Presentation on theme: "15.1 Providing First Aid Pages 379-382 Key Words: First Aid, Triage, EMT, and First Responder LEQ: How does remaining calm influence the outcome of first."— Presentation transcript:
15.1 Providing First Aid Pages Key Words: First Aid, Triage, EMT, and First Responder LEQ: How does remaining calm influence the outcome of first aid?
What is First Aid? Immediate care that is given to the victim of an injury or illness to minimize the effect of the injury or illness until experts can take over
Proper First Aid Can mean the difference between life and death Recovery versus permanent disability In the time of need knowing how to help yourself and others
Remain Calm!!! In order to make the right decisions and provide proper care, you must remain calm and in control of the situation You must be able to choose what care is appropriate for the injury
Step One in Any Emergency You must recognize that an emergency exists!! Use all of your senses during an emergency and trust your “gut feeling”
Use Your Senses Listen for Unusual Sounds ( glass breaking, screaming, changes in equipment, calls for help etc..) Look for Unusual Sights ( empty medicine bottles, damaged wires, stalled car, blood, or chemicals ) Note any Unusual, Unfamiliar, or Strange Odors ( chemicals, natural gas, smoke, or pungent fumes) Watch for Unusual Appearances or Behaviors ( dyspnea, clutching the chest or throat, abnormal skin color, confusion, diaphoresis, or pain )
Learn to Assess the Situation What Do You See?
What do you See?
White Dots or Black Dots?
Once You Know there is an Emergency, Take Appropriate Actions Check the Scene ( Danger? Victims and Where?) If the Scene is NOT SAFE, Call for EMS and wait Do not endanger yourself or the lives of others
Assess the Victim Determine if they are Conscious Never Move an injured person unless the victim is in immediate danger Moving an injured victim may cause more damage
EMS ( Emergency Medical Services ) is Essential Time is Critical so contact EMS ASAP 911 = Describe the situation, actions taken, exact location, telephone number from which you are calling, assistance required, number of victims, and their condition DO NOT HANG UP with 911 until told to do so You may have to give others direction
LEGAL ISSUES If possible, obtain the patients permission to treat them Introduce yourself If the victim is a child, obtain parents permission if they are present If the victim does not give consent, DO NOT treat the victim; contact 911 and alert them of the situation *witness “Good Samaritan Act” Provide ONLY the treatment you are qualified to provide
What is TRIAGE Triage is a method of prioritizing treatment When there are two or more victims, Triage helps determine who is treated first Always start with Life-Threatening and work your way down in priority
Life-Threatening Not Breathing or Difficulty Breathing No Pulse Severe Bleeding Chest Pain Severe Abdominal Pain Vomiting Blood Poisoning Head, Neck, or Spinal Injuries Open Chest or Abdominal Wounds Shock Severe 2 nd or 3 rd Degree Burns
Secondary Fractures 1 st Degree Burns Vital Signs Temperature, Color, and Moistness of the Skin Compare the Pupils Look for Fluid or Blood coming from the Mouth, Nose, or Ears Gently examine the body for Bruises, Swelling, or Painful areas ** Always inform EMS of Your Findings
Sources of Information Your Assessment The Victim Witnesses Medical ID Bracelets Medical Necklace Medical Card Wallet Empty Medicine Bottles Cell Phone Bottles of Chemicals Bottles of Solution Insects Surroundings
General Principles Obtain Qualified Assistance ASAP Avoid Unnecessary Movement If the Victim is Unconscious or Vomiting, do not give them PO Reassure the Victim Protect them from Extreme Weather Work Quickly, but in an organized manner Do not make a diagnosis or discuss the victims condition with observers only individuals that are assisting and EMS
EMT (Emergency Medical Technician) They provide emergency pre- hospital care to victims of accidents, injuries, or sudden illnesses There are various levels of training for the different groups
First Responders CFR (Certified First Responder) A First Responder is the first person to arrive at the scene of an illness or injury Common Examples are Volunteers, Police Officers, Fire Fighters, or Immediate Family members trained in CPR and First Aid Trained in Airway management, Oxygen Administration, Bleeding Control, and CPR
EMT-B ( Basic ) Mainly the Ambulance Driver Trained in providing care for a wide range of illnesses and injuries Fractures Emergency Childbirth Rescuing Trapped victims Transporting Victims 110 Hours of Direct Training Needed EMT-D can use the Defibrillator
EMT-I (Intermediate) Everything and EMT-B and EMT-D can do Assess Patient Manage Shock Use IV equipment Insert Airways (Intubate) 145 Hours of Direct Training
EMT-P ( Paramedic) Can do everything EMT-B, D, and I can do Provide ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) ECG Interpretation ET Tube Intubation Drug Administration Operation of Complex Equipment and Situations 2 Years of Education Required