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Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core”  SONET  DWDM  Redes de acceso.

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Presentation on theme: "Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core”  SONET  DWDM  Redes de acceso."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core”  SONET  DWDM  Redes de acceso  Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al.  Redes inalámbricas: IEEE et al.  Otras tecnologías

2 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view  End systems  Host computer  Network applications  Access networks  Local area networks  communication links  Network core:  routers  network of networks local ISP company network regional ISP router workstation server mobile Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 3 rd edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July 2004.

3 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view  Protocols control sending, receiving of msgs  e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, FTP, PPP  Internet: “network of networks”  loosely hierarchical  public Internet versus private intranet  Internet standards  RFC: Request for comments  IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force local ISP company network regional ISP router workstation server mobile

4 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Network Components (Examples) Fibers Coaxial Cable LinksInterfaces Switches/routers Ethernet card Wireless card Large router Switch

5 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Juniper Routers

6 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Internet structure: network of networks  roughly hierarchical  at center: “tier-1” ISPs (e.g., MCI, Sprint, AT&T, Cable and Wireless), national/international coverage  treat each other as equals Tier 1 ISP Tier-1 providers interconnect (peer) privately NAP Tier-1 providers also interconnect at public network access points (NAPs)

7 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint Sprint US backbone network Seattle Atlanta Chicago Roachdale Stockton San Jose Anaheim Fort Worth Orlando Kansas City Cheyenne New York Pennsauken Relay Wash. DC Tacoma DS3 (45 Mbps) OC3 (155 Mbps) OC12 (622 Mbps) OC48 (2.4 Gbps)

8 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Internet structure: network of networks  “Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs  Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP pays tier-1 ISP for connectivity to rest of Internet  tier-2 ISP is customer of tier-1 provider Tier-2 ISPs also peer privately with each other, interconnect at NAP

9 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Internet structure: network of networks  “Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPs  last hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems) Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Local and tier- 3 ISPs are customers of higher tier ISPs connecting them to rest of Internet

10 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Internet structure: network of networks  a packet passes through many networks! Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP

11 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Network Access Points (NAPs) Source: Boardwatch.com Note: Peers in this context are commercial backbones..droh

12 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Source: MCI/WorldCom/UUNET Global Backbone

13 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ The situation in Europe See:

14 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core”  SONET  DWDM  Redes de acceso  Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al.  Redes inalámbricas: IEEE et al.  Otras tecnologías

15 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ IP and Traditional Transport  In the 80’s, software based routers were interconnected via relatively slow links  56K (early 80’s),  to fractional T1, to full T1,  to T3  This was layered over core TDM infrastructure  Which was intended for voice and circuits  Generally, data folks ignored TDM folks, and vice versa  [On the edge, there has always been a wide range of links (Ethernet,...)]

16 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Traditional View of Routers and Links

17 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Terminal Multiplexer SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH DCS SONET/SDH DCS SONET/SDH DCS Terminal Multiplexer SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM Reality has always been more complex

18 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Time Division Multiplexing Multiplexed Bit Stream Sum of sources = Total MUX’d bit stream MUX Time Slot1 Time Slot2 Time Slot4 Time Slot3 TimeS lot6 Time Slot1 TimeS lot5 Time Slot2 SyncB it Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Source 5 Source 6

19 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Digital Hierarchy STM-256 STM-64 STM-16 STM-4 STM-1 STS-1 SPE DS-3/T3 DS-2/T2 DS-1/T E4 E3 E2 E1 E VC4 VC3 VC12 STS-1: Payload Mbps + Overhead Mbps (4.5 %) Total = Mbps North AmericaInternational STS/OC-768 STS/OC-192 STS/OC-48 STS/OC-12 STS/OC-3 STS/OC-1 VT1.5 Bit Rate (Mbps)NameBit Rate (Mbps)NameContainerTransportContainerTransport Bit Rate (Mbps)

20 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ SONET Hierarchy STS-1=28 VT1.5s/1 DS-3 + OVERHEAD OC-N NxSTS-1 DS-OVT1.5=1 DS-1 + OVERHEAD

