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The Intersection of Technology Tools and Cognitive Strategies: Improving Content Area Instruction for Students with Mild Disabilities Cynthia Okolo Michigan.

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Presentation on theme: "The Intersection of Technology Tools and Cognitive Strategies: Improving Content Area Instruction for Students with Mild Disabilities Cynthia Okolo Michigan."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Intersection of Technology Tools and Cognitive Strategies: Improving Content Area Instruction for Students with Mild Disabilities Cynthia Okolo Michigan State University okolo@msu.edu

2 Cognitive Strategy Instruction Been around a long time Been around a long time Skills versus strategies Skills versus strategies Students with disabilities may not be strategic learners Students with disabilities may not be strategic learners Strong evidence for efficacy Strong evidence for efficacy

3 Cognitive Strategy Instruction Strategies help students make use of what they know Strategies help students make use of what they know Still need to learn content Still need to learn content Still need to learn skills Still need to learn skills

4 What is Cognitive Strategy Instruction? Cognitive strategy instruction (CSI) Cognitive strategy instruction (CSI) e.g., Robert Reid, University of Nebraska e.g., Robert Reid, University of Nebraska University of Nebraska University of Nebraska Learning strategies instruction Learning strategies instruction e.g., Strategic Instruction Model (UK), e.g., Strategic Instruction Model (UK),Strategic Instruction Model (UK)Strategic Instruction Model (UK) Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) e.g., SRSD in writing e.g., SRSD in writingSRSD in writingSRSD in writing

5 What is Cognitive Strategy Instruction? More than a recipe More than a recipe Kabobs Set of principles + set of instructional practices Set of principles + set of instructional practices

6 Principles of Cognitive Strategy Instruction Strategy is like a heuristic, a set of steps Strategy is like a heuristic, a set of steps How do I do this? How do I do this? What steps do I follow? What steps do I follow? In what order In what order Helps the implicit become explicit Helps the implicit become explicit Interactive, dialogic Interactive, dialogic Students take ownership of their learning Students take ownership of their learning self-regulation self-regulation generalization generalization flexible use and adaptation flexible use and adaptation

7 Hamburger Strategy This is a set of steps, but not a strategy This is a set of steps, but not a strategy Top of bun: Topic Sentence Meat: Supports (related to your topic sentence) Condiments: Expansions: analysis, interpretation, explanation, insight Bottom bun: Concluding sentence

8 Practices of Cognitive Strategy Instruction Develop background knowledge, reason for learning, motivation Develop background knowledge, reason for learning, motivation Describe/discuss strategy and steps Describe/discuss strategy and steps Model the strategy Model the strategy Heart of strategy instruction Heart of strategy instruction Memorize steps Memorize steps Guided practice (skill appropriate) Guided practice (skill appropriate) Independent practice (age appropriate) Independent practice (age appropriate) Generalization Generalization

9 Examples of Strategy Instruction Watch and discuss an example: Strategies for Reading Fluency Watch and discuss an example: Strategies for Reading Fluency Utah Center for Reading and Literacy Utah Center for Reading and Literacy Utah Center for Reading and Literacy Utah Center for Reading and Literacy

10 Examples of Technology-Based Strategy Instruction Discuss CAST Strategy Tutor Discuss CAST Strategy TutorCAST Strategy TutorCAST Strategy Tutor Discuss SOAR Discuss SOARSOAR Carolyn Harper Knox, Ph.D. 541-346-3543 voice mail 541-346-6226 fax Carolyn Harper Knox, Ph.D. 541-346-3543 voice mail 541-346-6226 fax

11 TASK X STRATEGY ACADEMIC TASK SELF-REGULATIONCONTENT KNOWLEDGE SELF-REGULATIONCONTENT KNOWLEDGE COGNITIVE STRATEGY

12 Technology is Not Always the Best Approach Sometimes good old pencil and paper works best Consider affordances and constraints

13 Studying facts and vocabulary Mastering a set of information requires a large amount of focused practice Mastering a set of information requires a large amount of focused practice Can take upwards of 24 times to reach 80% accuracy Can take upwards of 24 times to reach 80% accuracy May be more for kids with learning difficulties/disabilities May be more for kids with learning difficulties/disabilities New learning does not happen quickly, requires practice spread out over time New learning does not happen quickly, requires practice spread out over time Small set of information at a time Small set of information at a time Spaced practice Spaced practice Review Review Build on existing knowledge networks Build on existing knowledge networks Increments in learning start out large then taper off Increments in learning start out large then taper off

14 Study Tools for Study Strategies StudyHive (basic flashcard program) StudyHive (basic flashcard program) http://studyhive.com/ http://studyhive.com/ http://studyhive.com/ Cramberry: http://www.cramberry.net/ (self-quiz) Cramberry: http://www.cramberry.net/ (self-quiz)http://www.cramberry.net/ Sometimes technology tools model cognitive strategies Sometimes technology tools model cognitive strategies HeadMagnet: http://headmagnet.com/ HeadMagnet: http://headmagnet.com/http://headmagnet.com/ “Explore” option to see how the tool works “Explore” option to see how the tool works Quizlet: http://quizlet.com Quizlet: http://quizlet.comhttp://quizlet.com http://quizlet.com/demo-video.php http://quizlet.com/demo-video.php (see Speak It option) (see Speak It option)

