5Unit 5 Essential Question (MKT-EN-8) What are the concepts, systems, and tools needed to meet the goals and objectives of an entrepreneurial entity?
6Market PlanningMarketing Objectives: What a business wants to accomplish with its marketing efforts.Usually relates to sales, market share, growth, and profit.Short-range objectives are for one year.Long range objectives reflect goals of three to five years.
7Market PlanningMarketing Plan: A plan for a business to reach its marketing objectives.Marketing Mix: The combination of marketing strategies known as the “Five P’s”ProductPlacePricePromotionPeople
8Essential Question 1A (MKT-EN-8A) What are the various product strategies?
9The Product Strategy Product Decisions: What products should I manufacture or sell?How will my products meet the needs of my target market?At what quality level should I make my goods?How much inventory should I maintain?How will my products be different from or better than my competitors’?How will I position my products?What will my customer service policy be?
10The Product Strategy Product Selection: Generate product ideas and sort the good from the bad.Study products potential costs and revenues.Develop the product and test-market it.If everything looks promising, introduce it.
11The Product StrategyProduct Features and Benefits: Style, color, quality, warranty, service contracts, delivery, convenience, health, entertainment, etc.Branding, Packaging, and Labeling:Brand: Name, symbol, or design used to identify a product.Package: Physical container or holder.Label: Part of the package used to present information.
12What are Grades and Standards? Standards are statements that specify a product’s size, contents, and/or quality; used as a basis for comparing or judging goods or servicesGrades are ratings assigned to products that tell to what extent it meets the standards
13Interrelationship between Grades and Standards Standards are set. Each product is rated against these preset standards and assigned a grade. Products that don’t meet the lowest standard are scrapped, reworked or sold at a discounted price.Example: School grading system – standards are set. You have to do this to earn an “A” in this class. Your work is compared to the standards and your grade is determined.
14Why are Standards used?Standards are used to establish uniform, consistent products.Example: CD’s made in the USA, Japan, and Mexico all have to fit into the same disc player
15Grades and Standards can indicate… How the product can be usedEx. Grades on milk and motor oilWhere the product will be soldEx. Gap, Inc. places higher quality clothes at the Gap and their lower grade clothing at Old NavyHow much the product will cost its buyerEx. Buyers will pay more for top gradeWho the user can/should beEx. Movie ratings indicate the audience: G, PG, PG13, and R
16Grades and Standards Aid Buying and Selling Their use speeds up the process because consumers can buy products without having to inspectConsumers rely on grades and standards for product information
17Grades and Standards in Global Trade The ISO 9000 are international standards for qualityThis standard guarantees that manufacturers have meet certain requirements for producing and shipping their products
18Who Sets Grades and Standards? Government agenciesEx. FDA – food and drugs, FCA – communication, County Health Dept. - restaurantsTrade and professional organizations (to promote product safety)Ex. AAA - motelsBusinessesEx. McDonalds buns have an exact size and color, Ford requires suppliers to meet certain standards when making “Q1” parts.
19What is a Warranty?Warranty is a defined promise made by the seller to the consumer that the seller will repair or replace a product that does not perform as expected
20Types of Warranties Implied Warranty Express Warranty Defined as promises expressed in a specific statement concerning the quality of the productCan be written or oralDefined as an unwritten, unstated warranty understood by the consumer and the seller that a product will perform as expectedThe product will do what it is designed and recommended to do
21Types of Warranties Full Warranty Limited Warranty Defined as warranties that cover the entire productIf the product doesn’t work it must be made good in a reasonable time if not the customer can choose a replacement or refundNo time limits on implied warrantiesThe customer need only notify the warrantor in order to obtain repairsDefined as warranties that do not contain the provisions of full warranties, may cover only certain repairs or specific parts
22What is a Guarantee?Defined as a promise made by the seller to the consumer that the seller will refund the consumer’s purchase price if the product doesn’t perform as expected.AKA – “Money-back guarantees”While warranties usually apply to goods, guarantees are given for both goods and services
23Characteristics of an Effective Guarantee UnconditionalNo conditions for the customer to meetUnderstandableClear language and no difficulty understanding the promisesEasy for the customer to implementNot a lot of forms, people to see, and different locationsEasy for the customer to collectWhen possible money should be refunded on the spot
24Purpose of Warrantees and Guarantees To reassure prospective customersTo protect the producer and sellerTo gain repeat customersTo increase salesTo use as a promotional toolTo use as a competitive toolTo use as a image builder
25Benefits of Warrantees and Guarantees Consumer BenefitsBusiness BenefitsReduced anxiety about purchasesFree repairsService informationLegal recourseA customer-oriented focusEstablishment of clear standardsFeedback from customersIncreased profits
26Why are Warrantees and Guarantees Regulated and Controlled by Law? They can cause problems for producersConsumers misuse the productCustomers expect problems to be fixed that are not under warrantyThere have been times when companies have “guaranteed” their products without living up t the terms of the warranty or guarantee and the customer was cheated.
