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Learning in action: David A. Garvin. Learning Definition  Learning is a process that unfolds over time and link it with knowledge acquisition, deeper.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning in action: David A. Garvin. Learning Definition  Learning is a process that unfolds over time and link it with knowledge acquisition, deeper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning in action: David A. Garvin

2 Learning Definition  Learning is a process that unfolds over time and link it with knowledge acquisition, deeper understanding and improved performance.

3 Definition  A learning organisation is an organisation skilled at creating, interpreting, acquiring, transferring and retaining knowledge and at modifying behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insight.

4 Introduction  How different organizations put different learning strategies to work The stages of learning, Types or modes of learning The leadership challenge  The heart of organizational learning = a set of processes Design Deploy Lead

5 How an organization learns?  The stage of Learning Acquiring Knowledge Interpreting Knowledge Applying Knowledge

6 Stage of learning Acquiring knowledge What knowledge should we collect? From where? How should it be obtained? By whom? Understanding to allow new ideas to flourish Distinguishing relevant and irrelevant information Separate “signal from noise” Remaining open to unexpected and occasionally unwelcome

7 Stage of learning What does the knowledge mean? What categories should we apply? What are cause-and- effect relationships at work? Interpreting knowledge - Test and Update continually - Reasonable rather than right Interpretation lies at the heart of decision making

8 Stage of learning What new activities are appropriate? What behaviors must be modified? How to generate a collective response by the organization? Applying knowledge Translating interpretation into concrete behavior Hands-on experience is usually the best teacher

9 Learning Disabilities  Biased information  Flawed interpretation  Inaction

10 Learning Disabilities  Biased Information Blind spots “ narrow or misdirected” Filtering “ critical data are downplayed or ignored” Lack of information sharing

11 Learning Disabilities  Flawed interpretation Since the underlying processes are complex and poorly understood.

12 Learning Disabilities  Inaction  An inability or unwillingness to act on new interpretations A problem of incentives and the frequent lack of support for new initiatives A certain level of self-awareness Espoused theories vs theories-in-use

13 Supporting Learning Environment  Recognize and Accept Differences  Provide Timely Feedback  Stimulate New Ideas  Tolerate Errors and Mistakes

14 Types of learning Intelligence gathering Experience Experimentation

15 Types of learning Aim atOrganizational knowledgeLearning methods Intelligence gathering The presentAttend to currently available information and knowledge -Search -Inquiry -Observation - Search: Public sources or documents : Skill need : care analysis and research - Inquiry: interviews / surveys : Skill need : framing and asking insightful questions - Observation: direct contact with users : Skill need : attentive looking and listening

16  Using information from diverse sources  Cross-checking the findings  Ensuring reliability  Shifting smoothly between passive and active mode  Devoting effort to analysis and interpretation  Connecting with decision making Search

17  Providing choice of respondents  Carefully framing questions  Respondents as representative and appropriate  2 forms Descriptive  Focus group and structured conversation  Easy to summarize results Exploratory  Using open-ended questions to elicit perceptions and needs  Respondents on their minds Inquiry

18  Carrying out in real context  Acceptance of an observer  Attentive looking and listening  Suspending judgment and postpone analysis long as possible  2 approaches Passive observation  To record experience for later review Participation and interaction  To clarify and refine understanding Observation

19  Search matches with settings of published information.  Inquiry suits to settings of identifying key sources.  Observation suits to settings of gaining insights by watching people. Combination of them provides intelligence of the highest order. Suitable technique

20 Types of learning Aim atOrganizational knowledgeLearning methods ExperienceThe pastDraw lessons from activities that have already taken place Reflection and review Single case or comparison reviews Individual, group, or organizational reviews Experiential learning Learning and experience curve

21  Repetition Efficiently performing the same tasks over time  Exposure Getting a new set of talent Added skill by the exploration of unfamiliar engagement Two distinct ways of experience

22 Learning and experience curves

23  Focusing on problem / success  Taking time to reflect on experiences and developing lessons for the future  Reflection and review processes are weak due to late in game.  After-the-fact reviews as alternating periods of learning and doing  Focusing on tangible and result-oriented programs Reflection and review

24 Types of learning Aim atOrganizational knowledgeLearning methods ExperimentationThe futureLook ahead, trying out new designs or theories to test their validity - Exploration - Hypothesis testing

25  Try-it-and –see approach  Knowledge as provisional and conclusions as tentative  Designed activities to generate knowledge Experimentation

26  Exploratory experiments To see what would happen if  Hypothesis-testing experiments To discriminate among alternative explanations and confirm prevailing views Types of experiments

27 Lack of information leading to difficult to identity solution  Probe-and-learn process 4 elements such as a starting point, one or more feedback loops, a process for rapid redesign and a stopping rule  Demonstration projects On-line experiments Large scale simulation Exploration

28  Deductive rather than inductive  Disciplined rather than playful  Targeted rather than open-end  Generating data, validating theories, and ensuring new ideas to be accepted Hypothesis testing

29  Be clear about the purpose of the experiments  Begin with a hypothesis in mind  Ensure that all needed measures (pretest and posttest) are in place  Reproduce real-world conditions as closely as possible  Manipulate a single variable at a time  Use comparison groups or other natural controls  Involve diverse, complementary observers  Search for distinctive patterns  Employ multiple, repeated trials Conducting experiments

30 The leadership challenge  Creating opportunity  Setting the tone  Leading the discussion

31 Leading learning Methods that leaders use to work with people of an organization moving in the desired direction. Leading learning Creating the opportunity Learning forumsExploratory assignmentsShared experiences Setting the tone Challenge and dissentSecurity and supportOpen communication Leading the discussion QuestioningListeningResponding

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