21 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ PAYLOAD SONET/SDH Framing One DS-3 Virtual Tributary (VT1.5) (1.7Mb/s) Or DS-1 LINE OVHD SECT OVHD PATHOVHDPATHOVHD STS-1 Frame Format 90 Columns Transport Overhead 3 columns STS-1 Synchronous Payload Envelope 87 Columns Payload Options

22 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Traffic Quickly Rerouted After Failure SONET/SDH Features  Rapid and predictable restoration  10s of ms; depends on ring size  Simple to engineer  Standard framing and multiplexing (Time Division Multiplexing [TDM])  Maintainability  Performance monitoring  Fault isolation and sectioning  Bandwidth management  Network management  Consolidation  Reduction in wasted capacity  Challenge  Remove complexity and keep benefits

23 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ SONET/SDH Benefits  Standard framing, rates, procedures, and interfaces  High transmission rates  Survivability  Separation of circuits  Integrated network management  Multi-vendor compatibility  End-to-end provisioning and maintenance

24 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ SONET/SDH Limitations  Difficult to scale  Space, power, one wavelength per chassis  Slow and costly to provision  Planning complexity  Delivery measured in weeks  Limited service offerings  Static not dynamic bandwidth  Granularity – why not 5.5Gbps ?

25 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Optical Fiber Evolution  Fiber is better than copper wire  Purity – low attenuation and distortion  Longer distances, lower bit error rates  Higher frequency signals – massive bandwidth  Different wavelengths – massive bandwidth  Immunity to noise  Security – difficult to tap  Small size and weight  Easier installation  Bundles of fibers in same space as copper wire  Multimode fiber  Low cost – LEDs, not lasers  Many wavelengths (modes)  Dispersion – limits bandwidth and distance  Light pulses spread out  Intramodal – different delay per mode  Typically 2 km maximum distance  Large diameter cores – for multiple modes  Initially flat profile  Stepped end improves performance  Single-mode fiber  One wavelength – small core  Less interference and loss  Greater distance (up to 100 km)  More expensive components – lasers  Minimized dispersion point at 1310 nm  Not suitable for EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier)  Non-zero dispersion shifted fiber  Optimized for longer distances  Optimized for higher bandwidth  Minimized dispersion point shifted to 1550 nm  Suitable for Erbium-based optical amplifiers  Silica-based fibers have lowest attenuation at 1550 nm, not 1310

26 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ SONET/SDH ADM WDM Node From One Wavelength Per Fiber to Many ADM Single Fiber SONET/SDH ADM Single Fiber Wave Division Multiplexing OT = Optical Transponder OT ADM OT

27 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ SONET/SDH ADM = Regenerators WDM System Elements

28 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ TDM and WDM Relationship 1 … n TDM generates output from sum of inputs into a single bit stream Laser Output n 1 WDM changes TDM bit stream into wavelengths between 1532 nm and 1560 nm OT

29 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier Dense and Ultra Dense WDM 8 WDM 8 Lambdas 2.5 Gbps per lambda EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier 2 2

30 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Dense and Ultra Dense WDM DWDM 40 Lambdas Gbps per lambda EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier

31 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ UDWDM 192 Lambdas Gbps per lambda Dense and Ultra Dense WDM EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier

32 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core”  SONET  DWDM  Redes de acceso  Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al.  Redes inalámbricas: IEEE et al.  Otras tecnologías

33 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ La famila Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)  IEEE (1985)  “Ethernet”  Ethernet implementa un protocolo MAC del tipo 1-persistente CSMA/CD.  Soporta diferentes medios de transmisión con anchos de banda entre 1 y 10Mbps.  Puede trabajar en banda base y en banda ancha, utilizando técnicas de codificación y modulación.  Se considera un red con topología de tipo bus.  IEEE 802.3u (1995)  “FastEthernet (FE)”  Ethernet de alta velocidad (100 Mbps).  Incremento del ancho de banda (un orden de magnitud).  Compatibilidad con las redes Ethernet 10Mbps  Instalación rápida, reutilización de recursos.  Las modificaciones se centran en el nivel físico.  El cableado es muy similar.  Se necesitan codificaciones especiales para conseguir 100Mbps.  No es necesario adaptar el software de red:  Utiliza el mismo MAC.  El formato de la trama es idéntico al especificado en IEEE

