Presentation on theme: "1. Describe normal changes of aging in the brain"— Presentation transcript:
1 1. Describe normal changes of aging in the brain Define the following terms: cognition the ability to think logically and clearly. cognitive impairment loss of ability to think logically; concentration and memory are affected.
2 1. Describe normal changes of aging in the brain NAs should remember these points about aging and the brain:It is normal for a person to lose some ability to think logically and clearly as he ages.Elderly residents may lose memory of recent events.Encourage residents to make lists and to write down names, events, and phone numbers.Reaction time may slow and it may be harder to find the right word.Elderly people tend to sleep less.
3 2. Discuss confusion and delirium Define the following terms: confusion the inability to think clearly.
4 2. Discuss confusion and delirium NAs should remember these points about confusion:Interferes with ability to make decisionsPersonality may changeAnger, depression, and irritability are other signs.Can be temporary or permanent
5 2. Discuss confusion and delirium Any of the following may cause confusion:Urinary tract infection (UTI)Low blood sugarHead trauma or injuryDehydrationNutritional problemsFeverSudden drop in body temperature
6 2. Discuss confusion and delirium Causes of confusion (cont’d):Lack of oxygenMedicationsInfectionsBrain tumorIllnessLoss of sleepSeizures
7 Transparency 19-1: Care Guidelines for Confusion Do not leave a confused resident alone.Stay calm. Provide a quiet environment.Speak in a lower tone of voice. Speak clearly and slowly.Introduce yourself each time you see the resident.Remind resident of location, name, and date.Explain what you are going to do, using simple instructions.Do not rush the resident.Talk about plans for the day.Encourage the use of eyeglasses and hearing aids.Promote self-care and independence.Report observations to the nurse.
8 2. Discuss confusion and delirium Define the following terms: delirium a state of severe confusion that occurs suddenly and is usually temporary.
9 2. Discuss confusion and delirium Causes of delirium include the following:InfectionsDiseaseFluid imbalancePoor nutritionDrugsAlcohol
10 2. Discuss confusion and delirium The following are symptoms of delirium:AgitationAngerDepressionIrritabilityDisorientationTrouble focusingProblems with speechChanges in sensation and perceptionChanges in consciousnessDecrease in short-term memory
11 2. Discuss confusion and delirium REMEMBER: It helps to be gently and to keep one’s voice low when communicating with someone who is confused or disoriented. An NA should use the person’s name, speak clearly, be gentle, and reduce distractions.
12 3. Describe dementia and define related terms Define the following terms: dementia the serious loss of mental abilities, such as thinking, remembering, reasoning, and communicating. progressive something that continually gets worse or deteriorates. degenerative something that continually gets worse.
13 3. Describe dementia and define related terms Define the following terms: onset in medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness. irreversible unable to be reversed or returned to the original state.
14 3. Describe dementia and define related terms REMEMBER: Dementia is NOT a normal part of aging.
15 3. Describe dementia and define related terms The following are common causes of dementia:Alzheimer’s diseaseMulti-infarct or vascular dementia (a series of strokes causing damage to the brain)Lewy Body diseaseParkinson’s diseaseHuntington’s disease
16 3. Describe dementia and define related terms NAs should know the following information about how a diagnosis of dementia is made:Involves getting a patient’s medical history and having a physical and neurological examBlood tests and imaging tests like CT or MRI scans may be ordered.Tests to trace brain wave activity (EEG) may be performed.Diagnosis of dementia helps rule out other possible diseases with similar symptoms.
17 4. Describe Alzheimer’s disease and identify its stages Define the following term: Alzheimer’s disease a progressive, incurable disease that causes tangled nerve fibers and protein deposits to form in the brain, which eventually cause dementia.
18 Transparency 19-2: Facts about Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly.As many as 5.4 million people in the U.S. are living with Alzheimer’s disease.Women are more likely than men to have AD.Risk increases with age, but it is not a normal part of aging.AD is progressive, degenerative, and irreversible.Tangled nerve fibers and protein deposits in the brain cause dementia.Cause is currently unknown and diagnosis is difficult.Length of time from onset to death can range from three to 20 years.Each person will show different signs at different times.