15 Study Strategy Steps Prioritize Prioritize Take the first step—any step Take the first step—any step Identify resources to help you Identify resources to help you Schedule Schedule blocks of study time and breaks blocks of study time and breaks Use free time wisely Use free time wisely Postpone distractions Postpone distractions Study space Study space Review Review Weekly Weekly Before class Before class After class After classhttp://www.studygs.net/timman.htm

16 Before Reading Strategies Brainstorming Brainstorming PreP: PreReading Plan PreP: PreReading PlanPreReading PlanPreReading Plan Setting a goal for reading Setting a goal for reading Skimming, scan, predict Skimming, scan, predict SQ3R SQ3R Reciprocal teaching Reciprocal teaching K-W-L K-W-L Know, what to know, learn(ed) Know, what to know, learn(ed)

17 Example: Survey Survey Survey the title, headings, and subheadings the title, headings, and subheadings captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps review questions or teacher-made study guides review questions or teacher-made study guides introductory and concluding paragraphs introductory and concluding paragraphs summary summary Question while you are surveying: Question while you are surveying: Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into questions Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into questions Read questions at the end of the chapters or after each subheading Read questions at the end of the chapters or after each subheading Ask yourself, "What did my instructor say about this chapter or subject when it was assigned?" Ask yourself, "What did my instructor say about this chapter or subject when it was assigned?" Ask yourself, "What do I already know about this subject?” Ask yourself, "What do I already know about this subject?” http://www.studygs.net/texred2.htm http://www.studygs.net/texred2.htm http://www.studygs.net/texred2.htm http://www.studygs.net/texred2.htm

18 Concept Mapping Inspiration/webspiration Inspiration/webspiration Inspiration/webspiration Bubbl.us Bubbl.us Bubbl.us Mindomo Mindomo Mindomo Popplet Popplet Popplet Freemind Freemind Freemind

19 During Reading Access to print Access to print e.g., text to speech, large print e.g., text to speech, large print Predicting Predicting Questioning and clarifying Questioning and clarifying Vocabulary (online dictionaries, translation tools) Vocabulary (online dictionaries, translation tools) Unfamiliar concepts (linking, searching) Unfamiliar concepts (linking, searching) Locating important ideas Locating important ideas Notetaking Notetaking Annotating Annotating Bookmarking Bookmarking Highlighting Highlighting Social networking (asking others, discussing) Social networking (asking others, discussing)

20 Diigo Free application available on web toolbar: http://www.diigo.com Free application available on web toolbar: http://www.diigo.com http://www.diigo.com http://www.diigo.com/about http://www.diigo.com/about http://www.diigo.com/about http://www.diigo.com/learn_more http://www.diigo.com/learn_more http://www.diigo.com/learn_more Ideas for using Diigo in education: http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/diigo-in-education- presentation Ideas for using Diigo in education: http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/diigo-in-education- presentation http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/diigo-in-education- presentation http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/diigo-in-education- presentation

21 What Strategies Do Students Need to Use Diigo? Finding and evaluating information Finding and evaluating information Identifying important information Identifying important information Main ideas Main ideas Details Details Monitoring comprehension Monitoring comprehension Annotating Annotating Finding additional information Finding additional information

22 After Reading Reducing/reorganizing Reducing/reorganizing Summarizing Summarizing Timeline Timeline Concept Map Concept Map Expanding Expanding Studying Studying Communicating Communicating Writing Writing Presenting Presenting

23 Project PAL Integrating a strategy for reading text into WYNN Integrating a strategy for reading text into WYNNWYNN http://www.freedomscientific.com/lsg/products/wynn_demo.asp http://www.freedomscientific.com/lsg/products/wynn_demo.asp http://www.freedomscientific.com/lsg/products/wynn_demo.asp http://www.freedomscientific.com/lsg/products/wynn_demo.asp Strategy makes use of WYNN tools Strategy makes use of WYNN tools WYNN tools support the strategy WYNN tools support the strategy Strategy helps kids understand and learn from text Strategy helps kids understand and learn from text

24 PREPARE Strategy Preview Preview Set goals for reading Set goals for reading Ask specific, color-coded questions Ask specific, color-coded questions Read Read Examine Examine Look through text to meet goals or answer questions Look through text to meet goals or answer questions Pick what’s important Pick what’s important Highlight (color coded to questions) Highlight (color coded to questions)