34 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ La famila Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)  IEEE 802.3z (1998)  “Gigabit Ethernet (GE)”  Ethernet de muy alta velocidad (1Gpbs).  Se dispone de productos GE (switches, hubs, etc.)  Inicialmente no se considera un cableado UTP  CSMA/CD (Half-duplex):  Tiene problemas de tamaños de trama, colisiones, etc.  Solución para troncales de alta capacidad.  ¿ ATM o Gigabit Ethernet ?  Comercialmente se impondrá GE FDX.  Sistemas basados en conmutadores que actuarán como troncales en redes corporativas  IEEE 802.3ae (2002)  “10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GE)”  Multiplica por 10 el ancho de banda de GE.  Cableado:  Sólo fibra óptica.  Sólo funciona en modo full-duplex  Desaparece el modo CSMA/CD (Half-duplex).  Soporte para...  LANs  MANs  WANs.

35 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ La familia Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)  Evolución de Ethernet y otras tecnologías… Ethernet (10 Mb) vs. Token Ring Fast Ethernet vs. FDDI Gigabit Ethernet vs. ATM 10 Gigabit Ethernet vs. ???

36 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ ¿Ethernet para el transporte de datos multimedia?   Reparto no equilibrado de recursos.  En condiciones de alta ocupación no se reparte el ancho de banda de forma equitativa.  El ancho de banda que una estación obtiene de la red es proporcional al tamaño medio de sus tramas. –Aplicaciones como FTP, HTTP, flujos de vídeo obtienen más ancho de banda que otras como TELNET o voz IP.  Soluciones:  Diseño de red adecuado.  Sobredimensionar la capacidad de la red.  Transmisión full-duplex (1997).  Una estación puede enviar y recibir tramas al mismo tiempo  NO SE REQUIERE CSMA/CD.  Ventajas  Canal dedicado  Incremento de prestaciones.  Elimina la restricción de la distancia máxima.  Simplifica el funcionamiento del hardware.  Elimina los problemas de reparto no equilibrado de recursos.

37 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ ¿Ethernet para el transporte de datos multimedia?  Tráfico con prioridades (IEEE 802.1p/Q)  Define los mecanismos necesarios para priorizar el tráfico en redes Ethernet.  Permite asignar a cada trama un nivel de prioridad de 0 (más baja) a 7 (más alta).  Utiliza una extensión de la cabecera de trama Ethernet, que se conoce como VLAN tag (etiqueta) que contiene: –Identificador de VLAN (8 bits). –Un campo de prioridad (3 bits).  Los conmutadores, así como los hosts, procesan las tramas entrantes de acuerdo a su prioridad.  No se envían las tramas de un nivel de prioridad si todavía hay tarmas pendientes de envío de mayor prioridad.  No define mecanismos de control de admisión.

38 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bandwidth: Gb and 10Gb Ethernet PC users File Servers ……… 1 Gbps Power users ……… 10 Gbps Uplinks Stack of 2x SMC8748M 10 Gigabit Ethernet implementation. SMC8708 layer 8 port 10GB switch Alternative solution

39 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Scenario: VOiP Support SMC2555W-AG SMC8624T SMC6824MPE File server VoIP phones PoE Guest server RADIUS server Internet SMC6824MPEVoIP phones PoE VLAN tagging Username: Password: Username: Password: PoE SMC2555W-AG VLAN tagging PoE VLAN tagging Employee VLAN Guest VLAN VoIP support

