2THE SECESSION CRISIS LINCOLN’S ELECTION LEADS SO. CAROLINA TO SECEDE DEC. 20TH 1860QUESTION: WOULD OTHER STATES FOLLOW?
3THE CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE DEC. 1860 JOHN CRITTENDEN (KY) PROPOSES A COMPROMISEA SERIES OF CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS.HOPES TO CONVINCE SOUTH NOT TO LEAVE.
4THE TERMS OF THE COMPROMISE RESTORE THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE LINE 36,30UNAMENDABLE AMENDMENT TO GUARANTEE SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS.A SPECIAL COMMITTEE FORMED TO WORK OUT THE DEAL.
5REPUBLICANS & LINCOLN REJECT THE COMPROMISE. IT WOULD VIOLATE THE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM.COMPROMISE IS DEFEATED IN COMMITTEELAST HOPE OF AVOIDING WAR IS GONE.Platform stated no slavery where it did not already exist. The Compromise would open up a large area to new slavery.Lincoln refused to go along with any extension of slavery into new territory.The Compromise proposal died in committee, taking with it any last hope for avoiding war.
6SIX MORE STATES SECEDE MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX BEFORE LINCOLN IS INAUGURATED.FEB. 18TH, 1861 THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICAJEFFERSON DAVIS ELECTED PRESIDENT.Mississippi: January 9, 1861Florida: January 10, 1861Alabama: January 11, 1861Georgia: January 19, 1861Louisiana: January 26, 1861Texas: February 1, 1861
7PRESIDENT BUCHANAN DOES NOTHING. HE WAS A “LAME DUCK” WAITING TO LEAVE OFFICE.He said the southern states had no right to secede but added that the federal govt. had no right to forcibly prevent secession.He urged compromise but took no decisive action to preserve the Union.
8LINCOLN IS INAUGURATED MARCH 1861 INAUGURAL ADDRESS TRIES TO REASSURE THE SOUTH.“I HAVE NO POWER OR DESIRE TO END SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS”LAYS RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING WAR W/ SOUTH"We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.” - Lincoln's First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861.“I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” - Lincoln’s First Inaugural - quoting an earlier speech in an effort to sooth the fears of the South."In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to 'preserve, protect, and defend it'." Lincoln's First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861.
9FORT SUMTER CHARLESTON, SO CAROLINA MAJOR ANDERSON IN COMMAND OF THE FORT.LINCOLN TRIES TO SEND SUPPLIES.4:30 AM APRIL 12, 1861 GEN. BEAUREGARD OPENS FIRE.NO ONE KILLED.
10LINCOLN CALLS FOR 75,000 VOLUNTEERS. VA, AR., TN, N.C. JOIN THE CONFEDERACYTHE BORDER STATES (DE, MD, KY, & MO) REMAIN IN UNIONVITAL TO UNION SUCCESS
11MORE… LINCOLN: “I HOPE GOD IS ON OUR SIDE, BUT I MUST HAVE KENTUCKY.” LINCOLN MOVES TO HOLD MARYLAND - SUSPENDS HABEAS CORPUSKENTUCKY REMAINS LOYALAS DO THE REST OF THE BORDER STATESThe Border States were critical for the union to hold. Slavery existed throughout these states but they remained loyal to the Union.Lincoln was particularly concerned about Kentucky and Maryland.It was critical to secure the Union’s bordersLincoln authorized the arming of Union sympathizers in KY, a slave state with a Unionist legislature. He also stationed Union troops in Illinois under Grant. These troops would respond to any efforts by Confederate forces to occupy the state of KY.Skirmishes took place there but ultimately, KY remained loyal.In MD, Lincoln had obvious concerns. Washington D.C. was bounded on one side by VA. He wanted to ensure that the capitol would not be surrounded by Confederate states.MD was filled with Confederate sympathizers. Baltimore mobs attacked Union troops bound for Washington.Lincoln responded by suspending the writ of habeas corpus in MD and sending federal troops.Habeas corpus is a court order meant to protect prisoners from unlawful restraintTroops could arrest pro-secessionist Marylanders without formally charging them with specific offenses.MD and DE rejected secession.Despite several years of bitter fighting between pro- and anti-slavery forces, MO remained in the Union.
