Voluntary delay of action despite expecting to be worse off because of the delay
* Timing of rewards and punishments * Task aversion * Irrational beliefs * Low self-efficacy * Self-handicapping * Low conscientiousness * Over-optimism about ability to work under pressure * Avoidance
* Time management problem—procrastinators know what they should be doing even when they are not—which is why detailed schedules don’t help!
* Have completed tasks under pressure in the past only because you had no choice. * Success only rewards the poor behavior * Continues the procrastination cycle
* Feeling of strength and purpose * Peace of mind * Feeling in charge of one’s life
* 42% of college students usually or always procrastinate despite consequences of poor quality work, missed deadlines & lower grades. * 95% of procrastinators want to change! * Is it a habit or personality trait?
* Task seems difficult * Task is time-consuming * Lack of knowledge or skills (who wants to make mistakes?) * Fears—don’t want others to see mistakes
* Task seems difficult * Task is time-consuming * Lack of knowledge or skills (who wants to make mistakes?) * Fears—don’t want others to see mistakes * Tell yourself: * This isn’t hard * Won’t take long * I know how or can learn as I go * No one else cares if I do it “right”
* Perfectionism * To resolve—self-assurance * Praise what you have done * Impossible to eradicate all mistakes
* ANGER * Realizing that showing anger in this way only harms self
* Low Frustration Tolerance— easily overwhelmed. Idea that situations are unfair! Too hard! * Whining and complaining * To overcome—get help. Postpone competing desires. Realize you get what you want when you put in the work.
* Putting Self Down * Doubts and minimizes abilities and past successes (dumb luck) How to resolve? practice accepting compliments figure out why success is scary compliment self
* Realize you are delaying unnecessarily * Discover real reasons for delay * Dispute the reasons and overcome * Begin the task
* Get everything ready * Do the work/project 5 minutes * At end of 5 minutes make decision on whether to continue or quit * (5 minutes work is a lot more than you would have done otherwise….)
* Make tasks look small and easy (I have learned many muscles before) * Do small part each time—break up into tasks * Tell others your plan—use peer pressure in positive way * Choose role model—study with partner * Establish priorities
When you delay—it reinforces negative attitudes toward task