40 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Scenario: Enterprise 54 Mbps WLAN + Video Surveillance Subnet 2 SMC8724ML3 Stack VRRP SMC8748ML3 SMC6824MPE SMC6824MPE Stack LACP Gigabit Trunks Power-User SMC8748M Stack Server with 10G uplink Server with 10G Uplink IP Phone Call-Center SMC6248M Stack Subnet 1 PoE STP Internet Router STP

41 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Gigabit ETHERNET

42 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Otras tecnologías LAN  No son tecnologías de LAN populares  Son alternativas que intentan explotar aspectos de:  Reserva de ancho de banda, tráfico con prioridades, altas prestaciones (anchos de banda, latencias, etc).  100VGAnyLan (IEEE ).  Soporta tráfico con prioridades.  HIPPI y Fibre Channel.  Definen enlaces de datos de muy alta capacidad y bajo retardo.  Myrinet.  Tecnología heredada de los multicomputadores  Retardos muy pequeños y acotados.

43 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ WLANs, El estándar IEEE  En el 1997 nace el:  IEEE Working Group for WLAN Standards:  Se define el MAC y tres diferentes niveles físicos, que operan a 1Mbps y 2Mbps:  Infrarrojos (IR) en banda base  Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), banda de 2,4 GHz  Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), banda de 2,4 GHz  IEEE Std a (diciembre 1999):  Otro estándar de nivel físico: Orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing (OFDM)  Hasta 54 Mbps  IEEE Std b (enero 2000):  Extensión de DSSS; hasta 11 Mbps  IEEE Std g (Junio 2003)  Etc. Data Link Network IEEE LLC ISO IEEE ISO Network Data Link Physical LLCLLC MACMAC Ethernet v2.0 IEEE ISO

44 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Arquitectura  Estructura descentralizada  Flexible:  Redes pequeñas y grandes,  Redes transitorias y permanentes  Control del consumo de potencia Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) Componentes:  Estación (STA)  Access Point (AP)  Basic Service Set (BSS)  Extended Service Set (ESS) infrastructure Basic Service Set (BSS)

45 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Servicios  La arquitectura IEEE define 9 servicios: para la estación y para la distribución  Station services:  Authentication  Deauthentication  Privacy  WEP  Data delivery  Distribution services:  Association  genera una conexión entre STA y AP  Disassociation  Reassociation  como association pero informando del AP anterior  Distribution  integration  conexión de la WLAN con otras LANs; uso de un portal Parecidos a conectar/desconectar el cable en una red tradicional

46 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ El MAC: entrega de datos fiable  CSMA/CA con binary exponential backoff  El protocolo mínimo consiste de dos tramas: DATOS+ACK  El standard propone RTS-CTS- DATOS-ACK Point Coordination Function (PCF) Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) MAC Servicios sin contienda Servicios con contienda DIFS PIFS SIFS ventana de contienda defer access busy medium slot Los 5 valores de timing: Slot time SIFS: short interframe space PIFS: PCF interframe space (=SIFS+1slot) DIFS: DCF interframe space (=SIFS+2slots) EIFS: extended interframe space Los 5 valores de timing: Slot time SIFS: short interframe space PIFS: PCF interframe space (=SIFS+1slot) DIFS: DCF interframe space (=SIFS+2slots) EIFS: extended interframe space

47 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Mecanismo de detección de portadora  Se basa en el network allocation vector (NAV) RTS DIFS CTS SIFS data ACK SIFS DIFS NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) fuente destino otro STA defer access ventana de contienda

48 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ QoS: e and WMM™  QoS needed for audio, voice, video  Original Wi-Fi® didn’t have QoS  IEEE e is new QoS standard  Still in process after more than 4 years  Both “prioritized” and “guaranteed” QoS  WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia)  Prioritized QoS subset of e draft  Widely accepted by e members  Added to Wi-Fi certification in September 2004  Already included in some products

49 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ WMM™ for Video Source: Wi-Fi Alliance

