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Elizabeth I: A Decision Making Game Ian Dawson www.thinkinghistory.co.uk
Elizabeth I’s Survival Game You can use the Survival Game in two ways: 1. As an introduction to the events and issues of Elizabeth’s reign. Completing this game will give you an outline of the main events and this will help you start reading with more confidence. 2. For revision – to revise the key issues and events of Elizabeth’s reign. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk2
Your Task Your task is to take the kinds of decisions that Elizabeth faced. You’re not trying to guess what Elizabeth did, but make your choice of the best decisions. You start with 6 crowns but you lose them if you make a bad decision. If you lose all 6 … you’ll have lost your throne …... failed your dynasty ……... and probably be dead! © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk3
EARLY CHOICES 1558-1566 © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk4
A Marriage Proposal Your brother-in-law, King Philip of Spain, offers to marry you now that he is a widower. He was married to your sister, Mary! What should you do? It’s time for you to decide – look at the next screen for your options. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Early Choices: 1 5
Marriage Proposal: Options Should you: a.Accept his proposal because friendship and alliance with Spain will help you with the war against France? b.Reject his proposal politely? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Early Choices: 1 6
A Religious Settlement After the religious changes of the last 25 years you have to decide the nature of the religion to be followed during your reign. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk7 Early Choices: 2
Religious Settlement: Options Should you: a.postpone a decision indefinitely to avoid offending any one group? b.retain a Catholic church and doctrine? c.end Catholic doctrine and return to a moderate Protestantism, similar to that followed under Henry VIII? d.respond to the appeals of returning Protestant exiles and establish a radical Protestant church similar to that under Edward VI? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk8 Early Choices: 2
Marriage, 1560 You have developed a great affection for Robert Dudley, son of the Duke of Northumberland. His wife died recently, having fallen down stairs. She had been ill for some time. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk9 Early Choices: 3
Marriage, 1560: Options Should you: a.Marry Dudley? b.Stay single? c.Stay single but become Dudley's mistress? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk10 Early Choices: 3
Parliament, 1566 Members of the Commons ask you to marry to guarantee the succession. Some MPs introduce bills to amend the religious settlement, making the church more Protestant. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Early Choices: 4 11
Parliament, 1566: Options Should you: a.Agree to both demands because they will please members of parliament and vocal Puritans at court? b.Agree to marry in order to secure the succession but refuse to amend the religious settlement? c.Refuse both demands? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Early Choices: 4 12
Marriage Proposal: Outcomes Your sister, Mary, married Philip, a Catholic, and that created great hostility in England. Do you want to do the same? Lose 2 crowns. As inevitable as any decision you will take. Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk13 Early Choices: 1 Accept Reject
Religious Settlement: Outcomes An attractive option because it seems to avoid offending anyone but in fact it will infuriate all Protestants and, if you eventually decide to introduce a form of Protestantism, the Catholics will feel tricked. Of course many people are not caught up in the detail of religious strife but, even so, lose 1 crown. After all you went through in Mary's reign? And it would grievously disappoint your most committed supporters. Lose 1 crown. A compromise that will not end criticism but makes revolt less likely. Only time will tell if this is the best option. Crowns unchanged. This could push the potentially powerful Catholic minority into revolt. Lose 1 crown. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk14 Early Choices: 2 Postpone Stay Catholic Moderate Prot’ant Radical Prot’ant
Marriage, 1560: Outcomes Gossips will suggest you were involved in Lady Dudley's death, even though she died from natural causes. Other nobles may be jealous and you will lose the chance to use your marriage as a bargaining counter in diplomatic negotiations. Lose 1 crown. Dull, frustrating and sensible. Who would be a queen? Crowns unchanged. Tempting and dangerous. How will you avoid becoming pregnant? Can you keep your affair a secret? Lose 1 crown. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk15 Early Choices: 3 Marry Stay single Become mistress
Parliament, 1566: Outcomes What right have they to discuss such matters? Next they will be trying to choose your husband and decide the details of doctrine. Lose 1 crown. As above. Lose 1 crown. This is your natural course provided you refuse in a way that flatters and pleases parliament. You intend to marry one day... don't you? Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk16 Early Choices: 4 Agree both Agree to marry Refuse both
NEW THREATS 1566-1569 © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk17
Mary, Queen of Scots, 1558 Mary has fled from Scotland after nearly a decade as ruling Queen. Her second husband, Lord Darnley, was murdered and she has provoked widespread opposition amongst her people. Mary has declared that she ought to be Queen of England and may have Catholic supporters in England. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk New Threats: 5 18
Mary, QoS, 1568: Options Should you: a.Help Mary, as a fellow-monarch, to regain her throne? b.Send her into exile in France? c.Hand her over to the Scottish rebels for punishment? d.Keep her imprisoned in England? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk New Threats: 5 19
