Presentation on theme: "Managing Change, Resistance, And Conflict"— Presentation transcript:
1Managing Change, Resistance, And Conflict Gemini Skills WorkshopMay 1998
2ObjectivesTo appreciate change at an organisational and a personal levelTo provide some sensible models that describe the process of change, in order for it to be managed as a processTo understand how to be proactive in managing the change process and reducing resistanceTo understand the good and bad sides of conflictYou’ll be presented with a number of change models to explain how and what the organization, as well as individuals, will go through. We will hopefully not only arm you with what to expect but how to deal with these changes.22
3Truths about change - why it happens creates organisational change . . .. . . creates personal changeExternal change . . .TechnologyEconomyGovernmentSocietyCustomer/competitorsStrategiesStructures/de-layeringPracticesProcessesProductsRoleResponsibilitiesHabitsThinkingValuesBehaviorsChange thus requires individuals and organisations to think, act, and perform differentlyNo matter how well motivated, an individual cannot make change alone. . . and an organisation changes only as fast as the percentage of people within the organisation change. . . thus the individuals within an organisation are as important as the leaders in changing organisationsChange is easier to deal with if we understand why the changes are occurringThere are many factors outside the organization that contributes to the need for change (legislation, competitors, markets change)Whenever possible, give example from the client’s perspective (e.g., DuPont, nylon has become a commodity item)The scope of changes in the organization reaches from the way we do our work, to the product or service that we deliver to our clients. Nothing within our organization will escape change.We as individuals will be required to think, act, and behave differentlyKey Message: we are change agents, and we all need to become experts in managing the changes that are occurring within our organizations, within our workgroup and within individuals in our organizationTransition: Let’s look at some of the specific changes that are taking place in our societyOur model is predicated on involving all parts of an organisation in making sustainable change.33
4The Five Essential Ingredients of Change VisionSense ofUrgencyWillingnessto ChangeCapabilityto ChangeAction Plans/RewardsSuccessful ChangeThe process can break down if any of these five are not in place.
5A simple view of change is presented by Kurt Lewin’s change model RefreezingUnfreezingIt is useful to have some models to aid us in understanding the process of change. Kurt Lewin created this three step universal change model and an associated theory on how to make change occur more than 40 years ago.Force Field DiagramDriving ChangeOpposing ChangeDriving ChangeOpposing ChangeMovementKey Points:It’s simple.Easily understood.Applies to any change personal and/or organizational.The key is to become skilled at unfreezing and nimble enough as an organization to recognize the need quickly and then respond.Lewin’s model helps us understand conceptually what needs to happen.44
6Successful change is a continuous process CommunicationFeedbackReinforcementRepetition: try it, fix it, try it againInterim milestonesCelebrate frequent successes. . . and everyone must be involved!
7We can use Kurt Lewin’s change model to help us in each phase of implementation: Acknowledge feelings and empathizeGive people as much information about the change as possibleSay what will not changeTreat the past with respectCreate the motivation and readiness to changeTechniques to reinforce unfreezingProvide focus and directionStrengthen peoples connections to one anotherOpen up two-way communicationsProvide the individual with a specific role in the change processTechniques to reinforce movementThink back to a change situation (as a group) you’ve just recently experienced (local election, changes to church procedures, etc.).Remember how successful the change was. Were your feelings dealt with?Did you feel you knew enough about it before it happened? It’s impossible to over communicate, when you think you’ve told people as much as you can—tell them all over again.Did you feel confident enough about what to expect and what would and would not be impacted? Help identify zones of stability for people. For example, develop “What will be different” charts for people as they understand the strengths of the current environment and being retrained.Could you have done something to prevent this change? Reduce defensiveness and any implied blame for creating the problems that now must be changed. For example, emphasize that they have been successful but now must reach for the next level of effectiveness.Ask the group for any other techniques that would reinforce unfreezing (e.g., explain changes clearly and in detail).Key Messages:Your role as a change agent is to help shepherd each individual through the change process.Ensure that individuals are reinforced for new behaviourImplement quick results and highlights successesBuild feedback mechanismsCelebrate!Techniques to reinforce refreezing55