27Product PositioningProduct positioning: Efforts a business makes to identify, place and sell its products in the marketplace.Positioning by price and quality:Ex: Ford Motor Company positions its Focus as an economical passenger car while still emphasizing quality.
28Product Positioning Positioning by features and benefits: Ex: Oil of Olay was positioned as a premium facial moisturizer and cleanser to keep skin soft and young.Positioning by unique characteristics:Ex: Cell phones that can text message or take pictures and send them. (Is there an app for that?)
29Product Positioning Positioning in relation to the competition: Ex: Warner-Lambert Company introduced Cool Mint Listerine by positioning against the “theraputic” benefits of Original Listerine and the “cosmetic” benefits of Scope.Positioning in relation to other products in a line:Ex: Binney & Smith introduced washable crayons and positioned them as a specialty item in the company’s Crayola crayon line.
30Corporate Brand Positioning Corporate branding is the practice of using a company's name as a product brand name.Uses corporate brand equity to create product brand recognition.This strategy contrasts with individual product branding, where each product has a unique brand name and the corporate name is not promoted to the consumer.Results in significant economies of scope since one advertising campaign can be used for several products.Facilitates new product acceptance because buyers are already familiar with the name.May hinder the creation of distinct brand images or identities for different products.
31Corporate Brand Positioning Factors that go into defining a corporate brand position:Brand Attributes: What the brand delivers through features and benefits to consumers.Consumer Expectations: What consumers expect to receive from the brand.Competitor Attributes: What the other brands in the market offer through features and benefits to consumers.Price: An easily quantifiable factor – your price vs. your competitor’s price.Consumer Perceptions: Perceived quality and value of your brand in the consumer’s mind.
32The Product StrategyProduct Mix: All the different products that a company makes or sells.Product Line: A group of closely related products manufactured or sold by a business.Product Item: A specific model, brand, or size of a product within a product line.Product Width: The number of different product lines a business manufactures or sells.Product Depth: The number of product items in a product line.
33The Product StrategyProcurement planning is the process used by companies or institutions to plan purchasing activity for a specific period of time.The primary concept of procurement is that advanced planning, scheduling, and group buying will result in cost savings, more efficient business operation, and therefore increased profitability.
34The Product StrategyThere are four steps that form the basis of procurement planning:Group buying is the process of combining the total resource requirements for different departments and creating one purchase order.Just in time delivery is a central component of procurement planning. Under this model, the cost of storage is carried by the supplier. They are responsible for ensuring the purchased quantities of materials are ready and available for delivery at the specified dates and times.
35The Product StrategyThere are four steps that form the basis of procurement planning:Bulk pricing and negotiating requires combining the total quantity required for a specific period of time to get lower pricing. Negotiations are typically completed by the procurement director or senior buying agent.
36The Product StrategyThere are four steps that form the basis of procurement planning:Administrative overhead is the cost to the organization for the entire procurement to pay cycle. This includes the salaries and support costs for procurement staff, invoice processing, check production, and resolving of vendor inquiries. An organized, managed process eliminates a significant amount of these costs, as they are incurred only once for every commodity.
37The Product Strategy Impact of Technology What has been the impact of technology on the product strategy?
38The Product Strategy Quiz What is the difference between a feature and a benefit? (2 pts)Why do customers buy benefits and not features? (2 pts)What does the question, “How is the product positioned?”, mean? (3 pts)What has been the impact of technology on the product strategy? (3 pts)
39Essential Question 1B (MKT-EN-8B) What are the various place strategies?
40What is meant by, “Location, Location, Location?”
41The Place StrategyChannel Management is a process by which a company creates formalized programs for selling and servicing members within a specific channel to move your product to the end user.