19 4. Describe Alzheimer’s disease and identify its stages Alzheimer’s disease generally progresses in the following stages:Stage 1 - No impairmentStage 2 - Very mild declineStage 3 - Mild declineStage 4 - Moderate declineStage 5 - Moderately severe declineStage 6 - Severe declineStage 7 - Very severe decline
20 4. Describe Alzheimer’s disease and identify its stages REMEMBER: In stages five, six, and seven of Alzheimer’s disease a resident will need increasing assistance with ADLs, but at all times residents should be encouraged to do what they can for themselves. AD residents will do best if they keep their minds and bodies active for as long as possible.
21 4. Describe Alzheimer’s disease and identify its stages REMEMBER: Every person with Alzheimer’s disease progresses differently, showing different symptoms at different times.
22 Transparency 19-3: Helpful Attitudes for Working with AD Residents Do not take things personally.Put yourself in their shoes.Work with the symptoms and behaviors you see.Work as a team.Take care of yourself.Work with family members.Remember the goals of the resident care plan.
23 5. Identify personal attitudes helpful in caring for residents with Alzheimer’s disease Think about these questions: How can an NA’s professional relationship with an AD resident’s family help her provide the best possible care for the AD resident? Why is it important that an NA take good care of himself when caring for AD residents?
24 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease Define the following term: perseveration the repetition of words, phrases, questions, or actions.
25 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease NAs should remember these communication tips when interacting with residents with AD:Always approach from the front.Determine how close the resident wants you to be.Communicate in a room with little background noise and distraction.Always identify yourself. Use the resident’s name.Speak slowly, using a lower tone of voice.Repeat yourself, using the same words and phrases, as often as needed.Use signs, pictures, gestures, or written words to help communicate.Break complex tasks into smaller, simpler ones.
26 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease NAs should remember these interventions for possible communication problems:If resident is frightened or anxiousKeep him calm.Speak in a low, calm voice. Get rid of noise and distractions.Try to see and hear yourself as residents might. Describe what you are going to do.Use simple words and short sentences.Check your body language.
27 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease Interventions for possible communication problems (cont’d):If resident forgets or shows memory lossRepeat yourself, using the same words. If a resident does not understand a word, try a different one.If resident perseverates, answer questions using the same words each time.Keep messages simple. Break complex tasks into smaller, simpler ones.If resident has trouble finding words or namesSuggest a word that sounds correct. Try not to correct a resident who uses an incorrect word.
28 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease Interventions for possible communication problems (cont’d):If resident seems not to understand basic instructions or questionsAsk resident to repeat your words. Use short words and sentences and allow time to answer.Use the communication methods that are effective.Watch for nonverbal cues. Observe body language.Use signs, pictures, gestures, or written words.If resident wants to say something but cannotEncourage resident to point, gesture, or act it out.Offer comfort with a smile if resident is upset.
29 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease Interventions for possible communication problems (cont’d):If resident does not remember how to perform basic tasksBreak each activity into simple steps.If resident insists on doing something that is unsafe or not allowedLimit the times you say “don’t.” Redirect activities instead.If resident hallucinates or is paranoid or accusingDo not take it personally.Try to redirect behavior or ignore it.
30 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease Interventions for possible communication problems (cont’d):If resident is depressed or lonelyTake time one-on-one to ask how he is feeling. Listen to the response.Try to involve the resident in activities.Report depression to the nurse. (More about depression is in Chapter 20.)If resident repeatedly asks to “go home”Remind him that he is in his home but do not argue.Redirect to something he enjoys.Expect questions to continue, and remain patient and gentle with responses.