50 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth Specifications  Bluetooth is a system solution comprising hardware, software and interoperability requirements. The Bluetooth specifications specify the complete system.  De facto standard - open specifications.  Two part document - Volume 1:Core and Volume 2:Profiles.  Bluetooth specs developed by Bluetooth SIG.  February 1998: The Bluetooth SIG is formed  promoter company group: Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba  May 1998: The Bluetooth SIG goes “public”  July 1999: 1.0A spec (>1,500 pages) is published  December 1999: ver. 1.0B is released  December 1999: The promoter group increases to 9  3Com, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola  February 2000: There are 1,500+ adopters  > > 1.0A ---> 1.0B ---> >  November 2003: release 1.2  Currently (November 2004), release 2.0  (aka EDR or Extended Data Rate) triples the data rate up to about 2 Mb/s

51 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ release 2.0: the new partitioning

52 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth usage  Low-cost, low-power, short range radio  a cable replacement technology  Common (File transfer, synchronisation, internet bridge, conference table)  Hidden computing (background synchronisation, audio/video player)  Future (PC login, remote control)  Why not use Wireless LANs?  power  cost

53 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth RF  1 Mb/s symbol rate  Normal range10m (0dBm)  Optional range100m (+20dBm)  Normal transmission power0dBm (1mW)  Optional transmission power-30 to +20dBm (100mW)  Receiver sensitivity-70dBm  Frequency band2.4Ghz ISM band  Gross data rate1Mbit/s  Max data transfer721+56kbps/3 voice channels  Power consumption 30uA(max), 300uA(standby), ~50uA(hold/park)  Packet switching protocol based on frequency hop scheme with 1600 hops/s

54 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth Power Class Table 30m10m0dBm1mWClass 3 50m16m4dBm2.5mWClass 2 300m42m20dBm100mWClass 1 Range in Free Space Expected RangeMax Output Power Power Class

55 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth Network Topology  Bluetooth devices have the ability to work as a slave or a master in an ad hoc network. The types of network configurations for Bluetooth devices can be three.  Single point-to-point (Piconet): In this topology the network consists of one master and one slave device.  Multipoint (Piconet): Such a topology combines one master device and up to seven slave devices in an ad hoc network. o Scatternet: A Scatternet is a group of Piconets linked via a slave device in one Piconet which plays master role in other Piconet. M S i) Piconet (Point- to-Point) M S S S S ii) Piconet (Multipoint) M SSS M SS Master/Slave iii) Scatternet The Bluetooth standard does not describe any routing protocol for scatternets and most of the hardware available today has no capability of forming scatternets. Some even lack the ability to communicate between slaves of one piconet or to be a member of two piconets at the same time.

56 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth stack: short version RF Baseband Link Manager L2CAP SDP RFCOMM Applications HCI

57 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Transport Protocol Group (contd.)  Radio Frequency (RF)  Sending and receiving modulated bit streams  Baseband  Defines the timing, framing  Flow control on the link.  Link Manager  Managing the connection states.  Enforcing Fairness among slaves.  Power Management  Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol  Handles multiplexing of higher level protocols  Segmentation & reassembly of large packets  Device discovery & QoS  The Radio, Baseband and Link Manager are on firmware.  The higher layers could be in software.  The interface is then through the Host Controller (firmware and driver).  The HCI interfaces defined for Bluetooth are UART, RS232 and USB. Source: Farinaz Edalat, Ganesh Gopal, Saswat Misra, Deepti Rao BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION, Core Version 1.1 page 543

58 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Physical Link Definition  Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO) Link  circuit switching  symmetric, synchronous services  slot reservation at fixed intervals  Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) Link  packet switching  (a)symmetric,  asynchronous services  polling access scheme

59 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ ACL data rates

60 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Single slot Three slot Five slot f n f n+1 f n+2 f n+3 f n+4 f n+5 Multi-slot packets

61 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ f n f n+1 f n+2 f n+3 f n+4 f n+5 f n+6 f n+7 f n+8 f n+9 f n+10 f n+11 f n+12 Master Slave Symmetric single slot