42The Place Strategy Each specific channel should have: Specific goals for each channel segment, the channel as a whole, and each individual accounts.Well-defined polices for administering the accounts within this channel.Products identified in your offering which are most suited for each segment and create appropriate messaging for those products.Sales and marketing programs designed to support your channel that meet THEIR needs, not what your idea of their needs are. Examples: Product training, Co-op advertising, Seasonal promotions, Merchandising
43The Place StrategyDefining a channel management strategy for each segment allows you to be more effective within each segment, while gaining efficiency at the same time.Maintaining brand consistency across all channel segments is critical to your long-term success.
44The Place StrategyIntensity of Distribution: Determines how broadly you will distribute your product.Intensive Distribution: Placement of a product in all suitable sales outlets.Selective Distribution: Limits distribution to the number of sales outlets in an area.Exclusive Distribution: Limits the number of distribution outlets to one per area.
45The Place StrategyTransportation: The physical movement of goods by truck, train, plane, ship, or pipeline.Location, Layout, and Availability:Is my location appropriate for my target market(s)?Will the physical layout of my business encourage or discourage sales?Do my business hours of operation match the times my target market prefers to do business?
46The Place Strategy Impact of Technology What has been the impact of technology on the place strategy?
47The Place Strategy Quiz What is the difference between a direct and indirect channel of distribution? (2 pts)List and describe the three different levels of distribution intensity and provide a product example of each? (9 pts)What is meant by, “Location, location, location?” (3 pts)What has been the impact of technology on the place strategy? (2 pts)
48Essential Question 1C (MKT-EN-8C) What are the various pricing strategies?
49Factors Affecting Prices Costs and ExpensesBusinesses must make a profit therefore, prices must be high enough to cover costs and expenses.Supply and DemandBusinesses must understand the economic relationship between supply and demand and all variations.Elasticity depends on:Availability of substitutes.Price relative to income.Luxury versus necessity.
50Factors Affecting Prices Consumer PerceptionsConsumers tend to equate high prices with quality, status, prestige, and exclusiveness.CompetitionPrice Competition - Competition based on price.Nonprice Competition - Competition based on other marketing factors.
51Factors Affecting Prices Government RegulationsPrice Fixing: Where competitors agree on certain price ranges within which they set their own price.Price Gouging: Pricing above the market when no alternative retailer is available.Resale Price Maintenance: Price fixing imposed by a manufacturer on wholesale or retail resellers of its products to deter price-based competition.Unit Pricing: Required pricing of goods on the basis of cost per unit measure in addition to price per item.Bait-and-Switch: Advertising an out of stock or inferior product to attract customers and then selling them a higher priced product.
52Factors Affecting Prices Technological TrendsThe major technology trend affecting business today is the internet.Business that adapt to technological changes can create a competitive edge.Business that do not adapt to technological change could become obsolete.
53Goals of Pricing Gain Market Share Return on Investment A firm’s percentage of the total sales volume generated by all competitors in a given market.Return on InvestmentUsed to determine the relative profitability of a product.Is calculated by profit divided by investment.
54Goals of Pricing Meet the Competition Some companies simply price their product the same as the competition.The price is either same as the industry leader or the average price of the industry.
55Basic Price Strategies Cost-Based Pricing - Cost of product plus the cost of doing business plus your projected profit margin (markup).Demand-Based Pricing - Determine what customers are willing to pay and set the price accordingly.Demand must be inelastic.Customers must believe the product is different or of greater value.Competition-Based Pricing - You determine whether to price above, below, or in line with the competition.
56Pricing Policies Flexible-Price Policy One-Price Policy Allows customers to haggle over price.Takes into account changing market conditions such as shifts in demand and prices of competitors.One-Price PolicyTells customers they are treated equally.Strongly recommended for service businesses.
57Pricing TechniquesPsychological Pricing: Based on the belief that customers base perceptions of a product on price.Prestige Pricing: Uses higher than average prices to suggest exclusiveness, status, and prestige.Odd/Even Pricing:Uses odd prices ($19.99) to suggest bargains.Uses even prices ($20.00) to suggest higher quality.Price Lining: Prices items according to category such as low, medium, and high quality.
