Knowledge In this step, lessons move from the known to unknown, and from the concrete to the abstract.Relate materials, as much as possible, to student experiences.To relate materials to personal experiences, initiate conversations that lead into class discussions linking topic to students' personal life experiences.Adapted from Short (1989)
162Adapting Instructional Materials – Text Vocabulary can be simplified, but key technical terms must be retained.New vocabulary should be clearly introduced (and defined before a reading) and reinforced within the adapted materials.Use simple verb tense, such as present, simple past, and simple future.Simplify word order in sentences by eliminating clauses and rewriting the sentence in a subject-verb-object format.Write in the active voice, limiting the use of pronouns and relative clauses.Adapted from Short (1989)
163Adapting Instructional Materials – Alternative Assignments Simplify the objectives and amount of materials student is responsible for learning.Modify the length and difficulty of assignments.Ask students to express the main ideas of their learning by drawing a picture, map, or other diagram.Use cooperative pairs or groups to share material.Allow students to respond in their native language to express knowledge.Adapted from Short (1989)
164Should we explicitly teach grammar to ELL students? What About Grammar?Should we explicitly teach grammar to ELL students?Discuss with your neighbor.
165Rationale for Teaching Grammar to ELL Students In the last decade, we have had the notion that grammar instruction had no place in a communicative classroom. Grammar was equated with “drill and kill” lessons.We seemed to think that students could absorb all the grammar they needed from communication activities and could learn it through books and experiences.We realize that grammar, like other areas, needs to be explicitly and systematically taught IN CONTEXT.
166Key Points in Grammar Instruction for ELLs Instruction must be age and language proficiency appropriateFeatures to be taught must be carefully selectedThere should be a balance between accuracy and fluency activitiesStudents must be given effective corrective feedbackIt MUST be taught in authentic contexts:Teachable momentsWith a text that frequently uses that grammatical feaetureThrough language experience activities
167Grammar for ELL Students Within the eight parts of speech, each presents specific difficulties for ELL students.NounsVerbsAdjectivesPronounsConjunctionsPrepositionsinterjections
168A person, place, thing, or quality. NounsA person, place, thing, or quality.Common ELL errors:Use lowercase letters with proper nouns.Use the definite article the with abstract nouns. (You must have the patience.)Confuse a count noun to a non-count noun. (We have many homeworks.)
177Discuss : What Do ELL Students Need? All educators (including administrators):recognize that educating ELL students if their responsibilityunderstand that they are a heterogeneous groupUse students’ languages and cultures as resourcesCreate strong links between home, school and communityProvide equitable access to core curriculum and other educational programs
178Culturally Responsive Educators Culturally responsive educators respond effectively to people with different worldviews and experiencesThey frame instruction/behavior management/assessment through multicultural frames of references
179Hasn’t Instruction Always Been Culturally Responsive? Yes, it has. However, it has been culturally responsive to students who are primarily middle class and European American.
181Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Culturally responsive pedagogy validates and affirms students’ cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference and learning styles to make curricular experiences relevant.It uses these resources in all subjects taught in schools rather than packaging “cultural” experiences and events
183Basic Instructional Sequences Pre-teach the languageProvide culturally-meaningful content and use all learning modalitiesTeach students how to record the experience beginning with using visual organizers while emphasizing hands-on experiences, talking and writingModel expectations by showing students exactly how to begin and what a finished product might look like
184Basic Instructional Sequences (p. 2) Provide small group opportunities and include English proficient role modelsAsk for student input from their cultural perspectivesMonitor comprehension by frequently clarifying concepts with students. Rather than asking if they understand and accepting a nod, ask students to restate or show their understanding.
185Instructional Strategies “Funds of Knowledge” – build in each students’ life experiences rather than viewing students’ backgrounds as a deficit.Parents should be used as resources to identify the “funds of knowledge”Include various ethnic and cultural groups within the context of core curriculumInclude multiple voices and perspectives within the curriculum such as when learning about the Civil War, etc.Give students opportunities to think critically about social issues meaningful to their daily lives
187Tier 2InstructionIntensive, explicit intervention for a specified period of time (3 to 5 days a week, 30 minutes per day for 10 to 12 weeks) provided by a general education teacher or other personnel.For ELL students, there must be additional time spend on oracy in the language of the literacy instruction.AssessmentsWeekly, biweekly, or monthly progress monitoring (CBM) during intervention.