31 6. List strategies for better communication with residents with Alzheimer’s disease Interventions for possible communication problems (cont’d):If resident is verbally abusive or uses bad languageRemember it is the dementia speaking and not the person. Try to ignore the language. Redirect attention.If resident has lost most of verbal skillsUse nonverbal skills, such as touch, smiles, and laughter.Use signs, labels, and gestures.Assume people can understand more than they can express.
32 7. Explain general principles that will help assist residents with personal care NAs should remember these general principles when assisting AD residents with personal care:Develop a routine and stick to it.Promote self-care.Take good care of yourself, both mentally and physically.
33 8. List and describe interventions for problems with common activities of daily living (ADLs) Define the following term: intervention a way to change an action or development.
34 Handout 19-1: Interventions for ADLs Bathing • Schedule bathing when resident is least agitated. • Give resident supplies before bathing to serve as visual aid. • Take a walk with resident down the hall and stop at tub or shower room. • Make sure bathroom is well-lit and at a comfortable temperature. • Provide privacy. • Be calm and quiet. Keep process simple. • Be sensitive when discussing bathing with resident. • Give resident washcloth to hold during bath. • Ensure safety by using nonslip mats, tub seats, and hand-holds. • Be flexible about when to bathe. Understand if resident does not want to bathe. • Be relaxed. Offer encouragement and praise.
35 Handout 19-1: Interventions for ADLs (cont’d) • Let the resident do as much as possible during bath. • Check the skin for signs of irritation. Grooming and Dressing • Help with grooming. • Avoid delays or interruptions. • Show resident clothing to put on. • Provide privacy. • Encourage resident to pick out clothes to wear. Lay out clothes in order to be put on. • Break task down into simple steps. Do not rush the resident. • Use a friendly, calm voice when speaking. Praise and encourage.
36 Handout 19-1: Interventions for ADLs (cont’d) Toileting • Encourage fluids, even if resident has problems with urinary incontinence. • Mark bathroom with sign or picture. • Make sure there is enough light, both in the bathroom and on the way there. • Note when resident is incontinent. Check him or her every 30 minutes. Take resident to bathroom before bathroom time. • Observe toilet patterns for two to three nights if resident is incontinent during night. • Take resident to bathroom after drinking fluids. Make sure resident urinates before getting off toilet. • Take resident to bathroom before and after meals and before bed.
37 Handout 19-1: Interventions for ADLs (cont’d) • Put lids on trash cans, wastebaskets, or other containers if resident urinates in them. • Be professional when cleaning episodes of incontinence. Nutrition • Have meals at consistent times each day. Serve familiar foods. Food should look and smell appetizing. • Make sure there is adequate lighting. • Keep noise and distractions to a minimum. • Keep the task of eating simple. Finger foods are easier to eat. • Do not serve steaming or very hot foods or drinks. • Use plain plates without a pattern or color. Use a simple place setting. Remove other items from the table. • Put only one item of food on plate at a time.
38 Handout 19-1: Interventions for ADLs (cont’d) • Give simple, clear instructions on how to eat or use utensils. • Place a spoon to the lips. • Ask resident to open his or her mouth. • Guide resident through meal with simple instructions. Offer regular drinks to avoid dehydration. • Use adaptive equipment as needed. • Feed resident slowly, giving small pieces of food. • Make mealtimes simple and relaxed. Give resident time to swallow each bite. • Seat residents with others to encourage socializing. • Observe for eating and swallowing problems. Observe and report changes or problems.
39 Handout 19-1: Interventions for ADLs (cont’d) Physical Health • Prevent infections. Follow Standard Precautions. • Observe and report potential problems. • Give careful skin care. • Watch for signs of pain. • Maintain daily exercise routine. Mental and Emotional Health • Maintain self-esteem. Encourage independence. • Share in enjoyable activities. • Reward positive and independent behavior with smiles, hugs, and warm touches.
40 9. List and describe interventions for common difficult behaviors related to Alzheimer’s disease Define the following terms: agitated the state of being excited, restless, or troubled. triggers situations that lead to agitation. sundowning becoming restless and agitated in the late afternoon, evening, or night. catastrophic reactions reacting to something in an unreasonable, exaggerated way.
