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Safety Training Presentations

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1 Safety Training Presentations
Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Safety Training Presentations Lightning Safety Awareness Electricity is essential to modern life, both at home and on the job. Some employees engineers, electricians, electronic technicians, and power line workers, among them work with electricity directly. Others, such as office workers and sales people, work with it indirectly. Perhaps because it has become such a familiar part of our daily life, many of us don’t give much thought to how much our work depends on a reliable source of electricity. More importantly, we tend to overlook the hazards electricity poses and fail to treat it with the respect it deserves. Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

2 FY-11 OSHA Susan Harwood Grant Program
This material was produced under grant number SH22297-SH1 from OSHA. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 Objectives: Participants will:
Define facts associated with lightning Describe ways lightning can kill Illustrate how to protect yourself and co-workers against lightning hazards Analyze and discuss case studies Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

4 The under-rated killer
Lightning Facts Lightning is a real risk; an average of ten deaths and forty injuries from lightning occur in Florida each year. 9 out of 10 people struck do survive the event; 100 people killed in US/year 25% of the survivors have long-term psychological or physiological trauma The under-rated killer Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

5 Lightning Facts Lightning strikes earth a 100 times each second
Average flash will light a 100 watt bulb for 3 months Lightning is the second largest killer due to storms, exceeded only by floods Some areas are struck by lightning more often than others. Florida's “Lightning Alley” is a prime example. Lighting facts: Lightning is the #2 storm killer in the U.S., killing more than hurricanes or tornadoes on average. Only floods kill more. In the United States hundreds of people are killed or injured each year in lightning mishaps . But the real story of lightning isn't the deaths, it's the injuries. Only about 10% of those struck are killed; 90% survive. But of the survivors, many suffer life-long severe injury and disability. These injuries are primarily neurological, with a wide range of symptoms, and are sometimes difficult to diagnose. Lightning also causes about $5 billion of economic loss each year in the U.S. Today, most tall buildings are protected by lightning rods. Aerials and power lines are protected by using lightning arrestors. 5

6 Lightning Facts Heat exceeds 50,000 degrees F (3 times hotter than the surface of the sun); 90,000 miles/second; bolt is 1-2 in wide Thunder (shock wave created by super heated air in the lightning channel) is always associated with lightning

7 Lightning Statistics 2nd most frequent cause of weather-related deaths
40% in open fields; 23% under trees; 14% boating/swimming; 5% golf; 5 % heavy machinery; 4% telephone Gender: 84% men; 16% female Months: June 21%; July 30%; August 22%

8 Common Lightning Myths:
Myth - lightning never strikes twice in the same place. Fact - very tall buildings have been struck several times in the same storm by lightning. Myth - many people think that during a thunderstorm it is better to seek shelter under tall trees. Fact - trees are more likely to be struck by lightning 8

9 Five Ways Lightning can Kill
A direct strike A side flash Conducted current Step voltage Secondary effects A direct strike usually results in cardiac arrest and/or stoppage of breathing. A sideflash may occur when the body of a person provides an alternate or parallel path for the current. This means the person may be another way for the current to reach the ground. If the current passes through the head or heart, death may result. Conducted current from a lightning flash may range from tingling shock to a massive current diverted from a poorly grounded electric power pole through the wiring system. Step voltage radiates out through the ground from a struck tree or pole. This results in many livestock deaths every year. Fires, fallen trees, crushed cars. These are secondary effects. Injuries that occur from these are an indirect result of lightning Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

10 Lightning-Caused Hazards
Fallen Wires Electrical Fires Forest fires Fallen Wires: Do not touch fallen wires. Report them to the police or local utility immediately. If the wire should fall on an occupied vehicle, tell the driver to stay in it and drive away, if possible. If they are unable to drive away, tell them to wait for help and do not get out. They are safe inside the car, but should avoid touching the metal parts of the car. Electrical Fires: If an appliance or tool catches fire, try to unplug it or turn off the current at the fuse box. Do not pour water on the fire. Use a Class C fire extinguisher or throw baking soda on the fire. If it gets out of control, call the local fire department and get out. Forest fires: Pine trees become explosive when struck by lightning Lightning Causes Forest Fires. Can Forest Fires Cause Lightning? Yes, smoke and carbon micro-particles, when introduced into the upper atmosphere, can become the initiators of static. Sufficient atmospheric static can spark discharge as lightning. Reports of massive lightning storms in coastal Brasil, Peru and Hawaii have been linked to burning of sugar cane fields. The late 90's Mexican forest fires resulted in unusual lightning activity in the USA High Plains area (Lyons, et al.) So too can dust in an enclosed grain elevator create a static discharge. Recent reports (Orville, et al) show the Houston TX petrochemical industry, discharging copious amounts of hydrocarbons into the upper atmosphere, may be responsible for higher-than-normal lightning activity in that area. (National Lightning Safety Institute) Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