8Some change tools & techniques UnfreezeMovementRefreezeUnfreezeCommunication Plan - who, when, what, howStream chartersStream logicActivity plans and milestonesA&D findingsQuick hits“As-Is” analysis and baselinesMobilisationBrown Paper fairTown meetingsSmall group eventsWorkplans“To-Be” analysisRoles and ResponsibilitiesKPIsProcess flowRoute / cause analysisPareto analysisProblem solving / team buildingWhite papersImplementation Gantt chartsImplementation RACIsImplementation KPIsManage resistance to changeRoles and responsibilities chartingContinuous Plan-Do-ReviewReward and recognitionCoaching and feedbackBenefits tracking
9But this only tells part of the story - Change involves giving up - and this is more of a personal choiceThe Rational(c. f. Kurt Lewin)UnfreezeMoveRefreezeEmotional - “Me”(c. f. Bridges)EndingsTransitionsBeginnings
10Our role is to help others through change ListeningFocusing: ask questions to pinpoint real issuesRestating: hearing it restated by someone else can help a person to clarify their real interestsSignal shift-take control of conversationExplain purpose of changeLink to his/her concernsSummarise: bottom line“Were my comments clear”“What are your ideas for the future?”“These are my ideas”Agree to finite stepsClarify EndingsDisengagementDisorientationDisidentificationDisenchantementShare TransitionExplainConfront / identifyNeutraliseTransferEngage BeginningsVision & PlansCommunicationsSymbols & ceremoniesNew Starts
11What people in change want: What people in change (usually) get: Unfortunately what you want and what you get in times of change often differWhat people in change want:What people in change (usually) get:EmpathyInformationIdeasAutocratic BehaviourAvoidance“Rah rah”
12People feel a sense of loss during change CompetenceRelationshipsSense of directionTerritorySecurityControl, knowledge of what the future holds and place in the organisationWhat to do, how to manage (can be embarrassing)Familiar contracts (customers, colleagues, managers, group membership)Understanding of where and why you are goingArea that ‘belonged’ to you (work space, responsibilities)This sense of loss generates an emotional cycle which can stall in a number of unproductive phases before acceptance of a new direction is complete.
13Change always results in a roller-coaster ride of Emotions The Emotional Cycle of ChangeTimeSatisfactionCertaintyDoubtHopeConfidenceOptimismPessimismWe don’t think our emotional shifts are unique—eeryone goes through it. The shifts become less severe. We can understand and know what to expect from the rections of other people in the organization. By recognizing the symptoms it will help us and help others to get through it more quickly.Each of the following panels describes the stages of the emotional cycle of change. As you discuss each phase, have the group provide examples of behavior they have seen that indicates someone is experiencing the emotions of that phase.Option: draw this on a flipchart so it is visible while viewing the following slides. Upon completion of the definitions—ask group where they are.See appendix for descriptions, explanations, examples for following five phases.What is important to recognise is that it’s a roller-coaster ride wheredifferent people will be in different places at different times.Source: Daryl Conner.66
14Understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change helps us deal with it Phase 1: Uniformed optimism – CertaintyHoneymoon periodIdeas look great on paperAll major obstacles appear to have been anticipatedPhase 2: Informed pessimism – DoubtProblems surface, not all solutions are obviousMorale drops (“Why did I ever get involved in the first place?”)Phase 3: Hopeful realism – HopeA turning point occurs, a sense of accomplishment replaces a sense of pushing against problemsProblems have not all disappeared, but people’s hopes are based on realistic dataPhase 4: Informed optimism – ConfidenceThe beginning of the change effort is frequently a “honeymoon” period with high hopes among those involved.Feelings are running high and morale is at a peak.This initial certainty about the changes success is based on little information.The manager needs to build high energy in the “honeymoon” stage and use that momentum to drive through the informed optimism stage.Optimism continues to developA fresh burst of energy appearsSuccessful change has been madeOfficial change effort is completeThe outcome is frequently much different from that anticipated in Phase 1Phase 5: Rewarding completion – Satisfaction77
16The context for evolving Gemini’s approach to change Our perspective on change has largely been driven by the experience of companies in the 1970s and 1980s.Relatively stable periods followed by sudden reaction to events largely imposed from outside.The business environment of our clients is changing:Rapid shifts, discontinuities, continuous process of disequilibrium moving to equilibrium and back to disequilibrium.Increasingly, clients require the capability to evolve and adapt their organisation to these shifting market conditions on a continuous basis.It is therefore no longer sufficient to understand change as discrete event that can be managed, and which is experienced as a crisis.Change in this context is better viewed as a creative process of choice, learning and growth.
