3 US turned inward and feared anything that was European… The 1920 ElectionWilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding…US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
4 The 1920 ElectionThe Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet.
5 Harding: Scandal!!! The Ohio Gang Harding’s poker buddies who he appointed to cabinet positionsTook advantage of HardingWere caught embezzling money & taking bribes
6 Harding and CoolidgeRepublican presidents appeal to traditional American valuesHarding dies in office after 2 years.Scandals break after his deathTeapot Dome ScandalCalvin Coolidge becomes President after Harding’s death in 1923.Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. DohenyFall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair.Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.
7 Republican Policies Return to "normalcy" tariffs raisedcorporate, income taxes cutspending cutsGovernment-business cooperation“The business of government, is business”Return to “isolation”
8 The 1924 ElectionCalvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to 1929.“Silent Cal”.Republican president
9 REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS………. REPUBLICAN FISCAL PROGRAMREPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS……….$=++Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National EconomyFordney-McCumber Tariff (38.5%) Hawley-Smoot Tariff (60%!!!)
11 VictoryHoover's reputation and the booming economy, assured his victory with 58% of the popular vote.Bruce Barton, an advertising executive, said that "Americans knew they may have more fun with Smith, but that they would make more money with Hoover."
12 PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER 31st President 1929 to 1933RepublicanGraduated from Stanford University 1895Occupation: EngineerFood Administration Director during WWISecretary of Commerce“A chicken in every pot and car in every garage”. Hoover quote in 1929
13 GREAT DEPRESSION DEFINED The Great Depression can be described as the total collapse of the US economic system of Capitalism, laissez faire and everything we believed in as a country.Our democracy and way of life were threatened.
14 EVENTS WHICH LED TO GREAT DEPRESSION EFFECTSUnder consumption of goods and services---not buying goodsFamilies had limited income to purchase goodsLed to falling prices of goodsLed to drop in farm pricesBanks didn’t get back their $$$Speculation on stocksInvestors buy stocks on creditWealth on paperTotal collapse of US economy, lassiez faire and capitalismCAUSESDecrease in consumer spendingUnequal distribution of wealthOverproduction of goodsHuge farms surplusesWar debts not paid backBuying on margin (Credit)Stock Market Crash Black Tuesday, Oct. 29, 1929
15 Limited income of most families and could not buy goods PYRAMID OF WEALTHPYRAMID2% $50,000 or more a year3% $10,000 or more a yearLimited income of most families and could not buy goods70% $2,500 or less a year25% $1,500 or less a yearMillion Households
16 The rapid increase of stock prices encouraged: MARGIN BUYINGThe rapid increase of stock prices encouraged:Speculation, the practice of making high-risk investments in hopes of getting a huge return.Buying on margin, the practice of allowing investors to purchase a stock for only a fraction of its price (CREDIT) and borrow the rest at high interest rates.When Stock Market begins to crash banks call in loansTo pay back banks investors sold stocks for less than they purchasedLoose money and go into debtNo US Government regulations on the stock market or margin buying.
17 EFFECTS OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH domino effectStock values drop from $87 - $19 billionSteel production drops 80%Industrial output drops 50%500,000 homes and farms foreclosed“Run on the banks”, 5,190 banks failed9 million people lost their savingsUnemployment 25—40%4 million by million by 1932Over 25,000 businesses fail
18 EFFECTS OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH People did not have savings…Families fell behind on mortgages, rent and credit payments…...Lost their homes, businesses & possessionsA great drought turned precious farmland into huge clouds of dust and within a year the Great Plains is ruinedAmerican values of hard work & individual responsibility were testedStandard of living of Americans reducedPsychological effects on many Americans, especially men.