58Pricing TechniquesPsychological Pricing: Based on the belief that customers base perceptions of a product on price.Promotional Pricing: Offers lower prices for a limited period to generate sales.Multiple-unit Pricing: Items are priced in multiples such as 3 for $.99. This suggests a bargain.Bundle Pricing: Several complementary products are sold at a single price. The bundled price is lower than the individual items purchased separately.
59Pricing TechniquesDiscount Pricing: Offers reductions from the regular price to customers.Cash Discounts: Normally given to customer for prompt payment.2/10, n/30Quantity Discounts: Encourages buyers to order large amounts.Trade Discounts: Given to distribution-channel members who provide marketing services for the manufacturer.Promotional Discounts: Manufacturers pay wholesalers or retailers for carrying out promotional activities for the manufacturer.Seasonal Discounts: Used for products which have a heavy seasonal demand.
60Product Life Cycle All products move through a four stage life cycle. IntroductionPrice skimming: Charging a high price to recover costs then dropping the price when the product is no longer unique.Penetration Pricing: Charge a low price to build customer base and discourage competition.
61Product Life Cycle Growth Sales increase and unit costs decrease. If you skimmed you will need to lower price to expand customer base.If you were penetrating, little to no change is necessary.
62Product Life Cycle Maturity Decline Need to look for new markets and possible product improvements to hold prices.DeclineCut prices to stimulate sales and clear inventory.
63Break-even AnalysisBreak-even Point: The point at which the money from product sales equals the costs of making and distributing the product.
64Break-even AnalysisFixed Costs: Expenses that do not change depending on the number of units sold.Rent, mortgage, insurance, salaries, etc.Variable Costs: Expenses that change depending on the number of units sold.Materials, advertising, insurance, wages, etc.Fixed costsUnit cost – Variable costs= Number of Units_____________________
65RevenueBreak-evenPointCostperUnitVariableExpensesFixed ExpensesNumberof Units
66Revising PricesMarkup: Amount added to the cost of an item to cover expenses and ensure a profit.Markdown: Amount of money taken from the original price.
67Revising Prices Discount: Reduction in price to the customer. or Price x Discount % = Discount dollarsPrice – Discount Dollars = Discounted priceorPrice x (100% – Discount %) = Discounted price
68Adjusting Prices to Maximize Profit Are your products’ prices elastic or inelastic?What are your competitors’ prices?How will you react to market price changes?Must continually track market prices and react accordingly or lose customers fast.Special Market Circumstances: Circumstances calling for a temporary price increase.
69The Price Strategy Impact of Technology What has been the impact of technology on the price strategy?
71Essential Question 1D (MKT-EN-8D) What are the various promotional strategies?
72The Promotion Strategy Pre-opening PlanEstablish a positive image: beliefs, ideas, and impressions that people have about your business.Let potential customers know that you are opening for business.Bring in customers, or have them contact your business.Interest customers in your product rather than your competitors’ products.
73The Promotion Strategy Ongoing PlanPreselling: Influencing potential customers to buy from you before contact is actually made.Explaining major features and benefits of your products.Communicating sales information.Answering customers’ questions and concerns.Introducing new goods or services.Promotional plans are usually seasonal or quarterly.
74The Promotion Strategy Promotional Plan FormatCan be an individual activity or a campaign: a series of related activities with a similar theme.Each activity should contain the following information:Brief description.Specific media placement.Submit dates.Scheduled date of run or release.Number of runs, copies, or items.Costs.Rationale and any other pertinent notes.
75The Promotion Strategy Must create a Promotional Mix: A combination of advertising, sales promotions, publicity, and personal selling.Must focus on:Target Market: Target market and promotional option must match.Product Value: Match the promotional option with the value of the product.
76The Promotion Strategy Must focus on:Promotional Channels: The established lines of communication used for a product to reach its customer.Time Frame:Presale advertising is done before a new product hits the market.Postsale advertising focuses on customers who have already purchased in order to confirm their decision to buy was a good one.Costs: What combination of activities will give you the best results for your money?
77Types of Promotional Activities Advertising: Paid presentation of ideas, goods, or services directed toward a mass audience.
83Types of Promotional Activities Publicity: Placement of newsworthy items about a company or product in the media.News Releases: Brief newsworthy stories sent to the media.Feature Articles: Submit articles to newspapers, magazines, or newsletters.Captioned Photos: Send photos and explanations of your company’s new products, facilities, or employees to the media.