17We are developing our thinking around change as a process of learning and capability development Capability is defined as the readiness to respond adaptively and creatively to new or unforeseen circumstances so as to achieve a specified intent.A capability-oriented approach requires a new perspective on how we consult . . .
18Creation of a higher order Chaos theory changes how we view the change process and how we view the emotional experience of changeDisintegrationChaosCreation of a higher orderTurbulenceEquilibriumSelf organising and self renewing systems possess innate properties that use chaos as a necessary stage to move to higher levels of order.Order does not equal structure.Order = dynamic energy that creates form and shape that suits present circumstance.If creating a “higher order”, on any dimension, requires turbulence, chaos and disintegration, what will enable, rather than disable, this process?
19Emotional responses to working on an unknown task We focused on understanding what happens when we work in conditions of uncertaintyEmotional responses to working on an unknown taskExcitementFear of failing, being wrong, not having the answerHigh levels of anxietyBlock: “I can’t think”Rigidness: “It’s not my job”Envy of people who seem to be copingBlaming of others. . . In order to understand how we can create conditions for learning and capability development.
20The challenge is to work with anxiety to create insight, avoid defensive behaviour and no learning—not to remove anxietyCycle of Emotions Promoting LearningCycle of Emotions Discouraging Learning1. Healthy Anxiety1. Unhealthy level of Anxiety2. Fight or flight5. Insight or Authority5. Willing ignorance and inactivity742. Uncertainty3. Denial or avoidance4. Struggle3. Risk4. Defensiveness or resistanceRole modelling and the use of structure (tasks, time) act to contain anxiety to healthy levels.Adaptation: “Inside Action Learning” by Russ Vince and Linda Martin, in “Management Education and Development”, Vol. 24, Part 3, 1993.
21Conditions for Capability Development From here, we identified possible conditions for capability developmentConditions for Capability DevelopmentAnxiety ownedand managedDevelopmentalPerspectiveInterpersonal dynamicsworked with,not suppressedAspirationReflectiveSpaceSources: Discussion with Tavistock Consulting Service; Group Focus Interview on capabilities and conditions for capability development (London, March 1998).
22Conditions for Capability Development Interpersonal dynamics If the conditions are met, a virtuous spiral of capability development takes place—without them, we generate defensiveness in ourselves and our clientsConditions for Capability DevelopmentAnxiety as stored energyUnhealthy levels of anxiety creates stress, defensiveness, denial, avoidanceOwned and managed anxiety creates healthy tension and discoveryProvide direction and a reason for changeMotivate and inspireTouch people’s heartsAnxiety ownedand managedAspirationDevelopmentalPerspectiveNurturing approach“Valuing the other person’s ability and handling it as a jewel”Enabling people to make own discoveries, vs. controlling themReflectiveSpaceTime to reflectReadiness to reflect on self and othersCreate space for learningInterpersonal dynamicsworked with,not suppressedEmotional issues surfacedEmotional energy channelledFacilitates self-discoveryWorking with unanticipated outcomesDiscussing the undiscussableRespect for needs for safety, support, protection and valueThese conditions can be translated into day-to-day working practices for consultants and teams.
24“..we don’t have the resource to do this” Both support and resistance can come from the same area - it is important to recognise which“..we don’t have the resource to do this”“..quality will suffer”“..this could risk delivery”Some above the surface“..the benefits are enormous”“..the increases agility will really thrill customers”Rational“..satisfaction indices will soar”“..I’ve been waiting for this moment for years”...and some belowEmotionalPolitical“..but that will affect my pay!”“..de-layering of the organisation makes such good sense ”“..how will this affect our relationships with clients?”“..the benefits will be enormous”
25In making change a success, it is important to understand where the various players’ energy lies DriveSupportObserveResist20%60%20%?Both sides try to influence the ‘undecided’ to move to their side - it’s a delicate balance.
