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Managing Change, Resistance, And Conflict

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1 Managing Change, Resistance, And Conflict
Gemini Skills Workshop May 1998

2 Objectives To appreciate change at an organisational and a personal level To provide some sensible models that describe the process of change, in order for it to be managed as a process To understand how to be proactive in managing the change process and reducing resistance To understand the good and bad sides of conflict You’ll be presented with a number of change models to explain how and what the organization, as well as individuals, will go through. We will hopefully not only arm you with what to expect but how to deal with these changes. 2 2

3 Truths about change - why it happens
creates organisational change . . . . . . creates personal change External change . . . Technology Economy Government Society Customer/competitors Strategies Structures/de-layering Practices Processes Products Role Responsibilities Habits Thinking Values Behaviors Change thus requires individuals and organisations to think, act, and perform differently No matter how well motivated, an individual cannot make change alone . . . and an organisation changes only as fast as the percentage of people within the organisation change . . . thus the individuals within an organisation are as important as the leaders in changing organisations Change is easier to deal with if we understand why the changes are occurring There are many factors outside the organization that contributes to the need for change (legislation, competitors, markets change) Whenever possible, give example from the client’s perspective (e.g., DuPont, nylon has become a commodity item) The scope of changes in the organization reaches from the way we do our work, to the product or service that we deliver to our clients. Nothing within our organization will escape change. We as individuals will be required to think, act, and behave differently Key Message: we are change agents, and we all need to become experts in managing the changes that are occurring within our organizations, within our workgroup and within individuals in our organization Transition: Let’s look at some of the specific changes that are taking place in our society Our model is predicated on involving all parts of an organisation in making sustainable change. 3 3

4 The Five Essential Ingredients of Change
Vision Sense of Urgency Willingness to Change Capability to Change Action Plans/ Rewards Successful Change The process can break down if any of these five are not in place.

5 A simple view of change is presented by Kurt Lewin’s change model
Refreezing Unfreezing It is useful to have some models to aid us in understanding the process of change. Kurt Lewin created this three step universal change model and an associated theory on how to make change occur more than 40 years ago. Force Field Diagram Driving Change Opposing Change Driving Change Opposing Change Movement Key Points: It’s simple. Easily understood. Applies to any change personal and/or organizational. The key is to become skilled at unfreezing and nimble enough as an organization to recognize the need quickly and then respond. Lewin’s model helps us understand conceptually what needs to happen. 4 4

6 Successful change is a continuous process
Communication Feedback Reinforcement Repetition: try it, fix it, try it again Interim milestones Celebrate frequent successes . . . and everyone must be involved!

7 We can use Kurt Lewin’s change model to help us in each phase of implementation:
Acknowledge feelings and empathize Give people as much information about the change as possible Say what will not change Treat the past with respect Create the motivation and readiness to change Techniques to reinforce unfreezing Provide focus and direction Strengthen peoples connections to one another Open up two-way communications Provide the individual with a specific role in the change process Techniques to reinforce movement Think back to a change situation (as a group) you’ve just recently experienced (local election, changes to church procedures, etc.). Remember how successful the change was. Were your feelings dealt with? Did you feel you knew enough about it before it happened? It’s impossible to over communicate, when you think you’ve told people as much as you can—tell them all over again. Did you feel confident enough about what to expect and what would and would not be impacted? Help identify zones of stability for people. For example, develop “What will be different” charts for people as they understand the strengths of the current environment and being retrained. Could you have done something to prevent this change? Reduce defensiveness and any implied blame for creating the problems that now must be changed. For example, emphasize that they have been successful but now must reach for the next level of effectiveness. Ask the group for any other techniques that would reinforce unfreezing (e.g., explain changes clearly and in detail). Key Messages: Your role as a change agent is to help shepherd each individual through the change process. Ensure that individuals are reinforced for new behaviour Implement quick results and highlights successes Build feedback mechanisms Celebrate! Techniques to reinforce refreezing 5 5