62 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ MASTER SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 SLAVE 3 ACL SCO ACL Mixed Link Example

63 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Polling on ACL links  Slave is allowed to send only after it has been polled.  Master polls slave at least Npoll slots (negotiated).  Master may send at will.  Polling algorithm is proprietary. time Master Slave Data POLL Slot TDD frame

64 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth Connection States  There are four Connection states on Bluetooth Radio:  Active: Both master and slave participate actively on the channel by transmitting or receiving the packets (A,B,E,F,H)  Sniff: In this mode slave rather than listening on every slot for master's message for that slave, sniffs on specified time slots for its messages. Hence the slave can go to sleep in the free slots thus saving power (C)  Hold: In this mode, a device can temporarily not support ACL packets and go to low power sleep mode to make the channel available for things like paging, scanning etc (G)  Park: Slave stays synchronized but not participating in the Piconet, then the device is given a Parking Member Address (PMA) and it loses its Active Member Address (AMA) (D,I) E A G H C D I H C B F Master Bluetooth Connection States

65 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Bluetooth Forming a Piconet  Inquiry: Inquiry is used to find the identity of the Bluetooth devices in the close range.  Inquiry Scan: In this state, devices are listening for inquiries from other devices.  Inquiry Response: The slave responds with a packet that contains the slave's device access code, native clock and some other slave information.  Page: Master sends page messages by transmitting slave's device access code (DAC) in different hop channels.  Page Scan: The slave listens at a single hop frequency (derived from its page hopping sequence) in this scan window.  Slave Response: Slave responds to master's page message  Master Response: Master reaches this substate after it receives slave's response to its page message for it. Master Inquiry Inquiry Scan Inquiry Response Page Page Scan Slave Response Master Response Connection Slave Forming a Piconet Procedures

66 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 2G, 3G and Beyond  An Understanding of Technology and Services

67 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ G: Technology Summary  TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access  Standardized in 1990 as IS-54  Provides 3-6 times capacity increase over AMPS (1G)  Peak data rate of 14.4kpbs (can bundle up to 8 channels)  Introduced authentication and encryption for security  GSM: Global System of Mobile communications  Standardized in 1992, based on TMDA technology  Improved battery life over TDMA  GPRS peak data rates of 140 kbps; EDGE data rates of 180kbps  CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access  Standardized in 1993 as IS-95  Provides times capacity increase over TDMA  Peak data rate of 14.4kpbs (can bundle up to 8 channels)

68 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ G: Winners & Losers  TDMA  Marginally better capacity than GSM, marginally worse battery life  No evolution path beyond 2G – DEAD END !!  CDMA  Lots of hype on capacity, delivered on upwards of 2x capacity improvement over TDMA/GSM  Clear evolution to 3G  GSM  International Roaming and Compatibility  Clear evolution to 3G  Defacto Global Standard

69 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ GSM: A Success Story Growth in China GSM subscribers in Asia Pacific reached 650 million in March 2006 (521 million March 2005 = 24.7% annual growth) GSM growth exceeded CDMA by 11x from March 05 to March 06 China GSM grew over 54 mil subs in past 12 months = over 1 million/week Cdma added under 5 mil subs in the same period

70 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ GSM: A Success Story Growth in India India reached almost 64 million GSM subscribers at GSM has 77.5% market share GSM additions = 22.7 million in 12 months = over 55% growth Cdma added 8 million in same period

71 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ GSM: A Success Story Growth in Rest of World Europe: Eastern Europe 289 million (48.9% annual growth) Western Europe 426 million (8.1% annual growth) Africa: 146 million (62.6% annual growth) Middle East: 51.4 million (63.5% annual growth) Americas: Canada and USA 85 million (35% annual growth) Latin America and the Caribbean 144 million (92.6% annual growth)