26So how to manage this?Focus on the Resistance NOT on the DriveSeek ChampionsMobilise the Undecided
27Change requires individuals and organizations to think, act, and behave differently CALVIN AND HOBBES Bill WattersonTHE MORE YOU KNOW, THE HARDER IT IS TO TAKE DECISIVE ACTION.ONCE YOU BECOME INFORMED, YOU START SEEING COMPLEXITIES AND SHADES OF GRAY.YOU REALIZE THAT NOTHING IS AS CLEAR AND SIMPLE AS IT FIRST APPEARS.ULTIMATELY, KNOWLEDGE IS PARALYZING.BEING A MAN OF ACTION, I CAN’T AFFORD TO TAKE THAT RISK.YOU’RE IGNORANT. BUT AT LEAST YOU ACT ON IT.We have discussed why our organizations are required to change and a vision of how the organization will look in the future. We have also described how individuals respond to change, and some ways for dealing with individuals.The only thing we know for sure is that both the organizations and individuals within the organization will be different as a result of the changes. We will now look at some approaches to managing change within our organizationsKey message: Actively dealing with the change and the differences that we will see is a sure way to succeedTransition: We have explored change from the perspective of society, of our own organization, and from individuals within the organization. Our challenge is to determine how we, as change agents, can most successfully support the process of change.Neither ignorance or inaction make Change a success.88
28Change also requires leadership “To deal with the change, I committed us to try certain things with the understanding what they might not all work. Later, I realized that what I started - even through I didn’t see it at the time - was to create two things: an action plan and trustThe action plan had varying degrees of success and failure. But the trust was always there. If we didn’t have that trust, we would have complained ourselves out of business a long time ago.”
29So what you can do to proactively to Iead the change effort Demonstrate that we know where we are headed and have a plan to get thereShow personal and professional stabilityInvolve teams in owning changeShow we are serious about getting there – demonstrate supportBroad- cast the truthRewards consisten t with the ‘To Be’Communicat e ‘learning’Clarify why change is neededTeam Member SupportHelp individuals understand why need to change. They may not like it, but may be accepting if they understand why:Create dissatisfaction with the presentConsequences of not changingCommunicate the latest changes, steps forward and background.We have a plant to get there.Demonstrate support about achieving results99
3150 Reasons Why It Won’t Work 1. We tried that before.2. Our systems are different3. It costs too much.4. That’s beyond our responsibility.5. That’s not my job.6. We’re all too busy to do that.7. It’s too radical a change.8. There’s not enough help.9. We’ve never done it before.10. We don’t have the authority.11. There’s not enough time.12. Let’s get back to reality.13. That’s not our problem.14. Why change it? It’s still working OK.15. I don’t like that idea.16. You’re right, but …17. You’re two years ahead of your time18. It isn’t in the budget.19. We’re not ready for that.20. Sounds OK but impractical.21. Let’s give it some more thought.22. That’s my bowling day.23. That doesn’t effect me or my child.24. Nobody cares about that.25. We’ve always done it this way.26. It might not work.27. Not that again!28. Where’d you dig that one up?29. We did all right without it.30. It’s never been tried before.31. Let’s shelve it for the time being.32. I don’t see the connection.33. What you are really saying is …34. Let’s not be the first.35. Maybe that would work in your Branch but not in mine.36. Head Office will never go for it.37. It can’t be done.38. It’s too much trouble.39. It’s impossible.40. You’re not here to think.41. Can’t teach an old dog new tricks.42. Let me think about that and I’ll get back to you.43. Let’s wait until the next generation.44. The rules say we can’t do that.45. We can’t fight local government regulations.46. That’s old/new business and can’t be discussed now.47. That’s too serious a subject.48. No one is interested.49. It’s too early to think about it.50. It’s too late to start.11
32Forms of Resistance A. Avoidance of responsibility B. Flooding with detailC. One-word answersD. ImpracticalityE. AttackingF. ComplianceG. ConfusionH. Changing the subjectI. I’m not surprisedJ. SilenceK. TimeL. Nit-pickingM. Pressing for solutionsSource: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block.15
33The Voyage of Discovery Understanding Resistance is about getting behind the apparent and into the coreIndirect Expressionsof Concerns/Visible ResistanceReal/UnderlyingConcernsThe Voyage of Discovery. . . but tread carefully - too much exploration is rarely appreciated - simply ask “Why is that?”Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block.12
34Why Resistance Occurs . . . Resistance can occur because people fear: Loss of their credibility or reputationLack of career or financial advancementPossible damage to relationships with their superiorsLosing their jobInterpersonal rejectionChange in job roleEmbarrassment/loss of self-esteemJob transfer or demotionSource: Ryan and Oestreich.13