25 PREPARE Arrange Arrange Highlighted text is extracted by color Highlighted text is extracted by color Students can arrange topically Students can arrange topically Reduce Reduce Write a summary Write a summary Create notecards for study or to support writing Create notecards for study or to support writing Explain Explain Supported writing for different types of text (e.g., narrative, expository) Supported writing for different types of text (e.g., narrative, expository)

26 PREPARE Features Student can access all WYNN tools from all strategy steps Student can access all WYNN tools from all strategy steps Choice Choice Student can skip strategy steps Student can skip strategy steps But teacher can override But teacher can override Student can go back and forth between strategy steps Student can go back and forth between strategy steps All directions and prompts are editable All directions and prompts are editable Can use local language of instruction Can use local language of instruction Accompanied by professional development materials Accompanied by professional development materials

27 Organizing Information Ideas Ideas Materials Materials Reading Reading Notes Notes Pictures Pictures Resources Resources Collaborating Collaborating Searching & Tagging features Searching & Tagging features

28 Evernote Evernote.com: evernote.com Evernote.com: evernote.comevernote.com Web, desktop, mobile Web, desktop, mobile http://www.evernote.com/about/learn_more/ http://www.evernote.com/about/learn_more/ http://www.evernote.com/about/learn_more/ http://www.evernote.com/about/video/#5Ag_rlQL4IM|2|1 http://www.evernote.com/about/video/#5Ag_rlQL4IM|2|1 http://www.evernote.com/about/video/#5Ag_rlQL4IM|2|1 Trunk Trunk Study Blue Study Blue Study Blue Study Blue Mobile Mobile Evernote Peek: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqVjruCt6yg&feature=player_embedded Evernote Peek: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqVjruCt6yg&feature=player_embedded http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqVjruCt6yg&feature=player_embedded http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/evernote-peek/id442151267?mt=8 http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/evernote-peek/id442151267?mt=8 http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/evernote-peek/id442151267?mt=8 Chrome and Firefox extensions, clip from browser Chrome and Firefox extensions, clip from browser Evernote web clipping Evernote web clipping Evernote web clipping Evernote web clipping

29 Other Uses of Evernote Share electronic copies of notes Share electronic copies of notes Research web sites & clip pages directly from browser. Research web sites & clip pages directly from browser. Create to-do lists, jot down random thoughts, leave voice memos Create to-do lists, jot down random thoughts, leave voice memos Keep notes organized for different classes in one place. Keep notes organized for different classes in one place. Use as index cards while writing a research paper. Use as index cards while writing a research paper. Post reminders of upcoming events Post reminders of upcoming events http://teachweb2.wikispaces.com/EVERNOTE http://teachweb2.wikispaces.com/EVERNOTE

30 What Strategies Do Students Need to Take Advantage of Evernote? How to organize How to organize Classes Classes Activities Activities Tagging Tagging Media types—best ways to represent ideas Media types—best ways to represent ideas How to create tags How to create tags How to search and choose information from the web How to search and choose information from the web When and how to collaborate When and how to collaborate

31 References 1. Byrne, R. Free Technology for Teachers. http://www.freetech4teachers.com/2011/06/77-web-resources-for-teacher-to-explore.html? /www.freetech4teachers.com/2011/06/77-web-resources-for-teacher-to-explore.html? 2. CAST Strategy Tutor: http://cst.cast.org/cst/PAGE,help http://cst.cast.org/cst/PAGE,help 3. Conley, M. W. (2008). Cognitive strategy instruction for adolescents: What we know about the promise, what we don’t know about the potential. Harvard Educational Review 4. Harris, K. R., Schmidt, T., & Graham, S. (1997). Strategies for composition and self-regulation in the writing process. LD Online: www.ldonline.org/article/6207 www.ldonline.org/article/6207 5. Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. The theory underlying concept maps and how to use them. http://cmap.ihmc.us/publications/researchpapers/theorycmaps/theoryunderlyingconceptmaps.htm Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. The theory underlying concept maps and how to use them. http://cmap.ihmc.us/publications/researchpapers/theorycmaps/theoryunderlyingconceptmaps.htm Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. The theory underlying concept maps and how to use them. http://cmap.ihmc.us/publications/researchpapers/theorycmaps/theoryunderlyingconceptmaps.htm 6. Reading Rockets: http://www.readingrockets.org/blog/42207/ http://www.readingrockets.org/blog/42207/ 7. Project SOAR: http://cate.uoregon.edu:9400/ : http://cate.uoregon.edu:9400/: http://cate.uoregon.edu:9400/ 8. Special Connections: Cognitive Strategies: http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=main&subsection=cs/main http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=main&subsection=cs/main 9. Study Guides and strategies: http://www.studygs.net/index.htm 10. University of Kansas Learning Strategies Overview: www.kucrl.org/sim/brochures/LSoverview.pdf www.kucrl.org/sim/brochures/LSoverview.pdf 11. Utah Center for Reading and Literacy: http://www.ucrl.utah.edu/pro-dev/instruction/lesson1_01.html http://www.ucrl.utah.edu/pro-dev/instruction/lesson1_01.html


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