41 9. List and describe interventions for common difficult behaviors related to Alzheimer’s disease Define the following terms: pacing walking back and forth in the same area. wandering walking aimlessly around the facility or facility grounds. elope in medicine, when a person with Alzheimer’s disease wanders away from a protected area and does not return. hallucinations seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling things that are not there.
42 9. List and describe interventions for common difficult behaviors related to Alzheimer’s disease Define the following terms: delusions false beliefs. repetitive phrasing repeating words, phrases, or questions. pillaging taking things that belong to someone else. hoarding collecting and putting things away in a guarded way.
43 Handout 19-2: Difficult Behaviors and Management Agitation Remove triggers, keep routine, focus on familiar activity, remain calm, and soothe. Sundowning Remove triggers, avoid stress, play soft music, set bedtime routine, plan calming activity, remove caffeine, give back massage, distract, and encourage daily exercise. Catastrophic Reactions Avoid triggers such as fatigue, changes, overstimulation, difficult choices/tasks, pain, hunger, or need for toileting. Remove triggers and distract.
44 Handout 19-2: Difficult Behaviors and Management (cont’d) Violent Behavior Block blows, never hit back, step out of reach, call for help, do not leave resident alone, remove triggers, and use calming techniques. Pacing and Wandering Causes: restlessness, hunger, disorientation, need for toileting, constipation, pain, forgetting how or where to sit down, too much napping, need for exercise Remove causes, give snacks, encourage exercise, maintain toileting schedule, let pace in safe place, and suggest another activity. Hallucinations or Delusions Ignore if harmless, reassure, do not argue, and stay calm.
45 Handout 19-2: Difficult Behaviors and Management (cont’d) Depression Causes: loss of independence, inability to cope, feelings of failure and fear, facing incurable illness, chemical imbalance Report signs, encourage independence, talk about moods and feelings, and encourage social interaction. Perseveration or Repetitive Phrasing Respond with patience, do not stop behavior, and answer questions each time, using the same words. Disruptiveness Gain resident’s attention, be calm, direct to a private area, ask about behavior, notice and praise improvements, tell resident about changes, encourage to join in activities, help find ways to cope, and focus on positive activities.
46 Handout 19-2: Difficult Behaviors and Management (cont’d) Inappropriate Social Behavior Do not take it personally, stay calm, reassure, find out cause, direct to private area, respond positively to appropriate behavior, and report abuse to nurse. Inappropriate Sexual Behavior Be matter-of-fact, be sensitive, distract, direct to private area, and consider other ways to provide physical stimulation. Sleep Disturbances Make sure resident gets moderate exercise or activity during the day. Allow resident to spend time in natural sunlight if possible. Reduce light and noise during nighttime hours. Discourage sleeping during the day.
47 Handout 19-2: Difficult Behaviors and Management (cont’d) Pillaging and Hoarding Label belongings, place a label or symbol on door, do not tell others that person is stealing, prepare the family, ask family to report unfamiliar items, and provide a rummage drawer.
48 9. List and describe interventions for common difficult behaviors related to Alzheimer’s disease REMEMBER:If a person with dementia elopes, or leaves the facility or home unsupervised or unnoticed, it is very important to alert a supervisor immediately. The earlier a search is started, the more likely the person is to be found nearby and safe.
49 9. List and describe interventions for common difficult behaviors related to Alzheimer’s disease Home Care FocusREMEMBER:A nurse should assess a home’s safety before an HHA visits a client with Alzheimer’s disease. He will suggest changes that need to be made for the safety of the client. When the client’s condition changes, it is essential that the HHA report it to her supervisor. Another visit can then be made to reassess the home and make changes as necessary.
50 10. Describe creative therapies for residents with Alzheimer’s disease Define the following term: validating giving value to or approving.
