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Latin America, Africa, and The Middle East Jake HChloe S. Kalie R. Haley S.

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Presentation on theme: "Latin America, Africa, and The Middle East Jake HChloe S. Kalie R. Haley S."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin America, Africa, and The Middle East Jake HChloe S. Kalie R. Haley S.

2 Angola Soviet Intervention came as a result of civil war Feared that Soviet’s successes in Angola would snowball into Soviets expanding in Africa Kissinger injected US into Angola Soviets not intimidated Congress would not back Kissinger

3 Cuba and Chile Nixon concerned with spread of communism in Western hemisphere In Chile, Nixon was worried they would elect Marxist leader Allende. After they did, the US killed Chile’s economy to get him out of there. Replaced by right-wing Pinochet.

4 Reagan Doctrine & The Third World Reagan blamed Soviets for tensions in Third World Attempted to make difference in Latin America Caribbean Basin Initiative* Also concerns with Nicaragua Sandinistas versus Contras Boland Amendments Lies about Iran

5 Demise of Human Rights Kirkpatrick Position Ideals Reagan on democracy Central America Free elections Military

6 The Reagan Doctrine, International Terrorism and the Middle East Reagan on terrorism Libyan colonel Israel and Palestinian conflict Indigenous conflicts Conflict with Lebanon Invasion

7 African Crises Problems were created because the both the Soviets and the Americans felt pressure to advance their ideologies globally. A point of conflict in 1977 was Ethiopia, Soviets had begun to airlift arms and Cuban troops to hold down rebellion of the Ogaden province advanced by Somalia’s army. The conflict between Somalia (client of the US) and Ethiopia (client of the USSR) created Cold War confrontation in third world countries. Tension heightened with Somalia’s request that the US to stem the flow of the counteroffensive. The request by Somalia further separated Brzezinski and Vance. Brzezinski urged President Carter to dispatch an aircraft carrier to Somalia in a show of determination and to check on Soviet expansion into the Horn of Africa. He cautioned Carter that if the US did not appear forceful enough Western interests in African and Southwestern Asia would be jeopardized along with the SALT II treaty. In opposition to Brzezinski, Vance believed the situation in African would be best left in the local context rather than as an aspect of the Cold War. Furthermore Vance did not want Soviet Actions in Africa recognized as part of SALT. When Carter rejected Brzezinski’s plan in favor of Vance’s he was keeping excess tension from arising. To solve the crises diplomatically resisted creating more violence.

8 March 14, 1978 the Somalis completed their withdraw from the Ogaden just as Vance had predicted- without US help. Keeping involvement to a minimum in the third world theatre lessened the threat of full scale war. Despite the solution without US involvement working well, Brzezinski felt that not wielding power would prove to hurt the US in future years. The conflict between Ethiopia and Somalia also served to display the Soviets unwillingness to cooperate with the US. Consequently Carter became involved in confrontation about Soviet involvement into Africa. The Soviets faced accusations about an incursion Zaire headed by Angolan-based exiles from Zaire’s Shaba (Katanga) province. The Soviets lack of cooperation in Africa did not help ease the Cold War, the US did not want to deal with the manipulative nature of the Soviets. The Soviets also made it more difficult to promote racial justice and majority rule in South Africa. Eventually the focus became less of a promotion of equality and more so one of containment of Soviet influence.

9 Latin America The Carter administration wanted to use Latin America as a centerpiece for human rights, as opposed to traditional US support of oppressive dictatorships- as long as they were anti- communist. The administration did not think the Soviets had opportunities to expand their influence into Latin America. Military dictatorships in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile were singled out for their notoriously poor human rights records. Pressure to change human rights policies was not distributed evenly throughout Latin America, however. Argentina was treated to reduction of economic assistance (including blocked loans through the Inter-American Development Bank) and halted sale of commercial weaponry. The strained relationship with Brazil did not improve during the Carter administration as much as he tried to ignore their violations of human rights. The US-Chilean relationship also took a turn for the worst when Chile refused to deliver trial in the US for three Chileans accused of murder in Washington. The apparent victory the administration had in dealing with Panama (in attempt to rectify the relationship long scarred from the Panama Canal) came at a price. In giving away mass amounts of money the US later did not have the funds to support the SALT II Treaty. With Cuba, Brzezinski’s force that he wanted to display in Africa created a poor situation. In claiming that the Cubans had built up forces in Angola before they had Castro realized that he had nothing to lose and that he should send Cuban troops to Africa.