188Tier 2 – Strategic Interventions Interventions should be taught using a direct instruction (di) approach.Direct instruction has seven critical features:An explicit step-by-step strategyDevelopment of mastery at each stepA process for correction of student errorsGradual fading from teacher-directed activities toward independent workUse of adequate and systematic practice with a range of examplesIncreased opportunities for student responsesCumulative review of newly learned concepts
189Tier 2 – Strategic Interventions Direct instruction techniques(Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997). This framework includes four major stages:(1) you explicitly show students how to use the skill or strategy (I do)(2) students practice the skill under your supervision--and you give frequent corrective feedback and praise (we do)(3) students use the skill independently in real academic situations (you do), and(4) students use the skill in a variety of other settings or situations ("generalization"). To avoid overloading your students with more new information than they can absorb, teach only one strategy at a time and make sure that your students have thoroughly mastered each strategy before teaching them another.
190Tier 2 – Strategic Interventions Effective instructionGroup formatMultiple opportunities for practiceTeaching to masteryTeaching proceduresSource: Sylvia Linan Thompson (2008)
191Example of an Explicit Correction Procedure Praise student for correct responses.Students are led to a correct answer when they have responded incorrectly; the incorrect response is ignored.In this example (Richards & Leafstedt, 2010), a correction staircase is used to ensure that students are led to the right answer as well as giving them an opportunity to respond independently to the original task.
193Teacher-Made Scripted Lessons Direct instruction principles can be applied through teacher-made scripted lessons.This instructional model is very effective with diverse learners.Research indicates that students taught through this intervention spend more time in active engagement and exhibit increases in academic achievement (Rieth & Evertson, 1988).These are explicit lessons that include (Hoover, 2009)Presentation of new materialGuided practiceModeling of proper steps and sequenceInformal initial assessment of the acquisition of acquired knowledge and skills
194Tier 2Critical Question: Does the student’s achievement continue to be both lower and slower than a “true” peer?Is the child responding to interventions but just more slowly than peers?Do interventions continue to consider child’s oral language needs and cultural background?
195Tier 2 for ELL StudentsThompson (2008) found the following specific factors appear to have contributed to the success of the intervention:Use of comprehensive reading instruction that explicitly and systematically builds English language skills during reading instructionExplicit teaching of English letter/sound correspondences, word patterns, and spelling rulesIntroduction of skills in isolation and practice in contextShe also found that while only a few ELLs have difficulty acquiring the foundational skills needed for accurate and automatic word reading, the majority struggle with:FluencyVocabularycomprehension
196Tier 2 Reading Interventions Comprehensive reading interventions that include:Phonological awarenessWord attackFluencyComprehensionVocabularyProvide multiple opportunities for practice; ELLs need practice speakingFor ELLs, a critical component is at least 10 minutes per day (in addition to reading intervention) of oral language development in the same language as their core instruction (Linan-Thompson)
197The Research on Read Naturally De La Colina, Parker, Hasbrouck, and Lara-Alecio (2001) investigated the use of Read Naturally, an intensive reading intervention that uses repeated reading, teacher modeling, and progress monitoring, using Spanish materials, in 1st and 2nd grade students.This interventions led to measurable improvements in fluency and comprehension.
198Read Well - EnglishThe effectiveness of Read Well with ELs was investigated by Denton et al. (2004). This program combines systematic, explicit phonics instruction with practice in decodable text and contextualized vocabulary and comprehension instruction. The Read Well students showed more growth in word identification but not in word attack (pseudowords) or comprehension. The researchers speculated that the lack of effect on comprehension could be that the program does not have systematic instruction for vocabulary.
199Many ELLs Continue to Struggle – Why? Language skills play a significant role in reading fluency; familiarity with syntax, morphology, and words and their meanings impact students’ reading fluency and in turn comprehension.For ELLs, working memory may be further taxed by the fact that they may also be translating words read into their home language to access meaning.
200Types of Word LearningLearning a new word representing a known concept (perhaps they know the concept in their native language).Learning a new meaning for a known wordClarifying and enriching the meaning of a known word – finer distinction or connotation in meaning and usage of words
201Components of Vocabulary Development Program Fluent, wide reading about the subject areasExplicit research-informed instruction across the subject areasBalanced instruction in content area classes (outside of English/ELD) with lesson specific terminology linked to content standards and high-use academic wordsBalanced instruction in English language arts/ELDNarrow reading of informational textsDevelopment of word knowledge (prefixes, suffixes, word roots)(Katie Kinsella)
202Components of Vocabulary Development Program Develop context analytical skillsA focus on high-incidence Latin prefixes and suffixesA focus on high-incidence academic word familiesStructured opportunities to apply newly taught words in speaking and writingMeaningful, frequent assessmentTeach students productive study systemsProvide appropriate dictionariesAccountability for explicit instruction and meaningful assessment(Katie Kinsella)
203“The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.” ~Ludwig Wittgenstein
204Stages of Knowing a Word Never heard the word beforeHeard of it but have no idea what it meansRecognize generally what it means but cannot provide a specific descriptionKnow the word well and can use it and understand meaning when the word is used orally or in writing (Dale, 1965)
205Use Direct Instruction Techniques The following slide give an example of a “script” to teach a vocabulary lesson that was developed by Sylvia Linan-Thompson.
