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Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20151 Chapter 2: History and Business.

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Presentation on theme: "Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20151 Chapter 2: History and Business."— Presentation transcript:

1 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20151 Chapter 2: History and Business

2 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20152 Demands for Businesses are the Product of the Times u Postwar years (1945–55) u Growth years (1955–70) u Time of Trouble (1970–80) u International Era (1980–90) u Now in a global era (1990–now)

3 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20153 Postwar Era (1945–55) u Reconstruction worldwide u Pent-up demand u U.S. one of few able to meet demand u Characterized by –emphasis on supply/demand –Efficiency –Production and distribution issues

4 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20154 The Growth Years (1955–70) u Growth via international expansion becomes a priority for firms from more nations, particularly Europe and Japan. u Developing economies no longer willing to be developed, want organizations to play more active development roles. u Managerial challenges: –Political risk analysis –Centralized ownership and control.

5 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20155 Time of Trouble (1970s) u Watershed years u Growing nationalism u Business roles rejected u Need to look beyond domestic concerns u Managerial tasks: –How to be international, ways and means –Monitoring activities outside home country –More strategic in thinking.

6 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20156 New International Era (1980–90) u New ways to use resources u Multiple business actors u Increasing speed of activity u Managerial challenges: –Structural shifts –New emphasis on processes, e.g., information systems.

7 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20157 Global Era (1990–now) u Amorphous borderlessness in all spheres of activity. u A rapid and discontinuous rate of change. u Increased complexity and uncertainty. u Growing numbers of and diversity among participants in global events.

8 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20158 Global Enterprises u Well-known multi- and transnational businesses –Public holding –Private holding u Global start ups/born globals u Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) u Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) u Cross-sector alliances u Global gangs and terrorism

9 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/20159 Adopt a Broad Sense of What Globalization is and What it Means u Globalization includes increased permeability of boundaries of almost every kind, including fairly tangible physical borders such as time and space, nation- states and economies, industries and organizations and less tangible borders such as cultural norms or assumptions about "how we do things around here."

10 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/ In Your Groups u Prepare and report to the class: –What are the distinguishing characteristics of this type of global enterprise? –What makes it global rather than domestic? –Provide some examples of this kind of enterprise.

11 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/ Implications for Managing a Particular Organization A growing need to transcend external boundaries as well as internal borders, barriers, and boundaries to action.

12 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/ Arthur Andersen, 1999 study of the global leader (Institute for Strategic Change) u Thinks globally u Recognizes opportunities u Creates a shared vision by developing and empowering people u Appreciates cultural diversity u Builds teamwork and partnerships u Embraces changes u Shows technical savvy u Lives the values espoused

13 Barbara Parker, Seattle University4/30/ What Does this Mean to You? u Heads up in terms of time and place and where you and various management schemes “fit” vis-à-vis globalization.


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