Dietary Management Aims – To achieve good glycaemic control & adequate nutritional intake To assist with weight management To prevent/postpone complications of DM
Dietary recommendations Individualized according to patient’s ethnicity, cultural, religious & family backgrounds. Timed according to patient’s daily routine. Flexible
Carbohydrates Consumption of carbohydrates which have low Glycaemic Index (GI)
Glycaemic Index (GI) Measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood glucose level. GI digestion & absorption of foods rate of glucose entering in to the circulation Blood glucose level gradually increases
Sources of carbohydrates Use– Cereals, mixed coarse grains, whole pulses, salads, red rice, fruits & vegetables (low GI),brown bread - Foods containing dietary fibres (oats, pulses) Avoid – sugar, honey, jaggery, sweets, white rice, white bread (high GI)
Sources of protein Essential amino acids Vegetable proteins, low fat milk & milk products, fish & lean meats
Sources of fat Saturated fat (ghee, butter) - <7% of total caloric intake Dietary cholesterol intake - <300mg/day. Use more than one edible oil. ω -6 & ω -3 fatty acids Avoid hydrogenated fat.
Physical Activities (Exercises) Regular exercise is essential. Specially for patients with Type 2 DM. Brisk walk 30-60min/day & 5days/week. Exercise schedule must be suited for each individual according to his/her physical strength..
Benefits Improvement in Insulin sensitivity. Reduction of HT. Weight management. Improvement of lipid profile. Improve the function of CVS. Increase bone density Improve the quality of life. Mental and physical wellness.
Stress Management +
Behavioral modification. Positive thinking. Meditation. Satisfactory treatment plans and special attention. Optimal family support. Appropriate support and counseling. Improve skills (reading, writing, poetry…)
Acknowledgements Special thanks to Madam A. Attanayake for her valuable guidance to make this presentation successful.