72 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Evolution to 3G Drivers: Capacity, Data Speed, Cost cdmaOne GSM TDMA 2G PDC CDMA2000 1x First Step into 3G GPRS 90% 10% EDGE WCDMA WCDMA 3G phase 1Evolved 3G 3GPP Core Network CDMA2000 1x EV/DO HSDPA/HSUPA HSDPA/HSUPA Expected market share EDGE Evolution EDGE Evolution CDMA2000 EV/DO Rev A

73 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ G: Technology Summary  Technology Convergence on Wideband-CDMA  CDMA 2000  Successor to CDMA IS-95, 4 core standards – 1xRTT, 1x EV-DO, 1x EV-DV, 3xRTT  1xRTT provides 2x voice capacity increase over IS-95 and a peak data rate of 144kbps  EV-DO Rev A provide peak data rates of 3.1 downlink / 1.8 uplink (800kbps typical)  UMTS  Successor to GSM, based on W-CDMA  Peak data rates of up to 1920kbps (384kbps typical)  HSDPA peak data rate of up to 14.4Mbps

74 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ G: Winners & Losers ??  UMTS  Huge delays (terminals availability)  Exorbitant license fees  Confusing pricing strategies & lack of compelling services  Clear evolution path  HSxPA (Peak Data Rates), LTE (Network Simplification)  CDMA2000  Early adoption (Korea)  Compelling peak data rates (EV-DO)  Unclear evolution path  3xRTT? WIMAX?

75 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ UMTS Growth Subscriber Penetration Over 55 million WCDMA subs at 31 March 06 Approaching 140% yearly growth Over 3 million adds monthly in last 6 months WCDMA gained over 10% share of mobile growth in Asia Q1 06 WCDMA gained 1 in 3 new connections in Western Europe in Q1 06

76 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Global Subscriber Counts Bn 1 Bn 1.5 Bn 2 Bn 2.5 Bn CDMA GSM PHS W-CDMA Note: GSM Emerging Market Handset (EMH) initiative = 80% of Global Population with Wireless Service by 2010, based on sub $30 handsets 17 countries targeted = 1.8 Bn people ; not included in current sub counts

77 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ …and Beyond  Technology Convergence on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)  WIMAX  Standardized by IEEE , evolution of (Wi-Fi)  Improved bandwidth, encryption and coverage over WiFi  Theoretical peak data rates of 70Mbps (practical peak ~2Mbps)  Improved QoS better enables applications such as VoIP or IPTV  Ideal application is for “last mile” connectivity to the home or business  Intel plans to embed WiMAX chips as part of ‘Intel Inside’  L3GTE/HSOPA  Early standardization work starts in 3GPP R8  Improved bandwidth, latency over UMTS/HSxPA  Radio technology based on MIMO-OFDM, peak data rates of up to 70Mbps  Network simplification

78 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Market Segments Cordless WiMAX 16e HSDPA to OFDM EV-DO to OFDM WiFi Local Fixed Voice Broadband Cellular WiMAX 16d DSL / Cable POTS a/b/g n MIMO Mesh Dialup 2.5G Mobile

79 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Service Control Presence / GLMS Applications R4 CDMA PSTN Media Resources TDM & Packet Interworking PDF HSS/ AAA Peer IP Network Access Network IP/MPLS Core Multimedia Services Messaging Services Web / WAP Services Streaming Services MG15000 MGCF (CS2000) Call Session Controller MRF Audio/ Video PDG WLAN ASN CSN ASN WiMAX GGSN GPRS UMTS EASGW ASG HSOPA OFDM/MIMO BRAS PDGGGSN ASN CSN ASGW Network Convergence - IMS Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) and the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) -- two standard architectures under the 3GPP umbrella -- both support fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). But their approaches to FMC have little in common. UMA is a highly constrained approach to a single service -- dual-mode access to GSM networks -- while IMS is an open platform for all types of services and all types of networks. UMA offers mobile network operators (MNOs) a quick fix, but IMS promises profitable new services and sustainable growth for all service providers.