10 The Middle East President Carter was the first to recognize that the unresolved Palestinian problem was the heart of issues in the Middle East. To make sure the Palestinians had a homeland of their own he worked to shift the limited goals of Kissinger’s shuttle diplomacy to a more comprehensive approach that included major parties to the Arab-Israeli conflict including the Soviets. The attempted peace approach was not successful because of Israel’s refusal to participate. Instead of Israel rejecting the Geneva talks scheduled for December 1, 1977 they undermined them by offering Egypt a separate peace that would leave other parties without progress. Sadat (of Egypt) decided to accept the conditions of the Sinai Peninsula for recognition of Israel. Sadat was enthusiastically support by Carter for his decision for peace, but there was no support from other Arab nations, eliminating any chance for Peace in the Middle East.

11 Nicaragu a President Carter was an advocate of human rights, and pushed for Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza to initiate reforms in human rights. When Somoza’s reign was clearly ending the Organization of American States was appealed to aide in prevention of Sandinista takeover. However, due to incompliance of Carter’s previous wishes (of the installation of human rights) the OAS did not intervene. Sandinista victory followed shortly. The US Administration later realized the importance of making amends with Nicaragua (avoiding another Cuba-like situation). Late in 1979, over 250 million dollars were approved in World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank loans to Nicaragua. But by mid-1980 when Congress approved the aid, the Sandinista government had progressed beyond the need of US help and the relationship between the US and Nicaragua appeared to be modeling that of the USA and Cuba. “Contra” anti-Sandinista forces in Nicaragua received up to a million dollars in covert funds. The direct support of forces against the Sandinistas was deemed necessary when revolutionaries in El Salvador were assisted by the Sandinistas- they were attempting to overthrow the El Salvadorian military government. After President Carter left office President Regan developed a fixation with the overthrowing the sandinistas.

12 Iran (1979) Crisis follows the removal of the shah (Mohammed Reza Pahlavi by Islamic fundamentalists (militants) These militants opposed the shah’s efforts at modernization, close ties with United States and oppression of opposition This removal is detrimental to US because the shah’s Iran opposed Soviet expansion into the Persian Gulf Also because Iran was a good ally to have based oil industry In return for good relations, US had given shah’s regime much support in form of weaponry Shah replaced by Khomeini Feb. 9  strained relations with US which eventually come to a head November 4 Iranian militants take Americans hostage from embassy and demand the return of the shah to Iran (to be killed) Shah was receiving cancer treatments in US Pres. Carter refuses  hostages held until end of his presidency Contributes to Carter losing election to Regan

13 Afghanistan (1978) Soviets invade Afghanistan in order to maintain Marxist Kremlin regime (who came to power through a coup) Coup had made Islamic group (Mujahedeen) mad and Soviets feared that unrest in Afghanistan could lead to unrest in Soviet Muslim areas Soviets act under claim that invasion was in response to invitation from Afghan President Karmal as well as obligations under Afghan-Soviet Friendship Treaty US (national security advisor Brzezinski) feels it must react quickly to avoid Soviets gaining control of oil in Persian Gulf region Carter restores the old containment policy in lieu of détente  Carter Doctrine (US would defend Persian Gulf region) Cut back sales of high technology to Soviets; embargo on US grain sales to USSR; withdraws US from Olympics in Moscow  CARTER MEANT BUSINESS. Also killed SALT II Treaty by asking Senate to postpone consideration Reinstates required registration for possible future draft