8 Some change tools & techniques
Unfreeze Movement Refreeze Unfreeze Communication Plan - who, when, what, how Stream charters Stream logic Activity plans and milestones A&D findings Quick hits “As-Is” analysis and baselines Mobilisation Brown Paper fair Town meetings Small group events Workplans “To-Be” analysis Roles and Responsibilities KPIs Process flow Route / cause analysis Pareto analysis Problem solving / team building White papers Implementation Gantt charts Implementation RACIs Implementation KPIs Manage resistance to change Roles and responsibilities charting Continuous Plan-Do-Review Reward and recognition Coaching and feedback Benefits tracking

9 But this only tells part of the story - Change involves giving up - and this is more of a personal choice The Rational (c. f. Kurt Lewin) Unfreeze Move Refreeze Emotional - “Me” (c. f. Bridges) Endings Transitions Beginnings

10 Our role is to help others through change
Listening Focusing: ask questions to pinpoint real issues Restating: hearing it restated by someone else can help a person to clarify their real interests Signal shift-take control of conversation Explain purpose of change Link to his/her concerns Summarise: bottom line “Were my comments clear” “What are your ideas for the future?” “These are my ideas” Agree to finite steps Clarify Endings Disengagement Disorientation Disidentification Disenchantement Share Transition Explain Confront / identify Neutralise Transfer Engage Beginnings Vision & Plans Communications Symbols & ceremonies New Starts

11 What people in change want: What people in change (usually) get:
Unfortunately what you want and what you get in times of change often differ What people in change want: What people in change (usually) get: Empathy Information Ideas Autocratic Behaviour Avoidance “Rah rah”

12 People feel a sense of loss during change
Competence Relationships Sense of direction Territory Security Control, knowledge of what the future holds and place in the organisation What to do, how to manage (can be embarrassing) Familiar contracts (customers, colleagues, managers, group membership) Understanding of where and why you are going Area that ‘belonged’ to you (work space, responsibilities) This sense of loss generates an emotional cycle which can stall in a number of unproductive phases before acceptance of a new direction is complete.

13 Change always results in a roller-coaster ride of Emotions
The Emotional Cycle of Change Time Satisfaction Certainty Doubt Hope Confidence Optimism Pessimism We don’t think our emotional shifts are unique—eeryone goes through it. The shifts become less severe. We can understand and know what to expect from the rections of other people in the organization. By recognizing the symptoms it will help us and help others to get through it more quickly. Each of the following panels describes the stages of the emotional cycle of change. As you discuss each phase, have the group provide examples of behavior they have seen that indicates someone is experiencing the emotions of that phase. Option: draw this on a flipchart so it is visible while viewing the following slides. Upon completion of the definitions—ask group where they are. See appendix for descriptions, explanations, examples for following five phases. What is important to recognise is that it’s a roller-coaster ride where different people will be in different places at different times. Source: Daryl Conner. 6 6

14 Understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change helps us deal with it
Phase 1: Uniformed optimism – Certainty Honeymoon period Ideas look great on paper All major obstacles appear to have been anticipated Phase 2: Informed pessimism – Doubt Problems surface, not all solutions are obvious Morale drops (“Why did I ever get involved in the first place?”) Phase 3: Hopeful realism – Hope A turning point occurs, a sense of accomplishment replaces a sense of pushing against problems Problems have not all disappeared, but people’s hopes are based on realistic data Phase 4: Informed optimism – Confidence The beginning of the change effort is frequently a “honeymoon” period with high hopes among those involved. Feelings are running high and morale is at a peak. This initial certainty about the changes success is based on little information. The manager needs to build high energy in the “honeymoon” stage and use that momentum to drive through the informed optimism stage. Optimism continues to develop A fresh burst of energy appears Successful change has been made Official change effort is complete The outcome is frequently much different from that anticipated in Phase 1 Phase 5: Rewarding completion – Satisfaction 7 7

15 Gemini’s Evolving Change Model

16 The context for evolving Gemini’s approach to change
Our perspective on change has largely been driven by the experience of companies in the 1970s and 1980s. Relatively stable periods followed by sudden reaction to events largely imposed from outside. The business environment of our clients is changing: Rapid shifts, discontinuities, continuous process of disequilibrium moving to equilibrium and back to disequilibrium. Increasingly, clients require the capability to evolve and adapt their organisation to these shifting market conditions on a continuous basis. It is therefore no longer sufficient to understand change as discrete event that can be managed, and which is experienced as a crisis. Change in this context is better viewed as a creative process of choice, learning and growth.