War with Spain? 1568 There have been clashes with Spain following the arrival of a Spanish army to crush a revolt in the Netherlands. Spanish bullion has been seized in an English port. An English fleet in America has been attacked. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk20 New Threats: 6
War with Spain? 1568: Options Should you: a.Declare war on Spain, joining Dutch Protestants in a war of religion against Catholicism? b.Apologise to Spain for the problems? c.Wait upon events, trying to avoid war without appearing weak? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk21 New Threats: 6
The Duke of Norfolk, 1569 Your cousin, the Duke of Norfolk, has been arrested. He is accused of plotting to marry Mary, Queen of Scots and of involvement in a Catholic rebellion. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk22 New Threats: 7
Norfolk, 1569: Options Should you: a.Refuse to execute Norfolk despite the Council's urgings? b.Order Norfolk's execution immediately? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk23 New Threats: 7
Marriage, 1572 Negotiations begin for a marriage with the Duke of Alencon, brother of the French king. If the marriage produces a child this will end concerns about the succession. The marriage will also cement an Anglo-French alliance against the possible Spanish threat. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk24 New Threats: 8
Marriage, 1572: Options Should you: a.Marry Alencon? b.End the negotiations because you do not wish to appear to be playing second-fiddle to France? c.Continue the negotiations in case a French alliance is needed urgently if the diplomatic situation worsens? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk25 New Threats: 8
Mary, QoS, 1568: Outcomes She is a Queen and you detest rebellion but she is a danger to you if she is a powerful influence in Scotland. Lose 2 crowns. Quite foolish! If French aid restored her in Scotland she would be even more dangerous. Lose 3 crowns. Tempting but you hate rebels. Even so, probably the safest option. Crowns unchanged. How effective will her imprisonment be? This was Elizabeth's choice but a dangerous one. Lose 1 crown. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk26 New Threats: 5 Help Exile Scots England
War with Spain? 1568: Outcomes War is expensive and thoroughly dangerous. You will need to call parliament and MPs will harry you over the succession and religion. Will English Catholics be loyal? Lose 1 crown. Why not give away your crown and learn Spanish at the same time? What a weak and pathetic monarch. Everything they said about women is clearly true. Lose 2 crowns. It's called 'masterly inactivity'. Philip does not want a war either — yet — so the dangers should die down. Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk27 New Threats: 6 War Apologise Wait
Norfolk, 1569: Outcomes Exactly what Elizabeth did and Norfolk became embroiled in further plots. Lose 1 crown. This is what your grandfather, Henry VII, would have done. Norfolk may be your cousin but, more importantly, he is dangerous. Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk28 New Threats: 7 Refuse execute Order execute
Marriage, 1572: Outcomes Spain will see this as a threat. You will also infuriate many at home and lose future diplomatic independence. Lose 1 crown. And offend France, potentially one half of a Catholic League against the puny Protestant powers of England and the Netherlands? Lose 1 crown. Why not, it might be fun, Alencon will bring you expensive presents and you might marry one day... Maybe! Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk29 New Threats: 8 Marry End talks Continue talks
THE ARMADA YEARS 1582-1588 © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk30
Aid to the Netherlands, 1582 Spanish troops are beginning to make effective progress in the Netherlands. Many of your councillors, including Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, are urging you to send support to the Dutch Protestants. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk31 Armada Years: 9
Netherlands Aid, 1582: Options Should you: a.Appoint Leicester to lead an army to resist Spanish progress? b.Allow unofficial aid to reach the Dutch Protestants but refuse direct aid? c.Refuse all aid because of the danger of provoking war with Spain? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk32 Armada Years: 9
Aid to the Netherlands, 1585 Spanish troops have made significant progress in the Netherlands. Spain has also reached agreement with Catholics in France for a Catholic League. Your councillors are once again urging you to send aid to the Netherlands. What should you do?: © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk33 Armada Years: 10
Netherlands Aid, 1585: Options Should you: a.Appoint Leicester to lead an army to resist Spanish progress? b.Allow unofficial aid to reach the Dutch Protestants but refuse direct aid? c.Refuse all aid because of the danger of provoking war with Spain? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Armada Years: 10 34
Mary, Queen of Scots, 1586 Mary has been caught corresponding with Catholics plotting to free her and make her Queen. She has been tried and found guilty. Parliament is pressing for her execution. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk35 Armada Years: 11
Mary, QoS, 1586: Options Should you: a.Order her execution immediately? b.Refuse her execution because it may precipitate an invasion by Spain? c.Play for time, resisting Parliament's pressure? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk36 Armada Years: 11
Reacting to the Armada, 1588 King Philip of Spain has sent a powerful fleet to invade England. You do not know if English Catholics will rebel in support of this Armada. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Armada Years: 12 37
Armada, 1588: Options Will you: a.Parade with your army and inspire them with your presence b.Make plans to flee because the Spanish fleet and army is so strong c.Pray very hard © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Armada Years: 12 38
Netherlands Aid, 1582: Outcomes Effectively a declaration of war against Spain. This will be costly, you don't know whether English Catholics will be loyal and Spain is far more powerful than you. Lose 1 crown. Once again the wonders of a compromise but only time will tell if this is the best option. Crowns unchanged. This allows Spain to win control of the Dutch coastline facing England, an ideal base for invasion. Why should Spain fear such a weak creature? Lose 2 crowns. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk39 Armada Years: 9 Resist Spain Unofficial aid Refuse aid