11 Safety Measures Have a plan Postpone activities
Sensitive electronics should be unplugged Keep away from electrical equipment, wiring and water pipes Have a lightning safety plan. Know where you’ll go for safety and how much time it will take to get there. Make sure your plan allows enough time to reach safety. Postpone activities. Before going outdoors, check the forecast for thunderstorms. Consider postponing activities to avoid being caught in a dangerous situation. Monitor the weather. Look for signs of a developing thunderstorm such as darkening skies, flashes of lightning, or increasing wind. Get to a safe place. If you hear thunder, even a distant rumble, immediately move to a safe place. When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors! Fully enclosed buildings with wiring and plumbing provide the best protection. Sheds, picnic shelters, tents or covered porches do not protect you from lightning. If a sturdy building is not nearby, get into a hard-topped metal vehicle and close all the windows. Stay inside until 30 minutes after the last rumble of thunder. If you hear thunder, don’t use a corded phone. Cordless phones, cell phones and other wireless handheld devices are safe to use. Keep away from electrical equipment, wiring and water pipes. Sensitive electronics should be unplugged well in advance of thunderstorms. Don’t take a bath, shower or use other plumbing during a thunderstorm. Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

12 Outdoor Worker Safety Measures
Plan in advance your evacuation/safety measures (look for dark clouds and increased wind and/or you hear thunder) Avoid water, high ground, open spaces, metal objects; find shelter in a substantial building Primary source of shelter Facility with plumbing Secondary source of shelter Vehicle Safety measures: Suspension/resumption of work activities should be planned in advance. Understanding of SAFE shelters is essential. SAFE evacuation sites include: Fully enclosed metal vehicles with windows up. Substantial buildings. Low ground -- seek cover in clumps of bushes. Trees of uniform height, such as a forest. UNSAFE shelter area include: Outdoor metal objects Power poles Fences and gates High mast light poles Metal bleachers Electrical equipment Mowing and road machinery. Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

13 Outdoor Worker Safety Measures
Avoid: OPEN AREAS such as fields, construction sites, recreation areas WATER such as ocean, lakes, swimming pools, rivers HIGH PLACES TREES SMALL OPEN STRUCTURES such as bus stops, rain shelters, picnic shelters, dugouts, gazebos TALL STRUCTURES such as communications towers, flag or light poles This is as a last resort - you should have had a plan, been aware of the weather, etc. prior to this and moved to a more protected area. Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

14 Outdoor Worker Preventive Measures
Avoid: BLEACHERS (metal or wood) METAL FENCES OR METAL OBJECTS such as carts, agricultural or construction equipment, golf carts, telephone lines or power lines, pipelines, or steel fabrications LEANING AGAINST CARS OR METAL OBJECTS, GET OFF OF BICYCLES AND MOTORCYCLES HOLDING METAL OBJECTS such as fishing rods, golf clubs, ski poles, tennis rackets, tools

15 Outdoor Worker Safety Measures
Check Weather channel or NOAA weather radio (at the jobsite—especially in summer months) Safe shelters include: fully enclosed metal vehicles with windows up, large permanent buildings, low ground Unsafe areas include: near flag poles, fences, light poles, trees, open fields, golf carts, picnic pavilions, bus stops

16 30-30 Rule Lightning’s distance: Count the time from the flash to the bang—for each 5 seconds between, the lightning is 1 mile away (activate lightning safety plan at count of 30 or 6 miles away) and don’t resume activities for 30 minutes—it’s called the rule Lightning struck the fence, and the electrical current traveled along the fence killing the cows. No Place Outside is Safe Near Thunderstorms. Know the weather and have an escape plan. Know how long it will take you to reach safety and watch the sky. Use RULE to estimate distance of storm. Actually, don't even bother to count the first 30 - when you see lighting or hear thunder, you should be making your way to safety or deciding if it is time to implement your safety plan. Generally speaking, if you see lightning and/or hear thunder, you are already at risk. Louder or more frequent thunder and lightning activity, means the risk for lightning injury or death is increasing. Lightning can strike within a 10 mile radius even if no rain, sun shining, etc. (some report up to 15 miles) High winds, rainfall, and cloud cover often act as precursors to actual cloud-to-ground strikes but not necessarily Very Important - Many lightning casualties occur in the beginning as the storm approaches, or within 30 minutes after the storm has passed. Do not wait. Head for safety: Get inside a large enclosed structure. NOT a carport, open garage, or even a covered patio which provide no protection, and NOT by an open window. If a large enclosed structure is not available, get inside a fully enclosed metal vehicle with metal top and with windows rolled up. Do not touch anything in contact with the outside shell of vehicle or building such as metal door or window frames, or the electrical wiring of the car or building, cable TV wiring, plumbing, household electrical appliances which includes desktop computer, cord telephone (cell phones pose no risk) Do not use running water such as shower, washing hands, doing dishes. Photo Courtesy Ruth Lyon-Bateman Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