51 10. Describe creative therapies for residents with Alzheimer’s disease NAs should be familiar with these creative therapies for residents with AD:Reality orientationUseful in early stages of ADInvolves use of calendars, clocks, signs, and listsMay frustrate residents in later stages of ADValidation therapyInvolves letting residents believe they live in the past or in imaginary circumstancesCan give comfort and reduce agitationUseful in cases of moderate to severe disorientation
52 10. Describe creative therapies for residents with Alzheimer’s disease Creative therapies for residents with AD (cont’d):Reminiscence therapyInvolves encouraging residents to remember and talk about the pastShould focus on a time of life that was pleasantUseful in many stages of AD, but especially with moderate to severe confusionActivity therapyUses activies resident enjoys to prevent boredom and frustrationPromotes self-esteemUseful in most stages of AD
53 10. Describe creative therapies for residents with Alzheimer’s disease REMEMBER: Music is a form of sensory stimulation. Hearing familiar songs can cause a response in people with dementia who do not respond well or do not respond at all to other treatments. Music therapy has been used successfully with people who have Alzheimer’s disease.
54 11. Discuss how Alzheimer’s disease may affect the family REMEMBER: Family members of residents with AD have made and will continue to make very difficult adjustments. Emotional and financial resources will affect each family’s ability to cope.
55 11. Discuss how Alzheimer’s disease may affect the family Think about these questions: Have you had to deal with a loved one with AD? What was your experience like?
56 12. Identify community resources available to people with Alzheimer’s disease and their families The following resources may be of assistance to family members and caregivers of individuals with AD:Alzheimer’s AssociationNational Institute on AgingAlzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral CenterCounselingSupport groupsHealthcare professionals
57 Exam Multiple Choice. Choose the correct answer. Which of the following should a nursing assistant do if a resident is confused?(A) Not mention the date or the location, as it will further confuse the resident(B) Stay calm and provide a quiet environment(C) Leave the resident alone until he is back to normal(D) Avoid explaining care, as it will only agitate the residentConfusion may be caused by(A) Too much television viewing(B) An unpleasant roommate(C) Exercise(D) Urinary tract infections
58 Exam The ability to think logically and quickly is called (A) Cognition(B) Dementia(C) Awareness(D) DysphagiaWhich of the following statements is true of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)?(A) Skills a person has used over a lifetime are usually kept longer.(B) Residents with AD will show the same signs at the same times.(C) NAs should do everything for residents with AD.(D) Alzheimer’s disease is a normal part of aging.
59 Exam When a resident with AD is frightened, the NA should (A) Speak in a room where the television is on(B) Check her body language to make sure she is not tense or hurried(C) Use longer sentences(D) Not tell the resident what she is going to doWhen a resident with AD shows memory loss, the NA should(A) Repeat herself using the same words(B) Tell the resident that she already answered that question(C) Remind the resident every time she forgets something(D) Give the resident a long list of instructions to review
60 ExamIf a resident with AD has lost most of his verbal skills, the NA should(A) Assume the resident cannot understand what is being said(B) Use touch, smiles, and laughter(C) Ask the resident questions(D) Do not involve the resident in activities because it will only frustrate himIf a resident with AD is incontinent, the NA should(A) Withhold fluids(B) Dim the bathroom lights(C) Mark the bathroom with a sign or picture(D) Check the resident every four hours to help determine a “bathroom time”
61 ExamIf a resident with AD has problems with bathing, the nursing assistant should(A) Schedule bathing when the resident is least agitated(B) Hurry the resident through the bath(C) Insist that the resident bathe even if she does not want to(D) Surprise the resident with the bathOne way for an NA to help a resident with AD with eating is to(A) Put a few types of food on the plate at the same time(B) Use dishes without a pattern and a simple place setting(C) Withhold food until the resident is really hungry(D) Serve steaming hot foods and drinks