19 THE "SNOWBALL EFFECT" OF THE CRASH Bankers call brokers wanting their money!Brokers go to investors to collect their money to pay the bank loans borrowed by broker for investorOrders to sell at any price… swamped the market--nobody would buyBrokers go under--stocks are worthless--investors lose their savings!Run on the Banks: People begin to panic and go to banks---try to withdraw their money…Banks don’t have any money to give backBanks close---people lost their savingsBusinesses close---could not pay back loans to banks.Workers lose their jobsNo money to buy consumer productsSales fall---more businesses shut downMore workers lose their jobs
20 Effects of the Stock Market Crash Great CrashInvestorsBusinesses and WorkersInvestors lose millions.Businesses lose profits.Consumer spending drops.Workers are laid off.Businesses cut investment and production Some fail.BanksBusinesses and workers cannot repay bank loans.Savings accounts are wiped out.Bank runs occur.Banks run out of money and fail.World PaymentsOverall U.S. production plummets.U.S. investors have little or no money to invest.U.S. investments in Germany decline.German war payments to Allies fall off.Europeans cannot afford American goods.Allies cannot pay debts to United States.Great CrashInvestorsBusinesses and WorkersInvestors lose millions.Businesses lose profits.Consumer spending drops.Workers are laid off.Businesses cut investment and production Some fail.BanksBusinesses and workers cannot repay bank loans.Savings accounts are wiped out.Bank runs occur.Banks run out of money and fail.World PaymentsOverall U.S. production plummets.U.S. investors have little or no money to invest.U.S. investments in Germany decline.German war payments to Allies fall off.Europeans cannot afford American goods.Allies cannot pay debts to United States.Great CrashInvestorsBusinesses and WorkersInvestors lose millions.Businesses lose profits.Consumer spending drops.Workers are laid off.Businesses cut investment and production Some fail.Great CrashInvestorsBusinesses and WorkersInvestors lose millions.Businesses lose profits.Consumer spending drops.Workers are laid off.Businesses cut investment and production. Some fail.BanksBusinesses and workers cannot repay bank loans.Savings accounts are wiped out.Bank runs occur.Banks run out of money and fail.World PaymentsOverall U.S. production plummets.U.S. investors have little or no money to invest.U.S. investments in Germany decline.German war payments to Allies fall off.Europeans cannot afford American goods.Allies cannot pay debts to United States.Great CrashInvestorsInvestors lose millions.Businesses lose profits.Effects of the Stock Market Crash
21 RUN ON THE BANKSBanks lost their investments in the Market after the CrashMillions of Americans were caught in the panic of the Stock Market crash.Went to their banks to withdraw their savings accounts.Banks loaned out their $$$ and had no reserve funds to give customers withdrawing their savings.Once banks ran out of $$$ they closed their doors and left people stranded.1929 = 659 and by = 5190
22 A Wise Economist Asks A Question Bank failures crushed the average American who put faith in the banks to save their money.When they went to withdraw their money, it had been lent out so they lost savings.
26 FARM FORECLOSURESBecause people lost their jobs they could not make payments on their farms, ranches or homes.
27 Banks would foreclose on their property and thousands lost their homes FARM FORECLOSURESBanks would foreclose on their property and thousands lost their homes
28 HOOVERVILLESHoovervilles or shantytowns, were migrant towns of people who were out of work and on the move to find work. Usually outside large cities where migrants were trying to find jobs. Named after President Hoover because the government wasn’t doing anything to help the people who were in need
29 PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER Stock Market CrashBlack Tuesday, Oct. 29, 1929Hoover was blamed for not providing “direct relief” to help Americans? WHY?US Govt. should not provide “direct relief”laissez faireRugged individualism: Americans are self-sufficient and would work themselves out this depression through hard work and determination.Charitable organizations: Churches, volunteers and people helping one another.
30 The Great DepressionWhen the stock market crashed in October 1929, Hoover tried to reassure the nation.“Any lack of confidence in the economic future…is foolish”Americans believed that depressions were a normal part of the capitalist business cycle, and that the best course, was to let the economy fix itself.Hoover took a slightly different course from laissez-faire policies, believing the government could play a small role in solving problems.Believed that the government’s role was to encourage and facilitate cooperation, not control it.edit
31 PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER US Government provided “indirect” relief by assisting insurance corporations, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads and state and local governments.The theory was that prosperity at the top would help the economy as a whole (Trickle-down effect).Many Americans saw it as helping bankers and big businessmen, while ordinary people went hungry.BUT, no direct relief to American people. Why? Hoover did not support federal public assistance because he believed it would destroy people’s self-respect and create big government which would violate laissez faire.
