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By: Heather Boyd Epilepsy and seizures affect over 3 million Americans of all ages, at an estimated annual cost of $12.5 billion in direct and indirect.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Heather Boyd Epilepsy and seizures affect over 3 million Americans of all ages, at an estimated annual cost of $12.5 billion in direct and indirect."— Presentation transcript:

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2 By: Heather Boyd

3 Epilepsy and seizures affect over 3 million Americans of all ages, at an estimated annual cost of $12.5 billion in direct and indirect costs. 45,000 American children under the age of 15 develop epilepsy each year. Generalized seizures are more common in children under the age of 10; afterwards more than half of all new cases of epilepsy will have partial seizures. 326,000 American children through age 14 have epilepsy. 44% of Canadian children are diagnosed before the age of 5, 55% of Canadian children are diagnosed before the age of 10, 75-85% of Canadian adolescents before age 18 and 1% of children will have recurrent seizures before age 14. (Epilepsy Foundation, 2008; Epilepsy Canada, 2005)

4 Most common reason for a student to regress academically are absences from school. Chronic medical illness have an impact on development by interfering with a child’s ability to participate in normal age-appropriate activities or attaining common age-related competencies. These absences occur because of hospitalization, frequent medical appointments, time spent on treatments, side effects of medication, fatigue, physical constrains, and activity restrictions, and occasionally, fears, and parental overprotectiveness. Each child and family is unique and culturally diverse, therefore we need to consider the different dynamics and situations these children and their families are experiencing.

5 Epilepsy is a neurological condition which produces brief disturbances in the normal electrical impulses in the brain that can periodically cause recurrent seizures. Epilepsy and seizures are not contagious in any way, shape or form. Students with epilepsy will have seizures when the electrical signals in the brain misfire and generate a sudden uncontrolled surge of electrical activity in the brain. Students who experiences repeated seizures for no apparent reason are diagnosed as having epilepsy (Dowshen, 2007; Epilepsy Foundation, 2008b; Epilepsy.com, 2008 ).

6 Primary generalized seizures are classed as:  Absence seizures or petit mal seizures: are lapses of awareness, or seems like staring. They begin and end abruptly, lasting only a few seconds. They have no warning and no after-effects. Are the most common in children who can experience 50 to 100 attacks daily.  Generalized tonic-clonic or grand mal seizuress are the most common. They may begin with stiffening of their limbs which is the tonic phase followed by jerking of the limbs and face which is the clonic phase. These seizures last from 1 to 2 minutes and the student may experience amnesia, confusion or go into a deep sleep.  Myoclonic seizures are rapid, brief contractions of bodily muscles and can simultaneously occur on both sides of the body (e.g. involving one arm or one foot).  Atonic seizures are a sudden loss of muscle tone. They can result in injuries to the head and face that may require medical assistance.

7 Partial seizures are called simple and complex  Simple partial seizures the person’s consciousness is retained.  Complex partial seizures the person’s consciousness is impaired or lost.  Partial seizures are the most common type of seizure experienced by people with epilepsy and some people experience more than one type of seizure.

8 Electroencephalogram or EEG test to measure the electrical activity in the person's brain using a machine that records the patient’s brain waves which are picked up by tiny wires taped to the head. CT scan or CAT scan which uses X-rays and computers to create images of the internal structure of the brain, produced at different levels, in a series of 'slices.' Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test, a method using magnets instead of X-rays which produces detailed pictures of the internal structure of the brain.

9 Epilepsy usually is treated with medication, or surgery, Ketogenic diet is very high in fats and low in carbohydrates. It makes the body burn fat for energy instead of glucose. Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS therapy): An implanted device that sends signals through the vagus nerve in the neck to control seizures is also used to treat patients. Medication treatments are most commonly used to help control the seizures in order for a person to live as normally as possible.

10 1)Keep calm and reassure the other students. 2) Don't hold the child down or try to stop his or her movements. 3) Time the seizures with your watch. 4) Clear the area around the child of anything hard or sharp. 5) Loosen ties or anything around the neck that may make breathing difficult. 6) Put something flat and soft, like a folded jacket, under the head. 7) If able, turn him or her gently onto one side. This will help keep the airway clear. (Epilepsy Foundation, 2008e). 8) Do not try to force the mouth open with any hard objects or with your fingers. A person having a seizure CAN NOT swallow their tongue. Efforts to hold the tongue down can injure teeth or jaw. 9) Don't attempt artificial respiration except in the unlikely event that a child does not start breathing again after the seizure has stopped 10) If the seizure last more the 5 minutes call for Emergency Medical Services (Call 911). 11) Have school nurse and other school personnel informed and ready to make the call. 12)Stay with the child until the seizure ends naturally. 13) Be friendly and reassuring as consciousness returns. Child may feel ashamed and scare or confused after their seizure. 14) Call the student’s relatives to inform of the situation and have them take their child home.

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13 Dowshen, S. (2007). Epilepsy. Nemours Foundation. Kids Health Web. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from epsy.html Epilepsy.com. (2008). Epilepsy and the brain. Epilepsy.com Web. Retrieved March 29, 2008, from Epilepsy Foundation. (2008a). Epilepsy and seizure statistics. Epilepsy Foundation of America Web. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from /about/statistics.cfm Epilepsy Foundation. (2008b). Frequently asked questions. Epilepsy Foundation of America Web. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from /about/faq/ index.cfm

14 Epilepsy Foundation. (2008c). Seizures and syndromes. Epilepsy Foundation of America Web. Retrieved March 22, 2008, from types/index.cfm Epilepsy Foundation. (2008d). Ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Foundation of America Web. Retrieved August 25, 2008, from Epilepsy Foundation. (2008e). First Aid. Epilepsy Foundation of America Web. Retrieved August 25, 2008, from Epilepsy Canada. (2005). Epilepsy facts. Epilepsy Canada Web. Retrieved August 28, 2008, fromk Clip Art and Homer Image from EEG image from MRI image from


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