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Chapter Three: Ethics in Psychological Research. The Need for Ethical Principles.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Three: Ethics in Psychological Research. The Need for Ethical Principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Three: Ethics in Psychological Research

2 The Need for Ethical Principles

3 Psychologists must ask and answer questions such as:

4 The Need for Ethical Principles Psychologists must ask and answer questions such as: Are we putting our participants at risk?

5 The Need for Ethical Principles Psychologists must ask and answer questions such as: Are we putting our participants at risk? Is our experimental treatment harmful?

6 The Need for Ethical Principles Psychologists must ask and answer questions such as: Are we putting our participants at risk? Is our experimental treatment harmful? Is the information we will gather from our experiment worth the potential risk and harm to participants that is involved?

7 The Need for Ethical Principles Four instances that created major concern regarding research ethics are cited in your text. These are:

8 The Need for Ethical Principles Four instances that created major concern regarding research ethics are cited in your text. These are: The medical atrocities of World War II

9 The Need for Ethical Principles Four instances that created major concern regarding research ethics are cited in your text. These are: The medical atrocities of World War II The Tuskegee syphilis project

10 The Need for Ethical Principles Four instances that created major concern regarding research ethics are cited in your text. These are: The medical atrocities of World War II The Tuskegee syphilis project The Willowbrook hepatitis project

11 The Need for Ethical Principles Four instances that created major concern regarding research ethics are cited in your text. These are: The medical atrocities of World War II The Tuskegee syphilis project The Willowbrook hepatitis project Stanley Milgram’s obedience studies of the 1960’s

12 The Need for Ethical Principles Many Nazis who committed medical research atrocities during World War II were prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Tribunal. The Nuremburg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical principles of research:

13 The Need for Ethical Principles Many Nazis who committed medical research atrocities during World War II were prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Tribunal. The Nuremburg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical principles of research: Participants should consent to participate in research.

14 The Need for Ethical Principles Many Nazis who committed medical research atrocities during World War II were prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Tribunal. The Nuremburg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical principles of research: Participants should consent to participate in research. Participants should be fully informed of the nature of the research project.

15 The Need for Ethical Principles Many Nazis who committed medical research atrocities during World War II were prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Tribunal. The Nuremburg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical principles of research: Participants should consent to participate in research. Participants should be fully informed of the nature of the research project. Risks should be avoided whenever possible.

16 The Need for Ethical Principles Many Nazis who committed medical research atrocities during World War II were prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Tribunal. The Nuremburg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical principles of research: Participants should consent to participate in research. Participants should be fully informed of the nature of the research project. Risks should be avoided whenever possible. Participants should be conducted by scientifically qualified personnel.

17 The Need for Ethical Principles Many Nazis who committed medical research atrocities during World War II were prosecuted at the Nuremburg War Tribunal. The Nuremburg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical principles of research: Participants should consent to participate in research. Participants should be fully informed of the nature of the research project. Risks should be avoided whenever possible. Participants should be conducted by scientifically qualified personnel. Participants have the right to discontinue participation at any time.

18 Psychological Detective

19 Which principles of the Nuremburg Code did the Tuskegee syphilis study violate?

20 Psychological Detective Which principles of the Nuremburg Code did the Tuskegee syphilis study violate? How did the study violate these principles?

21 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Is Deception in Research Necessary?

22 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Experiments such as the Tuskegee syphilis project and Milgram’s study have led to the development of ethical guidelines by the APA.

23 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Experiments such as the Tuskegee syphilis project and Milgram’s study have led to the development of ethical guidelines by the APA. The APA adopted and published the original code of ethics in 1973; it was revised in 1982, and again in 2002.

24 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Some APA principles have proved to be controversial:

25 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Some APA principles have proved to be controversial: Placing research participants “at risk” or “at minimal risk

26 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Some APA principles have proved to be controversial: Placing research participants “at risk” or “at minimal risk Informing participants of such risks

27 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Some APA principles have proved to be controversial: Placing research participants “at risk” or “at minimal risk Informing participants of such risks Securing “informed consent” from participants

28 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Some APA principles have proved to be controversial: Placing research participants “at risk” or “at minimal risk Informing participants of such risks Securing “informed consent” from participants Use of “deception” in research

29 Psychological Detective Why do you think these principles have proven to be controversial in conducting psychological research?

30 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Is Deception in Research Necessary?

31 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Is Deception in Research Necessary? Providing a complete explanation or description of the project may influence the participants’ responses.

32 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Is Deception in Research Necessary? Providing a complete explanation or description of the project may influence the participants’ responses. It is arguable that deception may be justified in some cases if our results are to be unbiased or uncontaminated by knowledge of the experiment and the expectancies that such knowledge may bring.