17 We are developing our thinking around change as a process of learning and capability development
Capability is defined as the readiness to respond adaptively and creatively to new or unforeseen circumstances so as to achieve a specified intent. A capability-oriented approach requires a new perspective on how we consult . . .

18 Creation of a higher order
Chaos theory changes how we view the change process and how we view the emotional experience of change Disintegration Chaos Creation of a higher order Turbulence Equilibrium Self organising and self renewing systems possess innate properties that use chaos as a necessary stage to move to higher levels of order. Order does not equal structure. Order = dynamic energy that creates form and shape that suits present circumstance. If creating a “higher order”, on any dimension, requires turbulence, chaos and disintegration, what will enable, rather than disable, this process?

19 Emotional responses to working on an unknown task
We focused on understanding what happens when we work in conditions of uncertainty Emotional responses to working on an unknown task Excitement Fear of failing, being wrong, not having the answer High levels of anxiety Block: “I can’t think” Rigidness: “It’s not my job” Envy of people who seem to be coping Blaming of others . . . In order to understand how we can create conditions for learning and capability development.

20 The challenge is to work with anxiety to create insight, avoid defensive behaviour and no learning—not to remove anxiety Cycle of Emotions Promoting Learning Cycle of Emotions Discouraging Learning 1. Healthy Anxiety 1. Unhealthy level of Anxiety 2. Fight or flight 5. Insight or Authority 5. Willing ignorance and inactivity 7 4 2. Uncertainty 3. Denial or avoidance 4. Struggle 3. Risk 4. Defensiveness or resistance Role modelling and the use of structure (tasks, time) act to contain anxiety to healthy levels. Adaptation: “Inside Action Learning” by Russ Vince and Linda Martin, in “Management Education and Development”, Vol. 24, Part 3, 1993.

21 Conditions for Capability Development
From here, we identified possible conditions for capability development Conditions for Capability Development Anxiety owned and managed Developmental Perspective Interpersonal dynamics worked with, not suppressed Aspiration Reflective Space Sources: Discussion with Tavistock Consulting Service; Group Focus Interview on capabilities and conditions for capability development (London, March 1998).

22 Conditions for Capability Development Interpersonal dynamics
If the conditions are met, a virtuous spiral of capability development takes place—without them, we generate defensiveness in ourselves and our clients Conditions for Capability Development Anxiety as stored energy Unhealthy levels of anxiety creates stress, defensiveness, denial, avoidance Owned and managed anxiety creates healthy tension and discovery Provide direction and a reason for change Motivate and inspire Touch people’s hearts Anxiety owned and managed Aspiration Developmental Perspective Nurturing approach “Valuing the other person’s ability and handling it as a jewel” Enabling people to make own discoveries, vs. controlling them Reflective Space Time to reflect Readiness to reflect on self and others Create space for learning Interpersonal dynamics worked with, not suppressed Emotional issues surfaced Emotional energy channelled Facilitates self-discovery Working with unanticipated outcomes Discussing the undiscussable Respect for needs for safety, support, protection and value These conditions can be translated into day-to-day working practices for consultants and teams.

23 Managing the Players in the Change Process

24 “..we don’t have the resource to do this”
Both support and resistance can come from the same area - it is important to recognise which “..we don’t have the resource to do this” “..quality will suffer” “..this could risk delivery” Some above the surface “..the benefits are enormous” “..the increases agility will really thrill customers” Rational “..satisfaction indices will soar” “..I’ve been waiting for this moment for years” ...and some below Emotional Political “..but that will affect my pay!” “ of the organisation makes such good sense ” “ will this affect our relationships with clients?” “..the benefits will be enormous”

25 In making change a success, it is important to understand where the various players’ energy lies
Drive Support Observe Resist 20% 60% 20% ? Both sides try to influence the ‘undecided’ to move to their side - it’s a delicate balance.

