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The Nervous System is divided into the Central Nervous system Brain Spinal cord.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System is divided into the Central Nervous system Brain Spinal cord."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nervous System is divided into the Central Nervous system Brain Spinal cord

2 Brain Organ that enables us to have thought, emotions,memory and sensory experiences.

3 Sagittal Section of the Brain

4 What does the brain do? Everything!!!!!- Regulates and coordinates body activities. How? Sensory impulses are received via afferent nerves (registered as “sensations”). When a sensory impulse is received the brain analyzes the impulse, reactions are generated and sent off through efferent nerves to muscles and glands to stimulate a reaction to the received input. The brain is the center for consciousness memory, ability to reason, judgment, perception and emotion.

5 and,without even having to think about it… Reflex centers automatically control body activities. Cardiac activity Vasomotor activity Respiratory activity

6 Are you right brained strong or left brain strong?

7 Central Nervous System Comprised of the Brain and the spinal Cord

8 And the Peripheral Nervous System Neurons that originate in the spinal column and reach out to every area of the body and back to the spinal cord. These neurons receive messages and send messages.

9 The Peripheral Nervous System

10 Phase One of Brain Development The first phase of brain development in the fetus is neuro genesis. During neurogenesis, new neurons are formed. Neurons are nerve cells that conduct electrical impulses throughout the body. In babies, more than 100 billion neurons are formed before birth, with as many as 50,000 neurons being formed every second during fetal brain development. These newly developed neurons allow the infant brain to link events to memories that occur at the same time. This is known as integration. This process continues into early adulthood!birth

11 Phase Two The second phase of brain development is neural migration, also known as neuronal migration. In neural migration, the newly formed neurons in the brain are relocated to different areas of the brain dependant on their assigned function. This process begins while a baby is still in the womb and ends around its 10th month of life.

12 Phase Three The third phase of brain development in babies is called myelination. Myelin is the coating that covers each neuron's axon ( a long, arm-like fiber that protrudes from the neuron). Myelin forms a protective sheath around the neuron that keeps it from harm and allows it to be more effective in transmitting signals to other neurons. Myelination begins in the developing fetus and continues into early adulthood.

13 Phase Four Synaptogenesis is the fourth phase of brain development in babies. Synapses are the spaces where two neurons connect. When an infant is born, each neuron has 2,500 synapses, which totals 50 trillion synapses in the infant brain. By the age of 1, this number increases to 15,000 synapses per neuron for a total of 1,000 trillion synapses. Synaptogenesis is the formation of new synapses. When synapses are created to a high degree through new experiences, they allow the central nervous system to send and receive messages much more quickly between nerve cells. Like neurogenesis, synaptogenesis continues into adulthood.

14 Phase Five Pruning is the fifth and final phase of brain development in babies. During this phase, neurons that have become weak or obsolete due to disuse are destroyed while those that have proven to be valuable through repeated use are strengthened and given room to expand. This is also known as neural plasticity. Which neurons are pruned is based on the child's experiences and occurs most often between the ages of 3 and 16.

15 The cerebrum is 7/8 of brains weight --- There are two hemispheres – right and left : THE LEFT HEMISPHERE CONTROLS THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BODY. THE RIGHT HEMISPHERE CONTROLS THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BODY. When someone is labeled “very cerebral”…what do you think that means?

16 5 Parts of the brain Cerebrum ( A.K.A. Cerebral cortex A.K.A. Cortex) Cerebellum Brainstem Pituitary Hypothalmus

17 The brain weighs about three pounds. It is about the consistency of butter. It needs a great percentage of the bodies Oxygen to function normally. It needs food to function as well. It is folded in upon itself to increase the surface area of the brain-high part-folds are called gyrus. Sulci are the separations between the lumps of the brain.

18 Lobes-4 lobes in each hemisphere….how many lobes in total?


20 In case you missed it : LOBES The lobes of the Brain are: Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital

21 Breakdown of structures and functions

22 The three basic functions performed by the Nervous System are: Receive sensory input from internal and external environments-ie:feeling a burning sensation when you touch a flameReceive sensory input from internal and external environments-ie:feeling a burning sensation when you touch a flame Integrate the input –Develop a responseIntegrate the input –Develop a response Respond to stimuli –Pull your hand away from the flame!Respond to stimuli –Pull your hand away from the flame!

23 Autonomic System-Involuntary (ie: The things that are happening while we are asleep) Sympathetic-reacts to stimuli Parasympathetic-returns body to homeostasis

24 Autonomic Nervous System

25 Somatic System Voluntary Actions –skeletal muscle control Afferent –message sent from senses to Nervous system Efferent - message sent from nervous system to skeletal muscle

26 Input and Action

27 Cells of the Nervous System Gray matter- Neurons White matter- Glial- Processes that form tracts that connect various parts of the brain.

28 Neurons The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Humans have about 100 billion neurons in their brain alone! While variable in size and shape, all neurons have three parts.neuron

29 Neuron

30 Neurons 1)The dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body.1)The dendrites 2)The cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of cells and sends the message along to...cell body 3)The axon conducts messages away from the cell body.axon

31 neuron


33 Synapse and neurotransmitters The spaces between neurons is called the synaptic junction. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow messages to be carried from one nerve to the next or block messages being sent.