210Effective Components Model pronouncing words Student-friendly definition and discussionChecking for understandingPowerful sentencesEf
211Characteristics of Content Area Texts Use more complex sentence structuresOrganize concepts in different waysInclude more complex ideasIntegrate graphic sources of informationIncludes domain-specific vocabularyRequire more extensive background knowledge
212Characteristics of Vocabulary to Develop Concepts Becomes abstract and is expressed with longer words with more general meaningRainPrecipitationFits into larger theoriesWater cycleFits into hierarchiesWeather system precipitation cycle rainDiaz-Rico & Weed, 2002
213Characteristics of Vocabulary to Develop Concepts Differentiates between similar conceptsSleet/hailTyphoons/hurricanesDescribes conceptual relationshipsOpposites, subsets, causality, correlationsDiaz-Rico & Weed, 2002
214Identify 1 – 2 areas in which ELLs need more practice Discuss - PlanningIdentify 1 – 2 areas in which ELLs need more practiceWhere can you increase language exposure and use?Can they practice with partners?What changes would it take?
216Tier 3 Instruction More intensive, sustained intervention Parent consent may be requested for a special education evaluationInterventions must continue to be experientially, culturally and linguistically responsive.AssessmentsWeekly or biweekly progress monitoring
217Tier 3 – Intensive Interventions Tier 3 is conceptualized differently by many researchers and practitioners.Some conclude that after students have made little or no progress in previous tiers, the data should be sufficient to make special education eligibility decisions.Others say that intensive individualized instruction is a component of Tier 3 but not necessarily special education.Some conclude that if students don’t make sufficient progress after a period of time in Tier 3 intensive interventions then a full comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation should occur after receiving signed consent.
218Tier 3Critical question: Does achievement continue to be both slower and lower than “true” peers?How many rounds of Tier 2 interventions have occurred?If the student gets referred for a comprehensive evaluation, are both native language and English assessments used and interpreted within a least biased framework?
219Tier 3 for ELL StudentsStudents who continue to struggle can be provided with more intensive interventions at this tierIntervention programs in this tier replace the core programInterventions should continue to be culturally and linguistically appropriateProgress monitoring should be done by a teamThe team should include members with expertise in culturally and linguistically responsive instruction and research-based instructional strategies
220Decision-making at Tier 3 Referral to this tier could mean a referral for a psychoeducational evaluation to determineSpecial education eligibilityDisorders in basic psychological processes (in federal definition of SLD)Patterns of strengths and weaknesses (see Technical Assistance Paper athtml)
221Difference or Disorder: Language Impairments Gutierrez-Clellen and DeCurtis (1999) studied ELL students and found that children without language impairment provided formal definitions 50% of the time whereas this number was only 19% for children with language impairment.Children without language impairment used superordinate categories (e.g., animal) rather than the generic term (e.g., “una cosa” – a thing).
222Language ImpairmentsChildren without language impairments also provided more specific details about the object.“If the quality of definitions is considered a metalinguistic skill, then it can be expected to correlate across the two languages (Durgunoglu, 2002, p. 199).The quality of formal definitions was correlated with reading comprehension across languages.
223To Ensure that ELL Students are Appropriately Placed into Special Education… Student study teams, pre-referral teams, RTI teams, and multidisciplinary teams must be knowledgeable about:Second language acquisition patternsChallenges faced by children whose L1 is not EnglishEffective instructional strategies for ELL students
224Must include Referral Process Informing parents of need for assessment planinformed consent will initiate the assessmentLegal timelines to develop assessment planTime begins to complete assessmentTimeline for holding IEP team meeting
225Prevalence of SLDStatistically about 12% of U.S. students are receiving special education services.Of those, 5% are qualified as a student with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD).Therefore, approximately 12% of your ELL students should be receiving special education services.Of those, 5% of your ELL students should be receiving special education services under the category of Specific Learning Disability (SLD)
226Reasons why ELL students are referred to Special Education #1 Poor/Low Achievement#2 Behavioral Problems#3 Oral Language Related(Acquisition or Delay)#4 Reading Problems#5 Learning Difficulties#6 Socio-emotional Difficulties#7 Diagnosis for Particular HandicappingCondition#8 Written Language#9 Low Attention Span#10 Unable to Understand and/or follow directionsSource: Ochoa, Robles-Pina, Garcia, & Breunig, 1999
227Multiple Data SourcesThe benefit of valid and reliable screening processes, instruction and interventions in Tiers 1 and II can be used as sources of data during assessment processStandardized assessments in L1 and L2 are recommended at Tier 3 as long as instruments are build on research-based cognitive ability theories such as Cattell-Horn-Carroll.The WJ-III and Woodcock-Munoz (Spanish version of WJ-III) are useful.The broad abilities measured by the above instruments have a substantial research base on the relationship of each broad ability to achievement areas.