Netherlands Aid, 1585: Outcomes You don't want to but there's now no turning back. You have tried to avoid war with Spain for over 20 years but this is a declaration of war. Lose 1 crown. Probably not enough now, see 9(c). Lose 2 crowns. Probably a worse decision than last time. Lose 3 crowns. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk40 Armada Years: 10 Resist Spain Unofficial aid Refuse aid
Mary, QoS, 1586: Outcomes Yes. Wield the axe yourself if necessary. The woman is a menace even if she is a Queen. Crowns unchanged. Weak and pathetic — and is this your real motive? Lose 2 crowns. But what will you do in the end? If you're not careful someone will take the initiative for you! Lose 1 crown. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk41 Armada Years: 11 Execute Refuse to execute Play for time
Armada, 1588: Outcomes Your only option but you’ve always been good at inspiring your people. Crowns unchanged. After all your years of hard work? Lose all your remaining crowns! Always a good idea so long as you combine this with (a). Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk42 Armada Years: 12 Parade army Plans to flee Pray
YEARS OF DECLINE? 1590-1603 © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk43
Wentworth and Parliamentary Privilege, 1593 Peter Wentworth is an MP who has often complained that you have limited the topics discussed in parliament. He has once again tried to discuss the succession. King James of Scotland is your likely successor. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk44 Declining Years: 13
Wentworth & Privilege, 1593: Options Should you: a.Permit the House of Commons to discuss the issue now that you have decided against marriage and the Spanish Armada has been defeated? b.Continue to forbid discussion and imprison Wentworth? c.Publicly declare that James will be your heir? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk45
Your Portrait Paintings of you are circulating that are not flattering! They show an ageing monarch far removed from the wonderful image created by poets and courtiers. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk46 Declining Years: 14
Your Portrait: Options Should you: a.Ban all such portraits and enforce a system of censorship so that only one style of portrait is produced? b.Accept that time catches up with everyone and that your people revere you for your achievements? c.Order that more flattering pictures are circulated in greater numbers? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk47 Declining Years: 14
Starvation, 1597-8 There have been four successive poor harvests. People are dying of starvation in the far north. What should your government do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Declining Years: 15 48
Starvation, 1597-8: Options Should your government: a.Import extra food to alleviate problems? b.Ignore the issue because such matters are not a concern of government? c.Clamp down on vagrants to prevent the dangers of riots? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk Declining Years: 15 49
The Earl of Essex, 1601 The last of your favourites, the Earl of Essex, has led rebellion. It was a fiasco but treason. What should you do? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk50 Declining Years: 16
Essex, 1601: Options Should you: a.Order his execution immediately? b.Pardon him because his rising proved to be such a failure? c.Postpone his execution? So many of your old servants have died in recent years that it would be hard to lose another. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk51 Declining Years: 16
Declining Years: 13 Wentworth & Privilege, 1593: Outcomes This tedious little man has been told before not to interfere in matters that do not concern him. This is not a matter for parliament. Lose 1 crown. A very queenly act. With luck he will die there! Crowns unchanged. This is tantamount to abdication. All attention will shift to James and factions will compete for his favour. Lose 1 crown. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk52 Discuss issue Forbid talks Declare James
Your Portrait: Outcomes Quite right too! What else is royal power for? Crowns unchanged. But they are more likely to revere you if they imagine you as a beautiful, ageless 'Fairie Queen'. Lose 1 crown. Good idea — in addition to (a)! Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk53 Declining Years: 14 Ban Accept Order better
Starvation, 1597-8: Outcomes Yes, it will reduce the chances of revolt. Crowns unchanged. Dangerous because the problems are serious and there are mutterings that, with the war against Spain still continuing and taxes high, a new monarch would bring improvements. Lose 1 crown. In addition to (a) — valuable action against potential troublemakers. Crowns unchanged. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk54 Declining Years: 15 Import extra Ignore issue Clamp down
Essex, 1601: Outcomes Yes, you've learned at last! Your grandfather, Henry VII, would be proud of you. Crowns unchanged. The weakness of an ageing woman, not the action of a Queen. He may try again. Lose 1 crown. As (b). Lose 1 crown. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk55 Declining Years: 16 Execute Pardon Postpone
Conclusions Did you do well or badly? Whatever the outcome, the objective wasn’t just to get the right answers or to guess what Elizabeth did. The purpose of the game was to introduce you to some of the key issues and events and the problems Elizabeth had to grapple with. © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk56
Conclusions The game will have really been successful if you can suggest the answers to these questions: What were the main concerns of Elizabeth as queen? What have you learned about Elizabeth herself? Why do you think she survived? What questions do you now want to ask about her reign? © Ian Dawson 2014 www.thinkinghistory.co.uk57
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