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1 Assessment and Diagnosis. 2 Assessment Assessment forms the first point of contact for the counsellor with the client.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Assessment and Diagnosis. 2 Assessment Assessment forms the first point of contact for the counsellor with the client."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Assessment and Diagnosis

2 2 Assessment Assessment forms the first point of contact for the counsellor with the client

3 Assessment and Diagnosis 3 Assessment: Benefits Planning management Diagnosis Screening Referral Motivation enhancement Establish Rapport

4 Assessment and Diagnosis 4 Stages of assessment Assessment is not a one-time phenomenon

5 Assessment and Diagnosis 5 Assessment – tools Clinical: Through history and examination Investigations Performing certain tests Instruments Use of standard tools/questionnaire for assessment

6 Assessment and Diagnosis 6 Clinical assessment Means of clinical assessment Interaction with patient / client Interaction with family member / companion Examination Previous treatment records

7 Assessment and Diagnosis 7 Socio-demographic profile Name Age Sex Marital status Qualification Occupation Type of family Place of residence Clinical Assessment – History

8 Assessment and Diagnosis 8 Details of drug use Type of drug currently being used: the class of the drug (e.g. opioid) and the particular chemical composition (e.g. buprenorphine); in case the chemical composition is not understood, the local name used should be noted Frequency and amount of drug currently used Mode of use of the drug currently used Last dose of drug used Clinical Assessment – History

9 Assessment and Diagnosis 9 Physical: health hazards associated with IDU Local: redness/swelling at injecting site, wounds, sores, blocked veins, etc. Systemic: hepatitis, lung diseases (e.g. chronic bronchitis), etc. Clinical Assessment – History Legal: involvement in illegal activities to obtain drugs (e.g. thefts, pick pocketing) Arrests/detainment by police Charges under NDPS act for drug using/dealing Driving under intoxication with drugs Physical fights under intoxication of drugs Complications associated with drug use

10 Assessment and Diagnosis 10 Clinical Assessment – History Occupational – financial Inability to work productively Accidents at workplace Frequent absenteeism Loss of job Frequent change of job Loss of income, Debts Psychological Guilt & shame Anxiety Depression Complications associated with drug use

11 Assessment and Diagnosis 11 Clinical Assessment – History Marital/Familial/social Fights with family Neglect of household responsibility Physical violence Outcast from family Separation/divorce Homelessness Stigmatisation in society Complications associated with drug use

12 Assessment and Diagnosis 12 High risk behaviors Clinical Assessment – History Injection RelatedSex Related

13 Assessment and Diagnosis 13 Injecting related risk behaviors : Sharing of needles Sharing of syringes, cotton, vials, or other paraphernalia Cleaning practices Sites of injection use iv/im; any dangerous sites of use Reuse of needles and syringes Places where injections are taken Needle site complications Clinical Assessment – History

14 Assessment and Diagnosis 14 Sex related risk behaviors : Sexual intercourse without condoms Multiple sexual partners Sexual intercourse with female sex workers Anal intercourse Sex with a person who has STIs Sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol Sex work for procuring drugs Clinical Assessment – History

15 Assessment and Diagnosis 15 HIV related knowledge and beliefs Knowledge on HIV What is HIV? How is HIV transmitted? Name the 4 modes of transmission of HIV What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? What happens when one is infected with HIV? Does one gets HIV by touching and kissing? Does one gets HIV by sharing food of others? Can HIV be cured? Can HIV be prevented? How? Ask open ended questions Clinical Assessment – History

16 Assessment and Diagnosis 16 History of referrals sought, esp. ICTC, STI clinic, Detoxification and other drug treatment services, Tuberculosis centre Clinical Assessment – History

17 Assessment and Diagnosis 17 History of any medical illness & details History of any mental illness & details Current living arrangements Social support Motivation level Clinical Assessment – History

18 Assessment and Diagnosis 18 Evidence of drug use with respect to Intoxication Withdrawals Route of drug use Evidence of physical damage due to drug use Systemic examination Clinical Assessment – Examination

19 Assessment and Diagnosis 19 Assessment - Investigations Two types To assess the degree of physical damage Hemogram, Liver function test, Renal function test, HIV, Hep B & C To confirm the presence / absence of drugs in the body Screening of body fluids, most commonly urine

20 Assessment and Diagnosis 20 Assessment – Instruments Structured set of questions to assess an individual Act to validate assessment across time, place and person Examples Addiction Severity Index Clinical Opiate withdrawal scale CAGE

21 Assessment and Diagnosis 21 Diagnosis should include the following: Primary drug status Secondary drug status Physical co-morbidity Psychological morbidity Psychosocial issues Diagnosis