62 Exam If a resident with AD has problems with dressing, the NA should (A) Lay out clothes in the order they should be put on(B) Dress the resident in the hallway(C) Choose the resident’s clothing for the resident(D) Give the resident multiple steps to followA helpful way for an NA to respond to hallucinations is to(A) Tell the resident that what she thinks she sees is not real(B) Tell the resident that she can see the hallucination too(C) Reassure a resident who is upset and worried(D) Laugh at the resident to ease tensions and encourage the resident to laugh
63 Exam An NA can respond to sundowning by (A) Adding more caffeine to the resident’s diet(B) Setting a bedtime routine and keeping it(C) Restricting exercise during the day(D) Scheduling activities during this timeWhen a resident with AD perseverates, the NA should(A) Answer questions each time they are asked(B) Try to silence the resident by letting him know he just asked that question(C) Use a thesaurus to find new ways to say things(D) Ignore the resident until he stops
64 Exam If a resident with AD shows violent behavior, the NA should (A) Hit back(B) Remove triggers(C) Leave the resident alone until he calms down(D) Yell at the resident to distract himWhen a resident with AD cannot understand basic instructions, it is a good idea to use(A) A notepad to write out instructions(B) Longer words to catch the resident’s interest(C) A very loud voice(D) Short words, pictures, and gestures
65 ExamHow can a nursing assistant best work with the symptoms and behaviors he sees in residents with AD?(A) By assuming that all residents with AD are going through the same thing at the same time(B) By telling the resident with AD he is offended if the resident forgets who he is(C) By working with the behaviors he sees on any given day(D) By using exactly the same approach with every resident in his careWhy is it important for a nursing assistant to take care of himself while caring for a resident with AD?(A) It is not important—it is much more important to work hard to care for the residents.(B) Caring for someone with AD is a completely thankless job.(C) It will inspire residents with Alzheimer’s disease to improve.(D) The NA can give better care if he is rested and is eating well.
66 ExamWhich of the following would be the best way for an NA to respond to inappropriate sexual behavior?(A) Warn other residents that it is happening(B) Take the resident to a private area(C) Inform the resident’s family that the resident is being inappropriate(D) Reprimand the resident to shame him into stoppingWhen a resident with AD pillages and hoards, the NA should(A) Warn the family that the resident is stealing things(B) Try to confine the resident to his room(C) Tell the resident that he needs to return the stolen items(D) Provide a rummage drawer
67 ExamWhen is using reality orientation a good idea for residents with AD?(A) Late stages of AD(B) Early stages of AD(C) When residents are totally disoriented(D) NeverWhich of the following statements is true of using validation therapy?(A) An NA makes no attempt to reorient the resident to actual circumstances.(B) An NA reminds the resident that he is not living in the past.(C) An NA reminds the resident about what is real and what is not real.(D) An NA tells the resident he is having delusions.
68 ExamWhich of the following is a type of therapy that involves having residents with Alzheimer’s disease remember and talk about the past?(A) Reality orientation(B) Validation therapy(C) Reminiscence therapy(D) Activity therapy
69 CHAPTER 19 PRACTICE1. The ability to think logically and quickly is called (A) Cognition (B) Dementia (C) Awareness (D) Dysphagia 2. Which of the following statements is true of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? (A) Skills a person has used over a lifetime are usually kept longer. (B) Residents with AD will show the same signs at the same times. (C) NAs should do everything for residents with AD. (D) Alzheimer’s disease is a normal part of aging. 3. If a resident with AD has problems with dressing, the NA should (A) Lay out clothes in the order they should be put on (B) Dress the resident in the hallway (C) Choose the resident’s clothing for the resident (D) Give the resident multiple steps to follow 4. When is using reality orientation a good idea for residents with AD? (A) Late stages of AD (B) Early stages of AD (C) When residents are totally disoriented (D) Never
70 CHAPTER 19 PRACTICE A-COGNITION A-SKILLS A PERSON HAS USED OVER A LIFETIME ARE USUALLY KEPT LONGERA-LAY OUT CLOTHES IN THE ORDER THEY SHOULD BE PUT ONB-EARLY STAGES OF AD
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