12The Southern Position CONFIDENT OF VICTORY FIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENCE, NOT SLAVERY.FIGHTING FROM DEFENSIVE POSITION - ALWAYS DESIREABLEBELIEVED YANKS WERE WEAK & WOULD QUIT
13THE NORTHERN POSITION CONFIDENT OF VICTORY NORTH HAD POPULATION AND MATERIAL ADVANTAGEFIGHTING TO PRESERVE THE UNION - THE NOBLE CAUSETHOUGHT SECESSIONISTS WERE TREASONOUS REBELS
14THE MILITARY BALANCE SHEET. SOUTHERN MILITARY TRADITIONSOUTHERNERS HIGHLY MOTIVATEDHAD BEST OFFICERS AT START OF THE WAR.FIGHTING ON HOME GROUND.
15MORE… THE NORTH LARGER POPULATION 4X AS MANY TROOPS MORE FACTORIES & SUPPLIESMOST RAILROADS IN THE NORTHA NAVY TO BLOCKADE THE SOUTHSCOTT’S ANACONDA PLAN CALLED FOR CONSTRICTING THE CONFEDERACY TO DEATH
18CIVIL LEADERS: PRESIDENT LINCOLN LINCOLN HAD NO SIGNIFICANT MILITARY EXPERIENCENOT RESPECTED BY MANYCLEVER & WISE POLITICIAN
19Politics & Leadership Government Confederate President Jefferson DavisVice President Alexander StephensVSUnion President Abraham LincolnVice President Andrew Johnson
20JEFFERSON DAVIS POLITICAL EXPERIENCE WEST POINT GRAD, VETERAN OF MEXICAN WAR.SEC OF WARDAVIS WAS A WEAK LEADERFURTHER WEAKENED BY GENERAL FEAR OF CENTRALIZED POWER IN SOUTHDavis, from Mississippi, was politically experienced, serving on two separate occasions as a Senator from that state.He was a West Point grad and served in the Mexican war, fighting in the battles at Monterrey and Buena Vista.During the Pierce Administration, Davis served as the Sec. of War.
21Politics & Leadership Key Military Figures Union leader of all armiesLt. General Ulysses S. GrantVSConfederate leader of all armiesGeneral Robert E. Lee
22MOBILIZING FOR WAR BOTH SIDES RELY ON VOLUNTEERS UNION PAYS BOUNTIES “BOUNTY JUMPING” A PROBLEM1863 CONGRESS PASSES A DRAFTMEN 20 TO 45
23MORE… DRAFT WAS UNFAIR. $300 COULD BUY EXEMPTION YOU COULD HIRE A SUBSTITUTE.SOUTH PASSED DRAFT IN 186218 TO 45 YEARS OLD.LARGE SLAVE OWNERS EXEMPT.
24FUNDING THE WAR SOUTH SOLD BONDS 40% OF WAR COSTS REST PAID BY PRINTING MONEYCAUSED RUNAWAY INFLATION.NORTH PASSED INCOME TAXTAXED MANUFACTURED GOODS AND SOLD BONDS.Both sides sold war bonds to help fund the warOne problem was that bonds had to be paid in specie, which was in short supply in both sides.The North was much more successful in selling bonds.The South compensated for the shortfall in funds for the war by printing money, an act that led to runaway inflation.Both sides suffered from wartime inflation but it was most severe in the south. 80% in the North % in the South.An item costing $1 in 1861 cost $46 in 1864The Union passed an income tax to raise funds.In addition, the Union overcame early hesitation over raising taxes on manufactured goods, imposing increasingly stiff taxes on products.
25MORE… BY 1862, DAILY COST OF WAR WAS $1.75 MILLION PER DAY NORTH PASSED THE LEGAL TENDER ACT(1862)ISSUES PAPER MONEY CALLED “GREENBACKS”NATIONAL BANKING ACT BANKS MUST BUY FEDERAL BONDS.The Legal Tender Act authorized the issue of $150 million in paper money called GreenbacksThe additional $ made it easier to pay soldiers, to levy and raise taxes, and to sell war bonds.To bolster public confidence in Greenbacks, the Union made it legal tender to pay public and private debts.The National Banking Act of 1863 permitted private banks to secure national charters, required nationally chartered banks to purchase govt. bonds, and authorized them to use the bonds as backing for bank notes.The law provided a sound national currency and helped the sale of bonds to finance the war.
26Mobilization Technology Technology same for both sidesMore accurate rifles with longer rangeDeadly advances in artillery piecesFirst crude submarines (South)Beginning of trench warfareCavalry and Bayonets become secondary and eventually obsoleteThe element of surprise is the greatest advantage
27Military Strategy Suppression vs. Attrition NorthSuppress a rebellion and restore a UnionCompel the South into ceasing their attemptsCompletely crush the war-waging capacity of the SouthSouthFight a war of attritionProlong the war to the point where it becomes a waste of time and money to continueWin independence by default if North does not continue