80 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Market Trends  Media Convergence – Multiple Play  Dual Play: High-Speed Internet & Fixed Line  Triple Play: Dual Play + TV  Quadruple Play: Triple Play + Wireless  Challenge: Consolidated Invoice and Price Points  Fixed Mobile Convergence  Dual Mode connectivity  Cellular / Cordless (DECT, ADSL/Bluetooth)  WLAN / WWAN  Challenge: Technology standardization  MVNO – Mobile Virtual Network Operator  Wireless Service Reseller, wholesales access from wireless operators  Discount & Lifestyle MVNO’s  Segment, Product, Utilization Driven  Challenge: Market Saturation & Service Differentiation

81 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Market Trends (continued)  M-Commerce – Electronic Commerce using Mobile Phones  Leverage ubiquity of mobile phones to make transactions  Current payment methods: premium calling #’s, phone bill invoice, credit card  Strong interest in key industries: banking, sports & entertainment, travel, retail  Challenge: Security, Terminal Capabilities, Access Speeds  Multimedia – use of several media types to convey information  Effective information delivery across many disciplines: art, education, telecommunications, medicine  IMS enables multimedia services for mobile users  VoIP  Challenge: User Interface, Form Factor, lack of “killer app”  Presence – Always on, always connected  Combine Mobility & Reachability  Effectively bring Popularity of IM to mobile phones (AOL, Yahoo!, MSN, Skype)  Opportunity for standardization & interworking based on SIP/SIMPLE  Challenge: Standardization & always on connectivity

82 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/2007 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core”  SONET  DWDM  Redes de acceso  Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al.  Redes inalámbricas: IEEE et al.  Otras tecnologías

83 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) architecture  To deliver data services over a cable network:  one 6 MHz television channel that is in the 50 MHz to 750 MHz range is typically allocated for downstream traffic to homes  one 6 MHz channel in the 5 MHz to 42 MHz band is used to carry upstream signals  A headend cable modem termination system (CMTS) communicates through these channels with cable modems located in subscriber homes to create a virtual LAN connection Scientific-Atlanta CMTS

84 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) architecture  The cable modem network only operates at Layers 1 and 2

85 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) architecture  An individual cable modem subscriber may experience access speeds from 500 kbps to 2.5 Mbps, depending on the network architecture and traffic load.  If congestion does begin to occur due to high usage, cable operators have the flexibility to add more bandwidth for data services.  A cable operator can simply allocate an additional 6 MHz video channel for high-speed data, which would double the downstream bandwidth available to users. Scientific-Atlanta CMTS

86 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ What is DSL?  While considered an end-to-end solution, DSL only operates on the local loop between the customer premises equipment (CPE) and the DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM).  A DSLAM is a device in the central office (CO) (sometimes) used to terminate many Layer 1 DSL connections, such as dialup, cable, wireless, and T1.

87 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ What is DSL?  DSL uses the high frequency range of up to about 1 MHz.  For example, asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) uses the frequency range of about 20 kHz to 1MHz.  ADSL does not overlap the plain old telephone service (POTS) voice frequency range. (300 – 3,400 Hz)  POTS and ADSL service can coexist over the same wire.  Other DSL variants like single-line digital subscriber line (SDSL) use a frequency range that overlaps the POTS voice frequency range.  POTS and SDSL service cannot coexist over the same wire.

88 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ DSL limitations  The distance from CO to the DSL CPE must be considered.  The longer the distance, the lower the speed.  The gauge of wire used in the local loop is important.  Thicker wire gauge supports higher speed.

89 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ ADSL  An installer must check with the service provider to determine which modulation technique is being used.  The modulation method used must be matched between the ADSL CPE (DSL Modem) and the ADSL modems on the DSLAM.

90 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2006/ ADSL and POTS coexistence  There is a POTS splitter at the central office (CO) (or at home) to split up the POTS called voice and ADSL called data traffic.  The POTS traffic goes to the voice switch in the CO, and the ADSL traffic goes to the DSLAM in the CO.  ADSL offloads the data or modem traffic from the voice switch and keeps analog POTS separate from data. psts450.htm


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