228Second Language Acquisition vs. Possible Disability Pair ShareWhen an ELL student is not meeting expected benchmarks for academic progress, what are appropriate next steps to help rule out normal language acquisition as the primary factor?What steps are used in your district?
229Bottom Line…Students must demonstrate the academic difficulties in both languages, not just English, in order for it to possibly be a disorder.
230Remember…Realize ELL students are working very hard so their difficulties do not necessarily reflect a lack of effort, motivation, or commitment.ELL students need multiple and ongoing opportunities to try out/draft/rehearse the assigned work before it is evaluated.Examine our own prejudices, attitudes, ideologies, belief systems and how these affect our practices, decisions and behaviors.Recognize that students’ written work may reflect their culturally-determined understanding of how texts and organized and what to include.
231Critical Questions: What the Research Does Not Say - Yet What is the Best Way to Teach English Language Development?Effective second language instruction provides a combination of:explicit teachingThis helps students directly learn the vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and pronunciation of Englishopportunities to use English in meaningful waysThis helps students to practice what they have learned with partners and in other settings.Studies also indicate that students tend to achieve more when this ELD instruction occurs during a separate period, and not as a tie into content areas.Source: Alcala Turner, Flores & Parker, 2009
232What Does All This Mean to the ESL/ELD Teacher? You play a unique role in ELL students’ lives.You are both an educator and an advocate.You are a critical member of the problem-solving team when an ELL student is a focus of concern because you understand second language acquisition and cultural differences and how these can impact academic success (although both of these factors can also be considered unique strengths). You can help plan interventions appropriate for student’s language acquisition level.On the other hand, only special educators (including speech/language specialists, school psychologists, special education teachers) can determine that a students has a disability but you can help them determine when a child seems to be struggling more than his “true peers.”
233What Does All This Mean to the ESL/ELD Teacher? Besides being a child advocate, you must be a civil rights advocate.That means, you should ensure that no child is ever found eligible to receive special education services and given a disability label simply because the system has no other resource to provide the child intensive interventions.Remember, what is the percentage of any group that data shows should be receiving special education services? Services under the category of SLD?
235ReferencesAugust, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second language learners: A report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.Batsche, G., Elliott, J., Graden, J.L., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J.F., Prasse, D., et al. (2007). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.Gl., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.
236ReferencesBrown, J.E., & Doolittle, J. (2008). A cultural, linguistic, and ecological framework for response to intervention with English language learners. Boulder, CO: National Center for Culturally Relevant Educational Systems. Available for download atCarrillo, M. (1994). Development of phonological awareness and reading acquisition: A study in Spanish language. Reading and Writing, 6(3),Crockett, D.P., & Brown, J.E. (2009) . Multiculturalpractices and response to intervention. In J. Jones (Ed.), Thepsychology of multiculturalism in the schools. Bethesda, MA:National Association of School Psychology.Durgunoglu, A.Y., Nagy, W., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1993). Cross language transfer of phonological awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85,Jimenez Gonzales, J.E., & Hernandez Valle, I. (2000). Word identification and reading disorders in the Spanish language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(1),
237ReferencesKlingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Baca, L., & Hoover, J. (Eds.) (in revision). English Language Learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or learning disabilities? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Klingner, J. K., & Bianco, M. (2006). What is special about special education for culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities? In B. Cook & B. Schirmer (Eds.), What is special about special education? Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Klingner, J. K., & Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural considerations with response to intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly, 41,
238ReferencesKlingner, J. K., Sorrells, A., & Barrera, M. (2007). Three-tiered models with culturally and linguistically diverse students. In D. Haager, J. Klingner, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Validated reading practices for three tiers of intervention. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Orosco, M. J. (2007). Response to intervention with Latino English language learners: A school-based case study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder).
239Helpful WebsitesNational Center on Response to Intervention rti4success.orgNational Center for Progress MonitoringBarahona Center for Study of Books in Spanish
240For More Information… Julie Esparza Brown, EdD Assistant Professor in Special EducationPortland State UniversityP.O. Box 751Portland, OR(503)