22 Assessment and Diagnosis 22 Drug status: Drug use syndromes Abuse/Misuse Dependence Intoxication Diagnosis

23 Assessment and Diagnosis 23 Drug status: Drug use syndromes Dependence Abuse/Harmful use Intoxication Diagnosis

24 Assessment and Diagnosis 24 Definition “A cluster of physiological, behavioural and cognitive phenomenon in which use of a substance or class of substance takes on a much higher priority for an individual than other behaviours…..” Three or more criteria to be present for some time in a one-year period. Diagnosis of drug dependence

25 Assessment and Diagnosis 25 1.Tolerance: Need for increasing the amount of substance consumed to achieve intoxication or the desired effect Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of substance Example A person ‘X’ started with one line of heroin smoking to get intoxicated; with time, he had to increase the dose to 1 pudiya per day to get the same amount of intoxication A person ‘Y’ started with one peg of whisky and got high; with continued use, has to now consume 3 pegs of whisky to get the same high Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria

26 Assessment and Diagnosis 26 2.Withdrawals Set of symptoms experienced on stopping or reducing the amount of the substance after prolonged use Every class of substance (e.g. alcohol, opioids, etc.) has its own unique set of withdrawal symptoms Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria

27 Assessment and Diagnosis 27 Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria E.g. opioid withdrawal Early symptoms Anxiety Restlessness Yawning Nausea Sweating Running nose Running eyes Dilated pupils Abdominal cramps Delayed symptoms Severe Anxiety Restlessness Diarrhea Vomiting Muscular spasm, pain Chills Increased heart rate, blood pressure Increased temperature

28 Assessment and Diagnosis 28 Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria E.g. Alcohol withdrawal Anxiety Restlessness Increased heart rate Increased breathing Shaking (tremors) of hands and other body parts Sweating Sleeplessness Inability to concentrate Delirium tremens Confusion; disorientation to time, place and person; visual hallucinations; illusions; delusions Seizures / fits

29 Assessment and Diagnosis 29 3.Impaired control of behaviour associated with substance use in terms of its starting the use of the substance, stopping the use of the substance, or controlling the level of use Example A person ‘X’ had thought that he would consume only 1 peg of alcohol on a given day, but he is not able to stop after 1 peg, but continues to take more than peg: loss of control A person ‘Y’ planned to stop his drug use, but is unable to do so: loss of control Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria

30 Assessment and Diagnosis 30 4.Preoccupation with the use of substance: manifested as: Great amount of time spent in using the substance/procuring the substance/recovering from the effect of the substance Other activities which were pleasurable are given up as a result of the substance use Other interests/hobbies given up due to indulgence in substance use Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria

31 Assessment and Diagnosis 31 5.Continuing use of the particular substance despite harmful consequence of the substance on the individual 6.Strong desire to use the substance: Craving Craving can be spontaneous or in reaction to certain stimulus (e.g. place where the individual takes drugs, drug using friends, shop where the individual purchases drugs/alcohol, etc.). The craving in reaction to stimulus is called as ‘cue induced’ craving. Diagnosis of drug dependence: Criteria

32 Assessment and Diagnosis 32 Drug status: Drug use syndromes Dependence Abuse/Harmful use Intoxication Diagnosis

33 Assessment and Diagnosis 33 Harmful use: A pattern of use of substance, in which there is evidence of damage to the health of the individual The damage can be physical or mental health damage Abuse: used in the USA system A pattern of substance use, in which there is damage to legal, social and occupational spheres of the individual’s life, in addition to the physical sphere. Drug abuse/harmful use

34 Assessment and Diagnosis 34 Drug status: Drug use syndromes Dependence Abuse/Harmful use Intoxication Diagnosis

35 Assessment and Diagnosis 35 Opioid intoxication Mental/Behavioural effects Drowsiness Initial euphoria (happiness) Dysphoria (irritable mood) Impaired judgement Impaired performance Agitation or retardation Impaired attention Hallucinations Physical Slurred speech Slow respiration Slow pulse Stupor/coma Pupillary constriction Pupillary dilation (anoxic)

36 Assessment and Diagnosis 36 Alcohol intoxication Mental/Behavioural effects Drowsiness Impaired attention Impaired judgement Impulsive behaviour Inappropriate sexual behaviour Aggression Impaired performance Easy irritability or happiness Stupor / coma Physical Flushed face Headache Rapid pulse Sweating Slurred speech Motor in-coordination Unsteady gait Respiratory depression

37 Assessment and Diagnosis 37 Assessment is a skill, and improves with practice For successful outcome of an assessment: Establish rapport with the client Have non-judgemental attitude Effective communication Patient listening Maintain and reassure confidentiality of the response Inform the client about the benefits of carrying out detailed assessment For successful assessment

38 Assessment and Diagnosis 38 Time for Role play …..

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