35Five Steps for Dealing with Resistance 1. Identify the form the resistance is taking2. Acknowledge the resistance3. Be quiet, listen, let the person respond4. Don’t take it personally5. Remember the “two good faith responses” ruleTrust what you see and how you hear more than what you hearAsk questions and listen carefully - Pick up the ‘cues’Learn from your own reactions:UneasyBoredIrritatedListen for repetition and telltale phrasesTell the person your perception of the resistanceDo it in a neutral, nonaggressive way with WIN/WIN words: “What I think I hear you saying is …”Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel:Use “I” statementsBe specific, clear, and authenticAllow them to ‘vent’ - until they do so progress is limitedStay attuned to other forms of resistance surfacingCheck for understandingRemember that their behaviour is not a reflection of you.Let them air their concerns without responding defensively.Don’t counterattack head-on.The majority of questions about methodology or the project process are just expressions of discomfortThe third time the question is asked, respond to the question with a statement that suggests the person might be reluctant to commit to the problem or process14
36Acknowledging Resistance: Hints for the Right Words Describe how you feel:Your perceptions of how they feelBeing authentic:. . . Encourages person to do the sameBe assertive:Direct, without putting anyone downUse “I” statementsBe descriptive, not evaluativeDescriptiveSpecificFocusedBriefSimpleJudgmentalStereotypedLengthyComplicatedN O T18
37How to Acknowledge Resistance Resistance FormsHow to Acknowledge - some examples“You don’t see yourself as part of the problem?”“You’re giving me more than I need. Can you headline it?”“Say more about that” (and don’t say the next word !)“You seem to feel that what we’re discussing is not ‘real world’. How could we make it more relevant?”“You are really questioning a lot of what I do. You seem angry.”“You seem agreeable to anything I suggest. I’m having a hard time telling what you’re really feeling.”“We seem to be having difficulty moving ahead. Are you confused about something?”A.Avoidance of responsibilityB.Flooding with detailC.One-word answersD.ImpracticalityE.AttackingF.ComplianceG.ConfusionSource: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block.16
38How to Acknowledge Resistance cont’d Resistance FormsAcknowledgment ExamplesH.Changing the subject“The subject keeps shifting. Can we focus on one thing at a time?”I.I’m not surprised“I feel that you expect me to know more about you.”J.Silence“I don’t know how to read your silence.”K.Time“You don’t seem to have the time to work with me. I find it hard to proceed without involvement from you.”L.Nit-picking“We would appear to be getting into a lot of detail.”M.Pressing for solutions“It’s too early for solution. I’m still trying to find out…”Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block.17
40One of the hardest parts of consulting is coping with the conflict that resistance engenders The top seven sources of conflict on projects are:Schedules:Timing, sequencing, duration, feasibility of schedule for project-related tasks or activitiesProject priorities:Lack of goals, poorly defined project mission, differing views of task importance, shifting goalsResources:Competition for personnel, materials, equipment, facilities among project members or across teamsTechnical options:From technical issues, performance specifications, technical trade-offsAdministrative procedures:How project will be managed, reporting relationships, interface relationships, work design, plans for execution, negotiated work agreements with others, administrative proceduresCost objectives:Lack of cost control authority, allocation of fundsPersonalities:Egos, personality differences, prejudice, stereotypingSource: Thamhain and Wilemon.
41. . . it requires humility, resolve, and patience. A Key MessageThe client is not always right, but the way you deal with him/her has to be. . . it requires humility, resolve, and patience.
42Strategies for dealing with conflict tend to be situation dependent AvoidingOr withdrawing, …but this may mean leaving the solution to chance or fateSmoothingCovering up and pretending that all is calm, cooperative, and pleasant - at times a good strategy where third parties are involvedBargainingSometimes compromising - each party gains and loses something - preferably amicablyForcingLoser and winner situation - where time pressure exists this may be necessaryProblem SolvingCollaboratively and objectively confronting the problem
43You may need to exercise all three styles at different times. In situations of conflict think about both parties’ styles - and understand how yours influences theirsThe three “pure” styles of influence.Tough Battlerfighting, powerful, commandingpressing for results, threatening, repetitionconfident, persuasive, forcefulLogical Thinkerlogical, knowledgeable, clarifying ideasfacts, quoting rules, practicalorderly, fair, thoroughFriendly Helperhelpful, sympathetic, politeencouraging, compromising, concerned, friendlytrusting, optimistic, caring, supportiveTough BattlerLogicalThinkerFriendlyHelperYou may need to exercise all three styles at different times.
