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Presentation on theme: "INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. THE GERUND functions THE GERUND functions."— Presentation transcript:


2 THE GERUND functions THE GERUND functions

3 Subject of the sentence :  Seeing is believing  Drinking and driving is really dangerous. Complement of a preposition :  She came in without greeting anyone.  Check the petrol before travelling.

4  Complement of a verb.  It often comes after the following:  Admit  Avoid  Consider  Deny  Detest  Dislike/like  enjoy  Finish  Go + leisure activity  Imagine  Involve  Love/hate  Mean  Miss  Postpone  Practise  Recommend  Risk  suggest

5  The thief admitted stealing the money.  Do you go shopping every week?  A dog can’t avoid barking to strangers, it’s in its nature.  Being a student involves putting in a lot of time revising lessons.  I’d never risk cheating in a test for fear of being caught.  Just imagine travelling all around the world! That would be amazing.  I’ve never enjoyed reading a book so much. It’s been both interesting and great fun!  The waiter suggested ordering lobster. He was right; expensive, but really delicious!

6 As complement of some phrases: Can't help Can't stand Spend (time) Feel like Don't mind/would mind Be/get used to  It's no use  It's worth  Look forward to  I'm looking forward to hearing from you.  I can't help feeling sorry for him.  It’s no use crying over past errors.  I' m not used to driving in Manhattan traffic.  Would you mind opening the window, please?  She spent seven hours making Christmas dinner.  Is the film worth seeing?

7 THE INFINITIVE functions

8 Subject of a sentence: It is sometimes the subject of a sentence, but then it refers to a single occasion (not in general):  To marry you is the best thing I've ever done.  To divorce would be stupid.

9  Complement of a verb.  An infinitive usually comes after the following: Agree Afford Appear Ask Beg Choose Dare Decide Expect Fail Hate Help Hesitate Hope Learn manage Offer plan Pretend Promise Refuse Seem Used to Want wish

10  John always manages to get what he wants.  Sylvia hoped to find a job in advertising, but she refused to work long hours, so she decided to quit.  Will you agree to leave Madrid and come to live in Toledo?  There appears to be a mistake in these calculations.  She helps to do the laundry and the ironing.  Did you learn to drive in that driving school?  I wish to help you, and I promise to do my best to get on with you.  We used to eat grilled bread with a sprinkle of olive oil for breakfast for many years.

11 Verb + object + infinitive Advise Allow Ask Encourage Forbid Help Invite Like Persuade Remind Recommend Request Teach Tell Want Warn

12  I don’t permit my employees to be late.  My sister wanted me to help her with her homework.  If you forbid everybody to smoke in public areas, more people will stop smoking.  The boss persuaded me to remain in the company.  I recommend everybody to take exercise regularly. It makes you feel great.  I would like the company to be successful, but the sales keep going down.  The doctor advised the patient to stay in bed for three days.  If you ask David to lend you money, he’ll probably say no.  Sally reminded Bob to brush his teeth.

13 Some verbs are followed by gerund/infinitive with no change of meaning:  She started to make a cake/making a cake for the party.  I prefer to climb/climbing in the mountains after it has snowed.  Why don't you continue to make/making plans after dinner?  Most of my classmates intend to take/taking a scientific degree  As the temperature fell, the baby began to shake/shaking.

14 Infinitive or gerund with change of meaning. Regret  I regret upsetting my boyfriend, and I hope he’ll forgive me soon.  I regret to tell you that you no longer work here, you are fired. Try  She tried taking an aspirin, but the pain didn't stop.  Try to concentrate or you will fail the answers.

15 Forget  I'll never forget seeing George Clooney in Cannes.  Don't forget to bring your passport. Remember  Please remember to send Mary my regards.  She didn't remember meeting us last summer. Stop  Why don't we stop to have a coffee?  I'm going to stop smoking one of these days.

16 Other structures with the infinitive Following many adjectives (happy, sad, glad, afraid, busy, tired, easy, nice...) In the structure adj. + enough + to + infinitive In the structure too + adj. + to + infinitive In the phrases would like, would love, would prefer.  The boy was happy to get his ice-cream.  Joanna was too tired to run the marathon.  It's never too late to master a new skill.  The water is not hot enough to boil.  I'd like to eat some plain yoghurt with honey for dessert.  Would you prefer to stay overnight and leave tomorrow?

17 Verbs followed by infinitive without “to” (base form) Verbs of perception: see, feel, hear, notice, watch. These verbs can also go with a gerund to signal that the peception doesn’t last.  I haven't seen Selena Gomez dance in her latest videoclip.  We heard Coldplay sing in Madrid. Compare to  Can't you hear a wolf howling in the distance? With the verbs let and make.  Dad made us learn five new words every day.  Let me play in the garden, please!

18 Additional points: the noun followed by the infinitive: Some nouns can take infinitive as complement: chance, hope, promise, wish,intention, refusal, etc. or we can use the infinitive with nouns when we want to say the purpose or the effect that they will have:  I have no intention to go.  They made a promise to change for the better.  Have you got a key to open this cabinet?  We all need a friend to trust.

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