Presentation on theme: "GRAMMAR: PHRASAL VERBS Petr Novotný Gymnázium Dr. Karla Polesného Znojmo."— Presentation transcript:
GRAMMAR: PHRASAL VERBS Petr Novotný Gymnázium Dr. Karla Polesného Znojmo
WHAT IS A PHRASAL VERB A PHRASAL VERB consists of VERB + ADVERB eg. take off (=vzlétnout) The two words form an idiom. The meaning of the phrasal verb is different from the verb alone. Examples of phrasal verbs: break down (=porouchat se), call off (=odvolat), carry out (=uskutečnit), give up (=vzdát se), try on (=vyzkoušet si) etc.
WHAT IS A PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERB Sometimes phrasal verb is followed by a preposition, which links it to a noun phrase. In such cases we may speak about PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERBS. A PHRASAL PREPOSITIONAL VERB consists of VERB + ADVERB + PREPOSITION Eg: I look forward to Christmas. (=Těším se na Vánoce.) Examples of phrasal-prepositional verbs: fall out with (=pohádat se), put up with (=vyrovnat se), look down on (=dívat se spatra), do away with (=vypořádat se), etc.
TYPICAL FEATURES  In phrasal verbs, the verb is usually a common short (one-syllabic) English verb: add, ask, be, break, bring, check, come, cut, do, fall, get, give, keep, let, look, make, put, run, set, take, turn, work The adverb is usually an adverb of place: about, along, around, away, back, by, down, forward, off, on, out, over, under, up
TYPICAL FEATURES  Many phrasal verbs can be replaced with one word, which is often more formal. Usually it is a long (polysyllabic) word of foreign origin. PHRASAL VERBONE VERBMEANING blow upexplodevybuchnout break outescapeuniknout put up withtoleratevyrovnat se (s) go oncontinuepokračovat give upsurrendervzdát se hand outdistributerozdávat put offpostponeodložit put outextinguishuhasit take afterresemblepodobat se turn downrefuseodmítnout etc
INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS Some phrasal verbs are intransitive – this means they are used without an object. They are easy to use. Examples of intransitive verbs: When I grow up, I want to be a pilot. (=become an adult) My car broke down. (=stopped working) We had a plan, but it fell through. (=failed) My salary is just enough to get by. (=survive with a little) They turned up at the last moment. (=arrived) I woke up at 7 o'clock. (=stopped sleeping)
TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS  Some phrasal verbs are transitive – this means they are followed by an object. Eg. I gave up smoking a year ago. (=stopped) phrasal verb object a) If the object is a noun phrase, it may come before or after the adverb. Eg: She brought up the children. or: She brought the children up.
TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS  b) However, if the object is a personal pronoun, it must come before the adverb. The phrasal verb must then be separated into two parts: Eg: She brought them up. not: She brought up them. Eg: He made it up. not: He made up it.
PECULIARITIES Often there are parallel examples with a verb + the same words, where one is meaning is literal and the other one is phrasal (idiomatic). Examples: He looked up and saw the stars. (=podívat se nahoru) He looked up the word in the dictionary. (=vyhledat) Please don't bring up the piano. (=vynést nahoru) Please don't bring up the problem. (=dát k úvaze)
EXERCISE  Complete the gaps with the correct adverb from the box: a)I've tried to give smoking many times. b) Can I try these jeans? c) Never put till tomorrow what you can do today. d) He looks on all his colleagues – he thinks he is the best. e) My sister is very ill, so I must look her. f) She fell with him, but then they got back together. g) It's time to do with the bad habits. h) The wedding plans fell when the groom fell ill. i) We had just enough money to get. up on off down out afteraway by downoff onout throughup away through by after
EXERCISE  Rewrite the sentences. Use phrasal verbs instead of the words in bold: a) We continued working until midnight. b) He was offered a new job, but he refused it. c) We managed to extinguish the fire by ourselves. d) Could you please distribute the brochures? e) Who do you resemble more – your mother or your father? We went on working until midnight. He was offered a new job, but he turned it down. We managed to put out the fire by ourselves. Could you please hand out the brochures? Who do you look after more... ?
BIBLIOGRAPHY Leech, G.: An A–Z of English Grammar and Usage. London, Nelson English Language Teaching 1989.