84Types of Promotional Activities Press Conference: Make major announcements related to your company to the media.Seek Interviews: Discuss some newsworthy aspect of your business with the media. Offer your expert opinion.
85Types of Promotional Activities Sales Promotion: Use of incentives or activities to stimulate traffic or sales.DisplaysPremiumsRebatesSamplesSweepstakes and Contests
86Types of Promotional Activities Personal Selling: Oral presentations to one or more potential buyers with the intent of making a sale.
87Types of Promotional Activities Considerations used to evaluate participation in trade shows.Strategic trade show planning is essential to achieving your exhibiting goals and maximizing your return on investment.Identify opportunistic conferences and events that reach your target audience of potential buyers.Conduct research by talking with current customers, professional organizations and colleagues.
88Types of Promotional Activities Considerations used to evaluate participation in trade shows.Use resources such as online trade show planning directories, local chambers of commerce, and area business associations. Request lists of past vendors and attendees from the trade show sponsor.Ensure the show you select draws the type and number of prospects you want. Other considerations include geography, timing, cost, and sponsor reputation.
89Types of Promotional Activities Considerations used to evaluate participation in trade shows.To promote sales, consider your need for audio visual rental equipment and sound systems, banners, promotional items, literature, special displays, and other related marketing tools.
90The Promotional Strategy Impact of TechnologyWhat has been the impact of technology on the promotional strategy?
91The Promotion Strategy Quiz What are the four strategies of the promotional mix? (4 pts)What are the basic differences between advertising and publicity? (4 pts)What is a campaign? (2 pts)Describe four different sales promotion activities? (8 pts)
92Essential Question 1E (MKT-EN-8E) What are the various selling strategies?
93The Selling Strategy Identify your Unique Selling Proposition: Each advertisement makes a proposition to the consumer by presenting a specific benefit. It is not just words, puffery, or show-window advertising.The proposition must be one that the competition either cannot, or does not, offer. It must be unique; either a uniqueness of the brand or a claim not otherwise made in that particular field of advertising.The proposition must be so strong that it can move the mass millions, i.e., pull over new customers to your product.
94The Selling StrategyConduct Sales Forecasting: the process of estimating what your business’s sales are going to be in the future.An integral part of business management.Helps manage inventoryHelps predict cash flowHelps to plan for growth.Allows for intelligent business decisions.
95The Selling StrategySales forecasting for an established business is easier because it can use sales revenues from the previous year, combined with knowledge of general economic and industry trends, to predict business sales in the future.Sales forecasting for a new business is more difficult. The process of preparing a sales forecast for a new business involves researching your target market, your trading area and your competition and analyzing your research to guesstimate your future sales.
96The Selling Strategy Methods of Sales Forecasting Sales Forecasting Method #1: Determine the average sales volume per square foot for similar stores in similar locations and similar size.Sales Forecasting Method #2: For your specific location, determine how many households needing your goods live within, one mile, how much they will spend on these items annually, and the percentage of their spending you will get, compared to competitors. Do the same for five miles (with lower sales forecast figures). (Use distances that make sense for your location.)
97The Selling Strategy Don’t Just Do One Sales Forecast Sales Forecasting Method #3: Estimate gross sales per day for each product/service lines then multiply by 30 for the month. Scale each month taking into consideration increase/decrease in sales due to trends.Don’t Just Do One Sales ForecastUse one or two of the sales forecasting methodsGenerate three figures: pessimistic, optimistic, and realistic. Look for HUGE variations that could identify problem times, i.e. summer vs Christmas.
98The Selling Strategy Include Expenses in Your Sales Forecasting Identify expenses by month, including purchases of materials or inventory.Calculate amount of sales will be by extending store credit. Allow for bad debts.Calculate amount of sales by cash and by credit card. Deduct 4% for credit card sales for credit card expenseCalculate payroll expenses – estimate payroll tax (25% of payroll) to be paid quarterly.
99The Selling Strategy Always plan for the worse case scenario. Create a reserve cash account for your slow months, unforeseen emergencies, or combat large competition price reductions?It is acceptable (and realistic) to have a negative cash flow projection for the early months of your cash flow projection period. Be prepared to show how those cash short falls will be overcome.Always plan for the worse case scenario.
100The Selling Strategy Impact of Technology What has been the impact of technology on the selling strategy?