32 PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER The greatness of America has grown out of a political and social system and a method of a lack of governmental control of economic forces distinctly its own. Our American system which has carried this great experiment in human welfare farther than ever before in history....And I again repeat that the departure from our American system... will jeopardize the very liberty and freedom of our people, and will destroy equality of opportunity not only to ourselves, but to our children....
33 HOOVER’S ATTEMPTS TO SOLVE THE GREAT DEPRESSION Industry pledged to keep factories open and stop slashing wages.This did not work: by 1931 most businesses reneged.Next step was public works:government financed building projects. (Ex. Hoover Dam)Hoover urged governors and mayors throughout the nation to increase public works spending.Many governors and mayors did not choose to do this. WHY?Pay higher taxes or borrow money from banks (deficit spending) which leaves less money for banks to loan out to people.Hoover feared that deficit spending could delay an economic recovery.
34 The Midterm ElectionAs the congressional elections of 1930 approached, most Americans felt that the party in power was to blame for unemployment.The Republicans lost 49 seats and their majority in the House of Representatives.
35 Pumping Money Into the Economy Hoover asked the Federal Reserve Board to pump more money into circulation.The National Credit Corporation was created to have a pool of money that would enable troubled banks to continue lending money in their communitieshe encouraged wealthy New Yorkers to contribute to thisBy 1932 he believed that this wasn’t going to be effective and the government had to do the lending in what was called the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.The RFC lent out $238 million to approximately 160 banks.A total of $500 million the US Government provided “indirect” relief to assist insurance corporations, agricultural organizations, railroads and state and local governments.
36 Direct Help for Citizens Political support was building for a relief measure; Congress passed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act.The new act called for $1.5 billion for public works and $300 million in loans to the states for debt relief.“Too little, too late”. It did not increase its loans in sufficient amounts to meet the need, and the economy continued its decline.
37 Farmers RevoltDuring World War I, many farmers had heavily mortgaged their land to pay for seed, feed, and equipment.After the war, prices sank so low that farmers could not even earn their costs and could not make a profit.: creditors foreclosed on nearly one million farms, taking possession of them and evicting familiesSome farmers began destroying their crops in a desperate attempt to raise prices by lowering the amount of crops on the market.In Nebraska grain growers burned corn to heat their homes in the winter.In Iowa food growers prevented the delivery of vegetables to distributors.Georgia dairy farmers blocked the highways and stopped milk trucks, emptying the milk cans into ditches.
38 Poverty Strains Society Some people starved and thousands went hungry.Children suffered long-term effects from poor diet and inadequate medical care.Social and Psychological Effects1928–1932, suicide rate rises over 30%Admissions to state mental hospitals tripleImpact on HealthLiving conditions declined as families crowded into small houses or apartments.Men felt like failures because they couldn’t provide for their families.Working women were accused of taking jobs away from men.Stresses on FamiliesCompetition for jobs produced a rise in hostilities against African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans.Lynchings increased.Aid programs discriminated against African Americans.Discrimination Increases
39 PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION No hope, despair, emotional pain, depression and guilt.When you have millions of “unhappy” men out of work, you have the potential for social chaos.
40 They were out of work and wanted to feed their families. BONUS ARMYDEBTSBonus Army March in the summer of over 20,000 veterans from WWI marched on Washington, DC.Demanded their Bonus promised to them by the government for fighting in WWI.Not due to be paid until 1945.They were out of work and wanted to feed their families.
42 BONUS ARMYDEBTSBonus Army refused to leave Washington, DC until Congress gave them their Bonus. Congress voted not give the Bonus to the veterans.They were ordered to leave by President Hoover but disobeyed the order. Eventually, President Hoover would order the army to force these veterans out of Washington, DC
43 BONUS ARMY Battle of Washington July 28, 1932 President Hoover orders the army to remove Bonus Army from Washington, D.C.General Douglas MacArthur, later a WWII hero, was part of removing the Bonus Veterans.
44 BONUS ARMYDEBTSAugust 28, 1932, Battle of Washington, D.C., US troops supplied with tanks fought skirmishes, made arrests and burnt down the camps of the Bonus veterans.The American people were appalled how President Hoover solved the problem. People felt Hoover had no compassion and would blame him for the Depression. He would not be re-elected in 1932.
