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DIVIDED BY WAR 1861-1865. THE SECESSION CRISIS l LINCOLN’S ELECTION LEADS SO. CAROLINA TO SECEDE l DEC. 20TH 1860 l QUESTION: WOULD OTHER STATES FOLLOW?

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Presentation on theme: "DIVIDED BY WAR 1861-1865. THE SECESSION CRISIS l LINCOLN’S ELECTION LEADS SO. CAROLINA TO SECEDE l DEC. 20TH 1860 l QUESTION: WOULD OTHER STATES FOLLOW?"— Presentation transcript:

1 DIVIDED BY WAR

2 THE SECESSION CRISIS l LINCOLN’S ELECTION LEADS SO. CAROLINA TO SECEDE l DEC. 20TH 1860 l QUESTION: WOULD OTHER STATES FOLLOW?

3 THE CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE DEC l JOHN CRITTENDEN (KY) PROPOSES A COMPROMISE l A SERIES OF CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS. l HOPES TO CONVINCE SOUTH NOT TO LEAVE.

4 THE TERMS OF THE COMPROMISE l RESTORE THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE LINE 36,30 l UNAMENDABLE AMENDMENT TO GUARANTEE SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS. l A SPECIAL COMMITTEE FORMED TO WORK OUT THE DEAL.

5 REPUBLICANS & LINCOLN REJECT THE COMPROMISE. l IT WOULD VIOLATE THE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM. l COMPROMISE IS DEFEATED IN COMMITTEE l LAST HOPE OF AVOIDING WAR IS GONE.

6 SIX MORE STATES SECEDE l MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX l BEFORE LINCOLN IS INAUGURATED. l FEB. 18TH, 1861 THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA l JEFFERSON DAVIS ELECTED PRESIDENT.

7 PRESIDENT BUCHANAN DOES NOTHING. l HE WAS A “LAME DUCK” WAITING TO LEAVE OFFICE.

8 LINCOLN IS INAUGURATED MARCH 1861 l INAUGURAL ADDRESS TRIES TO REASSURE THE SOUTH. l “I HAVE NO POWER OR DESIRE TO END SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS” l LAYS RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING WAR W/ SOUTH

9 FORT SUMTER CHARLESTON, SO CAROLINA l MAJOR ANDERSON IN COMMAND OF THE FORT. l LINCOLN TRIES TO SEND SUPPLIES. l 4:30 AM APRIL 12, 1861 GEN. BEAUREGARD OPENS FIRE. l NO ONE KILLED.

10 LINCOLN CALLS FOR 75,000 VOLUNTEERS. l VA, AR., TN, N.C. JOIN THE CONFEDERACY l THE BORDER STATES (DE, MD, KY, & MO) REMAIN IN UNION –VITAL TO UNION SUCCESS

11 MORE… l LINCOLN: “I HOPE GOD IS ON OUR SIDE, BUT I MUST HAVE KENTUCKY.” l LINCOLN MOVES TO HOLD MARYLAND - SUSPENDS HABEAS CORPUS l KENTUCKY REMAINS LOYAL –AS DO THE REST OF THE BORDER STATES

12 The Southern Position l CONFIDENT OF VICTORY l FIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENCE, NOT SLAVERY. l FIGHTING FROM DEFENSIVE POSITION - ALWAYS DESIREABLE l BELIEVED YANKS WERE WEAK & WOULD QUIT

13 THE NORTHERN POSITION l CONFIDENT OF VICTORY l NORTH HAD POPULATION AND MATERIAL ADVANTAGE l FIGHTING TO PRESERVE THE UNION - THE NOBLE CAUSE l THOUGHT SECESSIONISTS WERE TREASONOUS REBELS

14 THE MILITARY BALANCE SHEET. l SOUTHERN MILITARY TRADITION l SOUTHERNERS HIGHLY MOTIVATED l HAD BEST OFFICERS AT START OF THE WAR. l FIGHTING ON HOME GROUND.

15 MORE… THE NORTH l LARGER POPULATION –4X AS MANY TROOPS l MORE FACTORIES & SUPPLIES l MOST RAILROADS IN THE NORTH l A NAVY TO BLOCKADE THE SOUTH –SCOTT’S ANACONDA PLAN CALLED FOR CONSTRICTING THE CONFEDERACY TO DEATH

16 Mobilization Call to Arms

17 Mobilization Supplies & Armaments

18 CIVIL LEADERS: PRESIDENT LINCOLN l LINCOLN HAD NO SIGNIFICANT MILITARY EXPERIENCE l NOT RESPECTED BY MANY l CLEVER & WISE POLITICIAN

19 Politics & Leadership Government Union President Abraham Lincoln Vice President Andrew Johnson Confederate President Jefferson Davis Vice President Alexander Stephens VS

20 JEFFERSON DAVIS l POLITICAL EXPERIENCE l WEST POINT GRAD, VETERAN OF MEXICAN WAR. l SEC OF WAR l DAVIS WAS A WEAK LEADER –FURTHER WEAKENED BY GENERAL FEAR OF CENTRALIZED POWER IN SOUTH

21 Politics & Leadership Key Military Figures Confederate leader of all armies General Robert E. Lee Union leader of all armies Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant VS

22 MOBILIZING FOR WAR l BOTH SIDES RELY ON VOLUNTEERS l UNION PAYS BOUNTIES l “BOUNTY JUMPING” A PROBLEM l 1863 CONGRESS PASSES A DRAFT –MEN 20 TO 45

23 MORE… l DRAFT WAS UNFAIR. l $300 COULD BUY EXEMPTION l YOU COULD HIRE A SUBSTITUTE. l SOUTH PASSED DRAFT IN 1862 –18 TO 45 YEARS OLD. l LARGE SLAVE OWNERS EXEMPT.

24 FUNDING THE WAR l SOUTH SOLD BONDS –40% OF WAR COSTS l REST PAID BY PRINTING MONEY l CAUSED RUNAWAY INFLATION. l NORTH PASSED INCOME TAX l TAXED MANUFACTURED GOODS AND SOLD BONDS.

25 MORE… l BY 1862, DAILY COST OF WAR WAS $1.75 MILLION PER DAY l NORTH PASSED THE LEGAL TENDER ACT(1862) –ISSUES PAPER MONEY CALLED “GREENBACKS” l NATIONAL BANKING ACT BANKS MUST BUY FEDERAL BONDS.

26 Mobilization Technology Technology same for both sides –More accurate rifles with longer range –Deadly advances in artillery pieces –First crude submarines (South) –Beginning of trench warfare –Cavalry and Bayonets become secondary and eventually obsolete The element of surprise is the greatest advantage

27 Military Strategy Suppression vs. Attrition North –Suppress a rebellion and restore a Union –Compel the South into ceasing their attempts –Completely crush the war-waging capacity of the South South –Fight a war of attrition –Prolong the war to the point where it becomes a waste of time and money to continue –Win independence by default if North does not continue


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