14 Afghanistan (1978; cont.) New US foreign diplomacy Carter expands US-Chinese defense relationship to prevent Soviet expansion into Central Asia Chinese permitted to purchase military hardware and high technology denied to Soviets China granted most favored nation trade status Carter attempts to restore relations with Pakistan Aid restored; country becomes major supply base and sanctuary for Mujahedeen However, this makes newly positive US-Indian relations go bad  India had been trying to get out from Soviet influence

15 Brzezinski (National Security Advisor to Carter) Brzezinski’s views start to hold more weight for President Carter than Secretary of State Vance, who did not want US-Soviet relationship to get openly hostile Vance eventually resigns  successor (Muskie) is no more successful over Brzezinski Because of abandonment of détente, pushed by Brzezinski, European NATO members become mad NATO members worried that US forces assigned to them would be transferred and reassigned to Gulf region

16 Carter Presidency All Carter’s efforts at improving diplomacy with USSR were basically moot by the end of his presidency, in large part due to the fiascos of the Middle East and the abandonment of détente. However, Soviets were also to blame for end of détente  invasions and involvement in Angola, Ethiopia, Indochina and Afghanistan could be viewed as an open dismissal of US-Soviet relations.

17 The Persian Gulf Reagan administration did not hesitate to intervene in the Persian Gulf. The importance of the region formed during Truman’s presidency The region became even more important during Reagan’s term after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the eruption of war between Iraq and Iran in September 1980. USSR suggested to the US that they take a common approach to the problems in the Gulf. The two superpowers both wanted to end the Iraqi-Iranian war and both (1982) supported Iraq. The Reagan administration did not want to work with the Soviets in the Third World, and no serious attempt was made to find a common conclusion to the war.  The administration tilted more heavily towards Iraq verse Iran because it hoped that U.S aid to the Iraqis would end their dependence on the Soviet Union, and also enable Iraq to serve as a safeguard against Iranian expansion in the Gulf. Moscow responded to the U.S policy by increasing its assistance in Iraq, making that country the largest Third World export market for Soviet arms.

18 The Persian Gulf Cont. The US became involved in the defense of the Persian Gulf shipping lanes, a policy that caused it to clash militarily with both Iran and Iraq. The enhanced US naval presence in the Gulf contributed to the loss of many lives (military and civilians).  May 1987- Iraqi fighter pilot confused the destroyer U.S.S Stark for an Iranian ship. (killed 37 US sailors)  The US accepted the compensation offered by Saddam Hussein.  1988- captain of the U.S.S Vincennes mistakenly shot down an Iranian passenger plane. (over 100 civilians killed)  December 1988- Iranian, Syrian, or Libyan agents placed a bomb on a Pan Am flight from London. (killed 270)

19 Soviet Retreat from the Third World January 25, 1988- at the state of Union address, Reagan said that there could be no settlement of the Afghanistan problem until the soviets withdrew all their troops. April 14, 1988- agreement signed by conflicting Afghan parties. Required withdraw of all Soviet troops (between May 15 th, 1988 and February 15 th, 1989) Vietnam announced that it would withdraw half of its total forces from cambodia. December 1988- Soviet and US compiled an end to the conflict in Angola. Provided for free elections to end Namibia’s struggle for independence.

20 Soviet Retreat from the Third World cont. Soviet Leader, Gorbachev proposed negotiations to resolve the Amur-Ussuri River border dispute and would reduce the number of Soviet troops in Mongolia as well as in Afghanistan. Gorbachev also attempted to repair Soviet relations with Israel and Egypt. Moscow restored diplomatic relations with Israel. Egypt allowed the Soviets to reopen their consulates in Alexandria and Port Said. 1988- Egypt also endorsed Moscow’s calls for an international conference on the Middle East and asserted that the Soviet Union should play a leading role in the conference.

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