Presentation on theme: "INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. THE GERUND functions THE GERUND functions."— Presentation transcript:
INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS
THE GERUND functions THE GERUND functions
Subject of the sentence : Seeing is believing Drinking and driving is really dangerous. Complement of a preposition : She came in without greeting anyone. Check the petrol before travelling.
Complement of a verb. It often comes after the following: Admit Avoid Consider Deny Detest Dislike/like enjoy Finish Go + leisure activity Imagine Involve Love/hate Mean Miss Postpone Practise Recommend Risk suggest
The thief admitted stealing the money. Do you go shopping every week? A dog can’t avoid barking to strangers, it’s in its nature. Being a student involves putting in a lot of time revising lessons. I’d never risk cheating in a test for fear of being caught. Just imagine travelling all around the world! That would be amazing. I’ve never enjoyed reading a book so much. It’s been both interesting and great fun! The waiter suggested ordering lobster. He was right; expensive, but really delicious!
As complement of some phrases: Can't help Can't stand Spend (time) Feel like Don't mind/would mind Be/get used to It's no use It's worth Look forward to I'm looking forward to hearing from you. I can't help feeling sorry for him. It’s no use crying over past errors. I' m not used to driving in Manhattan traffic. Would you mind opening the window, please? She spent seven hours making Christmas dinner. Is the film worth seeing?
THE INFINITIVE functions
Subject of a sentence: It is sometimes the subject of a sentence, but then it refers to a single occasion (not in general): To marry you is the best thing I've ever done. To divorce would be stupid.
Complement of a verb. An infinitive usually comes after the following: Agree Afford Appear Ask Beg Choose Dare Decide Expect Fail Hate Help Hesitate Hope Learn manage Offer plan Pretend Promise Refuse Seem Used to Want wish
John always manages to get what he wants. Sylvia hoped to find a job in advertising, but she refused to work long hours, so she decided to quit. Will you agree to leave Madrid and come to live in Toledo? There appears to be a mistake in these calculations. She helps to do the laundry and the ironing. Did you learn to drive in that driving school? I wish to help you, and I promise to do my best to get on with you. We used to eat grilled bread with a sprinkle of olive oil for breakfast for many years.
I don’t permit my employees to be late. My sister wanted me to help her with her homework. If you forbid everybody to smoke in public areas, more people will stop smoking. The boss persuaded me to remain in the company. I recommend everybody to take exercise regularly. It makes you feel great. I would like the company to be successful, but the sales keep going down. The doctor advised the patient to stay in bed for three days. If you ask David to lend you money, he’ll probably say no. Sally reminded Bob to brush his teeth.
Some verbs are followed by gerund/infinitive with no change of meaning: She started to make a cake/making a cake for the party. I prefer to climb/climbing in the mountains after it has snowed. Why don't you continue to make/making plans after dinner? Most of my classmates intend to take/taking a scientific degree As the temperature fell, the baby began to shake/shaking.
Infinitive or gerund with change of meaning. Regret I regret upsetting my boyfriend, and I hope he’ll forgive me soon. I regret to tell you that you no longer work here, you are fired. Try She tried taking an aspirin, but the pain didn't stop. Try to concentrate or you will fail the answers.
Forget I'll never forget seeing George Clooney in Cannes. Don't forget to bring your passport. Remember Please remember to send Mary my regards. She didn't remember meeting us last summer. Stop Why don't we stop to have a coffee? I'm going to stop smoking one of these days.
Other structures with the infinitive Following many adjectives (happy, sad, glad, afraid, busy, tired, easy, nice...) In the structure adj. + enough + to + infinitive In the structure too + adj. + to + infinitive In the phrases would like, would love, would prefer. The boy was happy to get his ice-cream. Joanna was too tired to run the marathon. It's never too late to master a new skill. The water is not hot enough to boil. I'd like to eat some plain yoghurt with honey for dessert. Would you prefer to stay overnight and leave tomorrow?
Verbs followed by infinitive without “to” (base form) Verbs of perception: see, feel, hear, notice, watch. These verbs can also go with a gerund to signal that the peception doesn’t last. I haven't seen Selena Gomez dance in her latest videoclip. We heard Coldplay sing in Madrid. Compare to Can't you hear a wolf howling in the distance? With the verbs let and make. Dad made us learn five new words every day. Let me play in the garden, please!
Additional points: the noun followed by the infinitive: Some nouns can take infinitive as complement: chance, hope, promise, wish,intention, refusal, etc. or we can use the infinitive with nouns when we want to say the purpose or the effect that they will have: I have no intention to go. They made a promise to change for the better. Have you got a key to open this cabinet? We all need a friend to trust.