THE TWELVE STEPS OF THE TUTORING CYCLE The 3 Stages/Phases of Tutoring
Agenda Three stages: 12 steps to the Tutoring Cycle Beginning Steps Tasking Steps Closing Steps Three “mini-assignments” (one for each) Emailed to Kellie or Jessica
BEGINNING STEPS STEP 1 Greeting and Climate Setting STEP 2 Identification of Task STEP 3 Breaking the Task into Parts STEP 4 Identification of Thought Processes Which Underlie Task
STEP 1 Greeting and Climate Setting Set the session up for success! Connect with the person before you go to the content Learn and use your tutee’s name Sit side-by-side, work in front of the tutee (be mindful of what hand s/he writes with) Hands off the student’s work All tools should be in the hands of the tutee (pencil, pages, chalk, etc.) Remember, goal=tutee’s independence!
STEP 2 Identification of Task Let the tutee direct your attention to his/her needs Getting started: “How is that class going?” vs. “What do you want to work on?” Probe tutees who don’t give a specific answer & focus their questions “I’m having a hard time developing transitions” vs. “I need help with my writing”
STEP 2 Identification of Task Follow-up: 1) Clarify Restatements You need help with your writing.” PAUSE. Yes. I got my paper back and my teacher said something about transitions. Empathetic statements “Quadratic equations can be really tricky.” PAUSE. “I know. I don’t feel confident plugging numbers in to the letters.”
STEP 2 Identification of Task Follow-up: 2) Reassure them of their competence Affirm that they DO know something, and that knowledge is what you intend to help them build upon. Empower the tutee.
STEP 3 Breaking the Task into Parts Decide together what steps are involved & how much time to spend on each task. Examine the tutee’s work and have him/her verbalize steps “I’ve got to understand mitosis, be able to diagram it, identify each of the steps… man!” RESTATE: “That is a lot. OK. Let’s see… understand, diagram, and identify all of the steps for mitosis.”
STEP 3 Breaking the Task into Parts Decide together what steps are involved & how much time to spend on each task. Examine the tutee’s work and have him/her verbalize steps “I guess I need to figure out what a transition is, where they need to go in the paper, and figure out what one to put where.” REASSURE: Yes. Transitions can take some time to get the hang of. But I see you are already using a handful of them throughout your paper, so we can look at those to model and expand.”
STEP 3 Breaking the Task into Parts Decide together what steps are involved & how much time to spend on each task. Help her/him prioritize steps needed Perhaps discussion of any time constraints in session “Now, what are the two things you want to cover today?” “Which step do you think we should take on first?”
STEP 4 Identification of Thought Processes Underlying Task Coach tutees in habits of mind they need to succeed. Promote independence Ask the tutee to explain how they will approach the problem they are working on. Your aim is to hear a detailed procedure. Prompt them to clarify as needed
STEP 4 Identification of Thought Processes Underlying Task Coach tutees in habits of mind they need to succeed. Resources Remind the student that they have access to a multitude of resources (text, handouts, instructor) “Find the section on completing the square in your book and compare it to your class notes.” “Were there any class handouts that you went over?”
Mini-Assignment 1 Consider the subject that you tutor Reconsider the beginning steps of the Tutoring Cycle Write down how this might take shape in a session with your student client Include why this stage is an important piece of your tutoring session
TASKING STEPS STEP 5 Set the Agenda For the Session STEP 6 Addressing the Task STEP 7 Student Summary of Content STEP 8 Student Summary of Underlying Process
STEP 5 Set the Agenda For the Session A plan with time in mind! Giving the tutee the opportunity to set the agenda will increase the likelihood that s/he will actively participate to make the agenda work “Well, we have 30 minutes today. How long should we set up for each piece we talked about?” Follow the agenda, but be flexible
STEP 6 Addressing the Task Addressing the task – time to learn! Here’s where the magic happens! Amount of time varies* Intermittent times when student works independently
STEP 7 Student Summary of Content The “lightbulb” comes on. Student demonstrate what s/he has learned Beware the “phony” lightbulb “Oh… I get it. Thanks.” Stay out of the way. Don’t interrupt. Short-term memory to long-term memory Pay close attention to the explanation Facilitate whatever understanding he/she lacks Your job is to keep the session here until the tutee can explain the information to him/herself
STEP 8 Student Summary of Underlying Process Tutee Summary of Underlying Process Reinforces the underlying process (Companion to step 4.) “How did you get this answer? “What steps did you take?” YOU must make this step happen! Provide opportunity
Mini-Assignment 2 Consider the subject that you tutor Reconsider the tasking steps of the Tutoring Cycle Write down how this might take shape in a session with your student client Include why this stage is an important piece of your tutoring session
CLOSING STEPS STEP 9 Confirmation STEP 10 What Next? STEP 11 Arranging and Planning the Next Session STEP 12 Closing and Good-bye
STEP 9 Confirmation Reinforce accomplishment “Good job! That was great! Excellent!” Let the student know that what s/he has learned is accurate and appropriate “You’ve mastered mitosis! This is really going to fit into your understanding of the body systems.”
STEP 10 What Next? Helps tutee plan what to do next Help the student anticipate what is coming next “What else needs to be accomplished to see this assignment through?” Help the student anticipate how the concepts are connected “What do you think is the next piece of this unit?” “What will you do next in this class? How will today’s session help you with that?”
STEP 11 Arranging and Planning the Next Session Arranging and Planning the Next Session What do you want to do or accomplish next? Ask open-ended questions – let the student lead. Remember you are trying to work yourself out of a job.
STEP 12 Closing and Good-bye Closing and Good-bye Thank the tutee for his/her contributions “This was a great session. You really seem to have a handle on this material now.” Leave on a positive note.
Mini-Assignment 3 Consider the subject that you tutor Reconsider the closing steps of the Tutoring Cycle Write down how this might take shape in a session with your student client Include why this stage is an important piece of your tutoring session