26 So how to manage this? Focus on the Resistance NOT on the Drive Seek Champions Mobilise the Undecided

27 Change requires individuals and organizations to think, act, and behave differently
CALVIN AND HOBBES Bill Watterson THE MORE YOU KNOW, THE HARDER IT IS TO TAKE DECISIVE ACTION. ONCE YOU BECOME INFORMED, YOU START SEEING COMPLEXITIES AND SHADES OF GRAY. YOU REALIZE THAT NOTHING IS AS CLEAR AND SIMPLE AS IT FIRST APPEARS. ULTIMATELY, KNOWLEDGE IS PARALYZING. BEING A MAN OF ACTION, I CAN’T AFFORD TO TAKE THAT RISK. YOU’RE IGNORANT. BUT AT LEAST YOU ACT ON IT. We have discussed why our organizations are required to change and a vision of how the organization will look in the future. We have also described how individuals respond to change, and some ways for dealing with individuals. The only thing we know for sure is that both the organizations and individuals within the organization will be different as a result of the changes. We will now look at some approaches to managing change within our organizations Key message: Actively dealing with the change and the differences that we will see is a sure way to succeed Transition: We have explored change from the perspective of society, of our own organization, and from individuals within the organization. Our challenge is to determine how we, as change agents, can most successfully support the process of change. Neither ignorance or inaction make Change a success. 8 8

28 Change also requires leadership
“To deal with the change, I committed us to try certain things with the understanding what they might not all work. Later, I realized that what I started - even through I didn’t see it at the time - was to create two things: an action plan and trust The action plan had varying degrees of success and failure. But the trust was always there. If we didn’t have that trust, we would have complained ourselves out of business a long time ago.”

29 So what you can do to proactively to Iead the change effort
Demonstrate that we know where we are headed and have a plan to get there Show personal and professional stability Involve teams in owning change Show we are serious about getting there – demonstrate support Broad- cast the truth Rewards consisten t with the ‘To Be’ Communicat e ‘learning’ Clarify why change is needed Team Member Support Help individuals understand why need to change. They may not like it, but may be accepting if they understand why: Create dissatisfaction with the present Consequences of not changing Communicate the latest changes, steps forward and background. We have a plant to get there. Demonstrate support about achieving results 9 9

30 Dealing with Individual Resistance and Conflict

31 50 Reasons Why It Won’t Work
1. We tried that before. 2. Our systems are different 3. It costs too much. 4. That’s beyond our responsibility. 5. That’s not my job. 6. We’re all too busy to do that. 7. It’s too radical a change. 8. There’s not enough help. 9. We’ve never done it before. 10. We don’t have the authority. 11. There’s not enough time. 12. Let’s get back to reality. 13. That’s not our problem. 14. Why change it? It’s still working OK. 15. I don’t like that idea. 16. You’re right, but … 17. You’re two years ahead of your time 18. It isn’t in the budget. 19. We’re not ready for that. 20. Sounds OK but impractical. 21. Let’s give it some more thought. 22. That’s my bowling day. 23. That doesn’t effect me or my child. 24. Nobody cares about that. 25. We’ve always done it this way. 26. It might not work. 27. Not that again! 28. Where’d you dig that one up? 29. We did all right without it. 30. It’s never been tried before. 31. Let’s shelve it for the time being. 32. I don’t see the connection. 33. What you are really saying is … 34. Let’s not be the first. 35. Maybe that would work in your Branch but not in mine. 36. Head Office will never go for it. 37. It can’t be done. 38. It’s too much trouble. 39. It’s impossible. 40. You’re not here to think. 41. Can’t teach an old dog new tricks. 42. Let me think about that and I’ll get back to you. 43. Let’s wait until the next generation. 44. The rules say we can’t do that. 45. We can’t fight local government regulations. 46. That’s old/new business and can’t be discussed now. 47. That’s too serious a subject. 48. No one is interested. 49. It’s too early to think about it. 50. It’s too late to start. 11

32 Forms of Resistance A. Avoidance of responsibility
B. Flooding with detail C. One-word answers D. Impracticality E. Attacking F. Compliance G. Confusion H. Changing the subject I. I’m not surprised J. Silence K. Time L. Nit-picking M. Pressing for solutions Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 15

33 The Voyage of Discovery
Understanding Resistance is about getting behind the apparent and into the core Indirect Expressions of Concerns/ Visible Resistance Real/Underlying Concerns The Voyage of Discovery . . . but tread carefully - too much exploration is rarely appreciated - simply ask “Why is that?” Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 12