34 Dopamine - Serotonin -Norepinephrine - GABA - Enkephalins Dopamine is often called the "Feel Good Neurotransmitter! When we have enough Dopamine we have... Feelings of pleasure Feelings of attachment/love Sense of altruism (unselfish concern for the welfare of others) Integration of thoughts and feelings.Serotonin When we have enough serotonin, we feel emotionally stable, we can sleep, we can sort out the feelings and determine in a logical manner if there is a threat present. Norepinephrine Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter found in the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart, blood vessels, sweat glands, the large internal organs, and the adrenal medulla in the brain. GABA GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the most important and the abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain (it's actually an amino acid classified as a neurotransmitter). Enkephalins One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla. Enkephalins functions in Psychological Pain ReliefDopamineSerotonin Norepinephrine GABA Enkephalins

35 Covering of Neurons Myelin Sheath –protective coating on axon of nerves. There are many progressive and chronic diseases that destroy the myelin sheath (ie : M.S.).


37 Cranial Nerves olfactory- smell optic- vision occut motor- eyelid/ pupil trochlear- eye rotation trigeminal – facial sensation abducans- eyes facial- facial movement vestibular- hearing glossopharangeal- taste- swallow vagus- vocal cord swallowing speech spinal accessory- head rotation hypoglossal- Tongue control On old olympus towering tops a finn vith german Valked and hopped!

38 Some key terms: Neurons-nerve cells of the nervous system- billions upon billions in our bodies Glial Cells-the “glue”of the brain Neurotransmitters-The chemicals manufactured by the body that allow nerve cells to transmit (or send) messages all around the body from neuron to neuron Hormones-Chemicals that the body makes that control all of the functions of the body Homeostasis-Balance that is maintained (ideally) between all of the systems of the body

39 Protection Skull-Bone Cerebrospinal Fluid-fluid the brain is floating in that acts as a cushion and supplies necessary nutrients Meninges-The gift wrap of the brain-three canvas like layers Dura mater-outer Arachnoid-middle Pia mater-innermost Vertebrae Reflexes


41 Ventricles- cavities of brain filled with cerebro spinal fluid formed by the choroid plexuses in the walls and roof of ventricles. CSF provides1) cell nourishment 2) removal of waste 3) cushioning

42 Ventricles

43 When a good nervous system goes bad….. There are hundreds of “diseases” of the nervous system. Some of these diseases are genetic, some are trauma induced, some have environmental causes. Google a list of ICD 9 codes for “diseases of the Nervous System". As you will see, it is extensive!

44 Seizures-can be from birth or may develop as a result of traume or illness (even fever!) Seizures are a symptom of something going on in the brain. Seizures are caused by disturbances in the electrical activity of the brain. Seizures may be related to a brain injury or a family tendency, but most of the time the cause is unknown.There are many different types of seizures.

45 Go to the website and watch the brief slideshow on Seizure first aid!

46 Loosen clothing around the person's neck. If someone is having a seizure: Do not try to hold the person down or restrain them. This can result in injury. Do not insert any objects in the person's mouth. This can also cause injury. Reassure concerned bystanders who may be upset and ask them to give the person room. Remove sharp objects (glasses, furniture, and other objects) from around the person to prevent injury. After the seizure, it is helpful to lay the person on their side to maintain an open airway and prevent the person from inhaling any secretions.

47 Reassure concerned bystanders who may be upset and ask them to give the person room. Remove sharp objects (glasses, furniture, and other objects) from around the person to prevent injury. After the seizure, it is helpful to lay the person on their side to maintain an open airway and prevent the person from inhaling any secretions. After a seizure, the person may be confused and should not be left alone.In many cases, especially if the person is known to have epilepsy, it is not necessary to call 911. Call 911 if the seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes, or if another seizure begins soon after the first, or if the person cannot be awakened after the movements have stopped. If you are concerned that something else may be wrong, or the person has another medical condition such as heart disease or diabetes, you should contact a doctor immediately.




51 Brain Illnesses Meningitis Encephalitis Brain Tumors-benign or malignant Cerebral vascular Accident (C.V.A.) Symptoms- Headache, Nausea, Vomiting Fever,Blurred Vision,Imbalance, Confusion, Emotional Outbursts, unequal pupils.

52 Neurological issues Tumors – Benign Malignant Infections- Viral Bacterial Aneurysms- Ruptured Blood Vessel Stroke – C.V.A.-Clot or Ruptured Blood Vessel Alzheimer's / Dementia – tangled plaques in brain

53 Normal brain versus Alzheimer's brain


55 More Nervous System Disorders Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis –Lou gehrigs disease Multiple Sclerosis Huntington Chorea- Adreno leuko-dystrophy-A specific treatment for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is not available, but eating a diet low in very-long-chain fatty acids and taking special oils can lower the blood levels of very-long-chain fatty acids. These oils are called Lorenzo's oil, after the son of the family who discovered the treatment. (Try to see the movie “Lorenzo’s Oil “,it is fantastic!)This treatment is being tested for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, but it does not cure the disease and may not help all patients. Cerebral Palsy-Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non ‐ progressive lifelong condition resulting from damage to the newborn brain. Most infants have spasms (spasticity) affecting at least one leg that prevents normal movement.

56 Remember-C.V.A. Symptoms !) Slurred Speech 2)Headache 3)Blurred Vision 4)Difficulty Swallowing 5)Facial Numbness 6)Peripheral Numbness 7)Hemiplegia (one side of the body is paralyzed)

57 What do you do??? Don’t 911 CALL 911ca

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