44A useful model to understand one’s approach is the “Assertiveness Matrix” HighAggressive(I win You lose)Assertive(We both win)The extent towhich I achievemy goalsAvoidance(We both lose)Submissive(I lose You win)LowLowHighThe extent to which I allow theother person to achieve their goalsAlways seek to attain a position of ‘win-win’.
45Where assertiveness on your part makes sense… employ the “DESC” script Describe - what you want, how you see the situation objectively, and factuallyExpress - your feelings about the situation and why you feel that waySpecify - the action you think should be taken and whyConsequences - both positive and negative, of doing or not doing what you are suggesting
46An example of the “DESC” script Describe: I’ve studied your inventory control system team and it is not adequate to meet the increased demands on your business.Express: I think this is worrying.Specify: My view is that unless you invest in a new inventory control system you will not fix it.Consequences: The benefit of this will be that you will cut the amount of inventory you have to hold and there will be fewer stock- outs on the line. If you don’t fix it, you are going to find it hard to meet your new quality targets.
47If the client constantly challenges - “AIR” is a useful technique AcknowledgeWhat they have said in a genuine wayInvestigateIdentify the main source of the resistanceEncourage them to talk more about it - and listenIsolate and work the separate issuesReinforce:Reinforce the positive aspects of anything you are proposingCalmly and clearly explain the reasons for change (again!)Look for acceptanceEmphasise your role as a partner.
48Try ‘mirroring’ behaviours. Remember, make sure ‘what you say’, ‘how you say it’, and ‘how you look’ work together to convey the right messageTry ‘mirroring’ behaviours.
49Nine strategies to deal with conflict and resistance constructively “Do it my way”“Let’s make a deal”“Let’s work together”DOMINATEBARGAINCOLLABORATEInvolvedYou direct,impose, controlor resistYou trade, take turns,or split the differenceYou problem-solvetogether to reach a win-win resolution“Try it, you’ll like it”“Agree to disagree”“It’s yours to do”Your InteractionSMOOTHCOEXISTRELEASEYou accentuatesimilarities anddownplay differencesYou pursue differencesindependentlyYou release control within agreed-on limits“Wait”“Let’s be fair”“I’ll go along”NeutralDECIDE BY RULEMAINTAINYIELDYou postpone confronting differencesObjective rules determine how differences will be handledYou give in, adapt, or agreeFirmFlexibleYour ViewpointSource: Managing Conflict and Disagreement Constructively - H S Kindler, The 1995 Annual, Pfeiffer & Co
50Top Tips - Managing Change Remember people are more likely to change if they can help plan itExplain the change and its consequences to all those affectedPut yourself in the shoes of those affected when planning changeExplain the benefits of change in simple termsAlways maintain the self-esteem of people affectedAvoid creating win-lose situations if possibleLook for ways to turn negative concerns into positive opportunitiesGenerate as few surprises as possibleLead by exampleRecognise support and successAdmit mistakes and learn from failures
52If the business is perceived as an open system, interacting with its environment Understanding Business as a SystemOrganisation as the sum of its Core CompetenciesCompetitorsEnvironmental intelligence capabilityProcess capabilityAsset management capabilityAlignment capabilityLearning capabilityOrganisationSuppliersCustomersEmployeesCore capabilities are what enable it to respond and adapt creatively to new or unforeseen circumstances.
53We have some initial ideas on defining these capability areas Core CapabilityDescriptionEnvironment IntelligenceTransfer of information from the market (clients, competitors, suppliers, new entrants, transfer of information to the market.Process CapabilityUnderstanding of KPIs, RACI, best practice/benchmarking, knowing how to analyse processes and design To-Be processes.Asset ManagementKnowledge, human resource, physical and financial asset management.AlignmentLeadership, values, corporate identity, communication.LearningDevelopment process, innovation process, continuous improvement process.We will hold “expert” workshops within Gemini to fully define these areas and understand the implications for a consulting approach.