17 Warning Signs If you can see it (lightning), flee it;
If you feel your hair stand on end, skin tingle, or hear crackling noises (signs of an imminent lightning strike) assume a “lightning-safe position.” Hair standing on end and/or hearing “crackling noises” means you’re in lightning’s electric field. Immediately remove all metal and get in the feet together crouched position, duck your head, and cover your ears with your hands (catchers’ position). In the contest between people and lightning, lightning wins. Although lightning rarely strikes more than one person at a time, over the course of a year the damages, deaths and injuries add up to make lightning a serious threat. If you can see it (lightning), flee it; If you can hear it (thunder), clear it. 17

18 Lightening-safe Position
If outside: Crouch on the ground Weight on the balls of your feet Heels together Head lowered Eyes closed Ears covered If Someone is Struck by Lightning... Helping a Lightning Strike Victim - If a person is struck by lightning, medical care is usually needed immediately to save the person's life. Cardiac arrest and irregularities, burns and nerve damage are typical life-threatening injuries when a person is struck. Knowing first aid measures, which include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), can help lightning-strike victims survive. American Red Cross chapters and local fire departments often offer first aid and CPR classes. 18

19 First aid for Lightning Victims
Injured persons do not carry an electrical charge; apply first-aid (if trained) & call 911 Administer first aid as quick as possible If unconscious: Check breathing and pulse Person has a pulse, but not breathing: Begin CPR Check for other injuries Most die from heart attacks/stop breathing First Aid for Lightning Victims Besides burns, lightning can also cause nervous system damage, broken bones and loss of hearing or eyesight. Victims may experience confusion and memory loss. First aid for lightning victims needs to be carried out immediately. After the lightning strikes, get to the victim as quickly as possible. Check breathing and pulse if the victim is unconscious. If the victim has a pulse, but is not breathing, begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If there is no pulse, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR). Check for other injuries, such as possible fractures. Do not move a suspected spinal injury victim. Cover the electrical burn with a dry, sterile dressing, but do not cool the burn. There may be more than one burn area -- one where the current entered the body and another where it left. Call the local emergency department for help. Keep the victim from getting chilled until help arrives. Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

20 First Aid for Lightning Victims
If not CPR qualified: Call EMS immediately Keep them calm Stay with them until help arrives Most victims can survive a lightning strike; however, medical attention may be needed immediately -- have someone call for medical help. Victims do not carry an electrical charge and should be attended to at once. In many cases, the victim’s heart and/or breathing may have stopped and CPR may be needed to revive them. The victim should continue to be monitored until medical help arrives; heart and/or respiratory problems could persist, or the victim could go into shock. If possible, move the victim to a safer place away from the threat of another lightning strike. When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors! Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

21 Survivor Stories Working on a dock Installing plumbing inside house
911 dispatcher on duty in Southern Florida Inside his garage, repairing the exhaust system of his car Hit while on cell phone attached by a cord to a charger. Instructor: Go to the website to elaborate on the actual survivor stories and the injuries that resulted from these particular stories. The web page has many more stories to share with the students. Ask the students to share their stories regarding lightning strikes. In almost every class a student(s) has an interesting story to share! Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

22 OSHA Resources OSHA has many helpful programs, including assistance about safety and health programs, state plans, workplace consultations, voluntary protection programs, strategic partnerships, training and education, and more.

23 Summary Understand the basics of lightning
Discuss lightning injury preventative measures Discuss immediate actions to assist lightning strike victims Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

24 OSHA Contact Numbers To report Unsafe Working Conditions, Safety and Health Violations Contact OSHA (6742) / TTY To File a Complaint Form: To file an OSHA-7 report online, see how to file a complaint with OSHA ( For more information regarding your rights, see Worker Rights OSHA is here to assist you in preventing injuries by providing training and assistance to ALL individuals. For more in formation please contact OSHA. Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

25 References ELCOSH Lightning Safety. Retrieved from:
National Weather Service: Retrieved from:

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