34 Why Resistance Occurs . . . Resistance can occur because people fear:
Loss of their credibility or reputation Lack of career or financial advancement Possible damage to relationships with their superiors Losing their job Interpersonal rejection Change in job role Embarrassment/loss of self-esteem Job transfer or demotion Source: Ryan and Oestreich. 13

35 Five Steps for Dealing with Resistance
1. Identify the form the resistance is taking 2. Acknowledge the resistance 3. Be quiet, listen, let the person respond 4. Don’t take it personally 5. Remember the “two good faith responses” rule Trust what you see and how you hear more than what you hear Ask questions and listen carefully - Pick up the ‘cues’ Learn from your own reactions: Uneasy Bored Irritated Listen for repetition and telltale phrases Tell the person your perception of the resistance Do it in a neutral, nonaggressive way with WIN/WIN words: “What I think I hear you saying is …” Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel: Use “I” statements Be specific, clear, and authentic Allow them to ‘vent’ - until they do so progress is limited Stay attuned to other forms of resistance surfacing Check for understanding Remember that their behaviour is not a reflection of you. Let them air their concerns without responding defensively. Don’t counterattack head-on. The majority of questions about methodology or the project process are just expressions of discomfort The third time the question is asked, respond to the question with a statement that suggests the person might be reluctant to commit to the problem or process 14

36 Acknowledging Resistance: Hints for the Right Words
Describe how you feel: Your perceptions of how they feel Being authentic: . . . Encourages person to do the same Be assertive: Direct, without putting anyone down Use “I” statements Be descriptive, not evaluative Descriptive Specific Focused Brief Simple Judgmental Stereotyped Lengthy Complicated N O T 18

37 How to Acknowledge Resistance
Resistance Forms How to Acknowledge - some examples “You don’t see yourself as part of the problem?” “You’re giving me more than I need. Can you headline it?” “Say more about that” (and don’t say the next word !) “You seem to feel that what we’re discussing is not ‘real world’. How could we make it more relevant?” “You are really questioning a lot of what I do. You seem angry.” “You seem agreeable to anything I suggest. I’m having a hard time telling what you’re really feeling.” “We seem to be having difficulty moving ahead. Are you confused about something?” A. Avoidance of responsibility B. Flooding with detail C. One-word answers D. Impracticality E. Attacking F. Compliance G. Confusion Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 16

38 How to Acknowledge Resistance cont’d
Resistance Forms Acknowledgment Examples H. Changing the subject “The subject keeps shifting. Can we focus on one thing at a time?” I. I’m not surprised “I feel that you expect me to know more about you.” J. Silence “I don’t know how to read your silence.” K. Time “You don’t seem to have the time to work with me. I find it hard to proceed without involvement from you.” L. Nit-picking “We would appear to be getting into a lot of detail.” M. Pressing for solutions “It’s too early for solution. I’m still trying to find out…” Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. 17

39 . . . and Conflict

40 One of the hardest parts of consulting is coping with the conflict that resistance engenders
The top seven sources of conflict on projects are: Schedules: Timing, sequencing, duration, feasibility of schedule for project-related tasks or activities Project priorities: Lack of goals, poorly defined project mission, differing views of task importance, shifting goals Resources: Competition for personnel, materials, equipment, facilities among project members or across teams Technical options: From technical issues, performance specifications, technical trade-offs Administrative procedures: How project will be managed, reporting relationships, interface relationships, work design, plans for execution, negotiated work agreements with others, administrative procedures Cost objectives: Lack of cost control authority, allocation of funds Personalities: Egos, personality differences, prejudice, stereotyping Source: Thamhain and Wilemon.

41 . . . it requires humility, resolve, and patience.
A Key Message The client is not always right, but the way you deal with him/her has to be . . . it requires humility, resolve, and patience.

42 Strategies for dealing with conflict tend to be situation dependent
Avoiding Or withdrawing, …but this may mean leaving the solution to chance or fate Smoothing Covering up and pretending that all is calm, cooperative, and pleasant - at times a good strategy where third parties are involved Bargaining Sometimes compromising - each party gains and loses something - preferably amicably Forcing Loser and winner situation - where time pressure exists this may be necessary Problem Solving Collaboratively and objectively confronting the problem

43 You may need to exercise all three styles at different times.
In situations of conflict think about both parties’ styles - and understand how yours influences theirs The three “pure” styles of influence. Tough Battler fighting, powerful, commanding pressing for results, threatening, repetition confident, persuasive, forceful Logical Thinker logical, knowledgeable, clarifying ideas facts, quoting rules, practical orderly, fair, thorough Friendly Helper helpful, sympathetic, polite encouraging, compromising, concerned, friendly trusting, optimistic, caring, supportive Tough Battler Logical Thinker Friendly Helper You may need to exercise all three styles at different times.

