8000 BCE- 600 CE Agricultural Revolution- Maize, Beans, Avocados, Squashes, Gourds, Chilies were all used. Societies developed across Latin America. Population grew do to food surplus. Specialized skills developed. Olmec- first known civilization builders. They built Pyramids, courtyards and tombs and have influence many future societies. There trading network reached as far north as Mexico City to Honduras in the South. Their art motifs of Jaguar played a large role in their society. Zapotec- unique Society that developed a form of hieroglyphics and a calendar. They built Monte Alban which eventually would turn into an amazing, prosperous city. Andes Region- In 900 BC Chavin culture in highlands of Peru. In 200 BC- AD 600 the Nazca Culture built irrigation systems. During this time the Moche Culture also existed. They were very advanced. They had doctors, war, musicians and women made clothes. They were artistic and had a wide range of crops.
600 CE- 1450 Mayans - Southern Mexico to Northern Central America. Tikal- center of Mayans. City States. Great architecture like Pyramids, Temples, Palaces and very important statues of their Gods. Trade and Agriculture was the basis of their life. Social Classes of Nobles, Merchants, Specialized Workers and then the Peasants. Religion Shaped Mayan Life. Polytheistic. They made sacrifices to their Gods. The calendar they created has the same concept that we use today of 365.25 days in a year. Teotihuaca was one of their monumental cities. Aztecs - Poor Nomads. In 1325 Tenochtitlan became the capital of the Aztec empire. In 1428 they made the Triple Alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan. 5- 15 million people in over 38 provinces. Military based power. Brutal to cities that didn’t pay them tribute. Nobles like Military Leaders, priests and government officials ruled. Huge Trading Network. Religion was huge for Aztecs. They had a lot of sacrifices of Prisoners of War. Incans - Valley of Cuzco. Polytheistic. Conquered all of Peru and neighboring lands. They ruled over 2500 miles of land along the Western Coast of South America. There were 16 million people in 80 provinces. They were civil, but used force when necessary. Cuzco flourished. Mita System- labor system where everyone had to do something a few times a month for the Incans. They had an economy similar to a Socialist one where they worked for the government but were taken care of. Quipu- only Source of keeping records. Civil War broke out when their king died.
1450- 1750 European Imperialism Columbus- finds the Americas for Europe to explore Pedro Alvares, Amerigo Vespuse, Ferdinand Magellan, Hernando Cortes, Francisco Pizzaro- conquistadors who explored Latin America. Cortes- conquered the Aztecs Pizzaro- conquered Inca empire Mayans were conquered by Spanish explorers in Yucatan and Guatemala. Peninsulares- Spanish settlers to the Americas. Mestizo- mixed between Spanish and Native American Encomienda- labor system that forced natives to work for Spanish landlords. Portugal took over Brazil Christianity spread Atlantic Slave Trade- began with nearly 300,000 Africans transported to the Americas. It ended at 9.5 million Triangle Trade- merchants exchanged goods for Slaves. Middle Passage- route from Africa to Latin America with the Slaves Columbian Exchange- Latin America gave them crops they’ve never seen before and they gave Latin America crops and Animals they’ve never seen. They refers to the Europeans.
1750-1914 Haitian Revolution- Francais Toussaint L’Ouverature led the revolt. Creoles wanted positions in the government. This led to widespread revolts against European Countries in Latin America. Europe is in several battles like with Napoleon and cannot defend themselves against Latin America rebellions. Therefore, they grant these colonies free. Portugal grants Brazil freedom and appoints their Prince to lead them. Migrations of Europeans and Asians to Latin America. Latin America Nationalism
1914- Present Latin America is effected by the Great Depression. They depend heavily on foreign capital like the United States. When these countries economies decline, they don’t send money into Latin america, and therefore, Latin America’s economy declines. Fidel Castro brings communism to Latin America. Improved Government Good Neighbor Policy- U.S. controls a heavy portion of Latin America finances and in return will help their police control rebellions. Panama Canal Tension in Latin America as Cold War begins Women gain rights in Latin America Still Major Problems in South America today is gang crime and drugs.
Continuity There were a few major continuities in Latin America throughout their History. 1. The crops such as Maize and beans have been a big part of their agriculture from the beginning to the Present. 2. Labor Systems and Slavery continued from early societies to recent times. 3. Trade from early societies through the Present is a major source of their economy.