45 Political cartoon showing President Herbert Hoover trying to deal with the Great Depression (1930).
46 Washington Naval Conference [1921-1922] U. S Britain Japan France Italy
47 Washington Naval Conference Four-Power Pact (December 13, 1921).Britain, France, Japan and the United States agreed to submit disputes among themselves over Pacific issues to a conference for resolution.Pledged mutual respect for the possessions and mandates of other signatories (participants) in the Pacific.Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (February 6, 1922).The leading naval powers, Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States pledged adherence to limitations on the tonnage of capital ships and accepted a moratorium on new naval construction ratioBritain and the U.S. have equal ratio of battleships and carriers, and the Japanese get a lesser number, therefore, the5-5-3 ratio. Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
48 Washington Conference Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (February 6, 1922).Agreed on a series of rules for the use of submarines in future warfare and also outlawed the use of poisonous gases as a military weapon.Nine-Power Treaty (February 6, 1922).Big Four, plus Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China endorsed the Open Door Policy and pledged mutual respect for Chinese territorial integrity and independence.In the following months, the U.S. Senate ratified all of the treaties from the Washington Conference.
49 Kellogg Briand PactThe Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for outlawing war as an “an instrument of national policy,” and was further notable for the following:The pact was signed in August 1928 by 15 nations.In the following months, more than 60 countries joined in this renunciation of war.The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee studied the matter and issued a report that maintained that the pact did not impair the nation’s ability to act to protect the Monroe Doctrine. US Senate ratified this treaty.
50 Kellogg Briand Pact Afghanistan Finland Peru Albania Guatemala PortugalAustriaHungaryRumaniaBulgariaIcelandRussiaChinaLatviaKingdom of the SerbsCubaLiberiaCroats and SlovenesDenmarkLithuaniaSiamDominican RepublicNetherlandsSpainEgyptNicaraguaSwedenEstoniaNorwayTurkeyEthiopiaPanamaAdditional countries which join by July 24, Persia, July 2, 1929; Greece, August 3, 1929; Honduras, August 6, 1929; Chile, August 12, 1929; Luxembourg August 14, 1929; Danzig, September 11, 1929; Costa Rica, October 1, 1929; Venezuela, October 24, 1929.
51 Major problems with this treaty Kellogg Briand PactThe Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for outlawing war as an “an instrument of national policy,” and was further notable for the following:Major problems with this treatyNo enforcement mechanism was provided for changing the behavior of warring signatories.The agreement was interpreted by most of the signatories to permit “defensive” war.No expiration date was provided.No provision existed for amending the agreement was included.
52 Idealism, is what it is: “ideas”. Some can work and others can’t. Kellogg Briand PactIn the 1930’s, the idealism of “ending all war” would be shattered when the Japanese, Italy, Germany and Soviet Union began WWII.Idealism, is what it is: “ideas”. Some can work and others can’t.In a realistic world, countries realized that they needed to protect themselves from aggressor nations.It is still this way today but we have the United Nations to promote world peace and “contain” aggressor nations.
54 Dawes PlanDawes PlanPresented in 1924 by the committee headed by Charles G. Dawes to the Reparations Commission of the Allied nations. It was accepted the same year by Germany and the Allied Nations.The Dawes Committee was entrusted with finding a solution for the collection of the German reparations debt, set at almost $54 billion.Germany had been lagging in payment of this obligation and the Dawes Plan provided a repayment schedule over 4 years to the Allies. The Germans would continue to lag behind in payments. The Young Plan (adopted in 1930) would later expand the amount of time the Germans would have to pay reparations.
55 GREAT DEPRESSION EVENTS US high tariffs (Hawley-Smoot Tariff) caused Great Britain and France to not trade with US.US became “economic isolationist”.Because of this, Great Britain and France did not pay back war debts to the US.GB and France defaulted on their debt because they had paid in blood.PRIVATELOANSWALL STREET BANKERSUS INVESTORSGERMANYWAR DEBT PAYMENTS“REPARATIONS”ALLIEDWAR DEBT PAYMENTSGREAT BRITAINUS TREASURYFRANCE
56 Japanese AggressionIn 1931, Japan invades Manchuria, a region of China filled with natural resources.Clear violation of League of Nations covenant.Stimson Doctrine issued by U.S.U.S. will not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force.Shanghai bombed in 1932 after Chinese boycott