44 A useful model to understand one’s approach is the “Assertiveness Matrix”
High Aggressive (I win You lose) Assertive (We both win) The extent to which I achieve my goals Avoidance (We both lose) Submissive (I lose You win) Low Low High The extent to which I allow the other person to achieve their goals Always seek to attain a position of ‘win-win’.

45 Where assertiveness on your part makes sense… employ the “DESC” script
Describe - what you want, how you see the situation objectively, and factually Express - your feelings about the situation and why you feel that way Specify - the action you think should be taken and why Consequences - both positive and negative, of doing or not doing what you are suggesting

46 An example of the “DESC” script
Describe: I’ve studied your inventory control system team and it is not adequate to meet the increased demands on your business. Express: I think this is worrying. Specify: My view is that unless you invest in a new inventory control system you will not fix it. Consequences: The benefit of this will be that you will cut the amount of inventory you have to hold and there will be fewer stock- outs on the line. If you don’t fix it, you are going to find it hard to meet your new quality targets.

47 If the client constantly challenges - “AIR” is a useful technique
Acknowledge What they have said in a genuine way Investigate Identify the main source of the resistance Encourage them to talk more about it - and listen Isolate and work the separate issues Reinforce: Reinforce the positive aspects of anything you are proposing Calmly and clearly explain the reasons for change (again!) Look for acceptance Emphasise your role as a partner.

48 Try ‘mirroring’ behaviours.
Remember, make sure ‘what you say’, ‘how you say it’, and ‘how you look’ work together to convey the right message Try ‘mirroring’ behaviours.

49 Nine strategies to deal with conflict and resistance constructively
“Do it my way” “Let’s make a deal” “Let’s work together” DOMINATE BARGAIN COLLABORATE Involved You direct, impose, control or resist You trade, take turns, or split the difference You problem-solve together to reach a win-win resolution “Try it, you’ll like it” “Agree to disagree” “It’s yours to do” Your Interaction SMOOTH COEXIST RELEASE You accentuate similarities and downplay differences You pursue differences independently You release control within agreed-on limits “Wait” “Let’s be fair” “I’ll go along” Neutral DECIDE BY RULE MAINTAIN YIELD You postpone confronting differences Objective rules determine how differences will be handled You give in, adapt, or agree Firm Flexible Your Viewpoint Source: Managing Conflict and Disagreement Constructively - H S Kindler, The 1995 Annual, Pfeiffer & Co

50 Top Tips - Managing Change
Remember people are more likely to change if they can help plan it Explain the change and its consequences to all those affected Put yourself in the shoes of those affected when planning change Explain the benefits of change in simple terms Always maintain the self-esteem of people affected Avoid creating win-lose situations if possible Look for ways to turn negative concerns into positive opportunities Generate as few surprises as possible Lead by example Recognise support and success Admit mistakes and learn from failures

51 Back up Panels for the Change Model

52 If the business is perceived as an open system, interacting with its environment
Understanding Business as a System Organisation as the sum of its Core Competencies Competitors Environmental intelligence capability Process capability Asset management capability Alignment capability Learning capability Organisation Suppliers Customers Employees Core capabilities are what enable it to respond and adapt creatively to new or unforeseen circumstances.

53 We have some initial ideas on defining these capability areas
Core Capability Description Environment Intelligence Transfer of information from the market (clients, competitors, suppliers, new entrants, transfer of information to the market. Process Capability Understanding of KPIs, RACI, best practice/benchmarking, knowing how to analyse processes and design To-Be processes. Asset Management Knowledge, human resource, physical and financial asset management. Alignment Leadership, values, corporate identity, communication. Learning Development process, innovation process, continuous improvement process. We will hold “expert” workshops within Gemini to fully define these areas and understand the implications for a consulting approach.

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