33 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Informed Consent

34 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Informed Consent The informed consent form should include the following information:

35 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Informed Consent The informed consent form should: Give a general description of the project in which the participants are going to participate.

36 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Informed Consent The informed consent form should: Give a general description of the project in which the participants are going to participate. Inform the participants that no penalties will be invoked if they choose not to participate.

37 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Informed Consent The informed consent form should: Give a general description of the project in which they are going to participate. Inform the participants that no penalties will be invoked if they choose not to participate. Clearly state that participants have the right to withdraw their participation at any time they desire.

38 Psychological Detective Even though it may not be readily apparent, the process of informed consent has given researchers a new variable to manipulate. What is this variable?

39 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk

40 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at risk:

41 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at risk: are participants who, by virtue of their participation in the research project, are placed under some emotional or physical risk.

42 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at risk: are participants who, by virtue of their participation in the research project, are placed under some emotional or physical risk. Securing informed consent from participants at risk is a mandatory condition.

43 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at risk: are participants who, by virtue of their participation in the research project, are placed under some emotional or physical risk. Securing informed consent from participants at risk is a mandatory condition. What about those participants at risk who are participating in a study involving deception?

44 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at risk: are participants who, by virtue of their participation in the research project, are placed under some emotional or physical risk. Securing informed consent from participants at risk is a mandatory condition. What about those participants at risk who are participating in a study involving deception? How do we satisfy the ethical guidelines in such as case?

45 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at minimal risk:

46 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk Participants at minimal risk: are participants who will experience no harmful effects through taking part in the research project.

47 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Vulnerable populations

48 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Vulnerable populations Researchers need to consider factors such as:

49 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Vulnerable populations Researchers need to consider factors such as: Health of participants

50 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Vulnerable populations Researchers need to consider factors such as: Health of participants Age of participants

51 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Vulnerable populations Researchers need to consider factors such as: Health of participants Age of participants Ability of participants to understand what participation in a project may entail

52 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans Vulnerable populations Researchers need to consider factors such as: Health of participants Age of participants Ability of participants to understand what participation in a project may entail (e.g. children, patients with physical or mental disorders; persons with lower intelligence, low literacy, or English as a second language)

53 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session

54 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Is usually the final step in conducting the research project

55 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Is usually the final step in conducting the research project Involves explaining to the participants the nature and purpose(s) of the project.

56 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing:

57 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing: The researcher’s integrity as a scientist must be conveyed to the participants.

58 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing: The researcher’s integrity as a scientist must be conveyed to the participants. If deception was used, the researcher should reassure the participants that it was not wrong or a reflection on their integrity or intelligence to feel that they have been tricked or fooled.

59 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing: The researcher’s integrity as a scientist must be conveyed to the participants. If deception was used, the researcher should reassure the participants that it was not wrong or a reflection on their integrity or intelligence to feel that they have been tricked or fooled. The debriefing session should progress slowly.

60 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing: The researcher’s integrity as a scientist must be conveyed to the participants. If deception was used, the researcher should reassure the participants that it was not wrong or a reflection on their integrity or intelligence to feel that they have been tricked or fooled. The debriefing session should progress slowly. Researchers should make every effort to return participants to the same state they were in at the beginning of the project.

61 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing: The researcher’s integrity as a scientist must be conveyed to the participants. If deception was used, the researcher should reassure the participants that it was not wrong or a reflection on their integrity or intelligence to feel that they have been tricked or fooled. The debriefing session should progress slowly. Do not rush. Researchers should make every effort to return participants to the same state they were in at the beginning of the project. The researcher should repeat all guarantees of confidentiality and anonymity that were made at the beginning of the project.

62 APA Principles in the Conduct of Research with Humans The Debriefing Session: Aronson and Carlsmith (1968) proposed the following guidelines for effective debriefing: The researcher’s integrity as a scientist must be conveyed to the participants. If deception was used, the researcher should reassure the participants that it was not wrong or a reflection on their integrity or intelligence to feel that they have been tricked or fooled. The debriefing session should progress slowly. Do not rush. Researchers should make every effort to return participants to the same state they were in at the beginning of the project. The researcher should repeat all guarantees of confidentiality and anonymity that were made at the beginning of the project. For maximum effectiveness, the researcher should conduct the debriefing session immediately following the experimental session.

63 Psychological Detective Review the discussion of debriefing. What is the main goal of the debriefing session?

64 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals:

65 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research:

66 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. the research should have a clear scientific purpose.

67 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel.

68 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. Only trained personnel who are familiar with the animal-care guidelines should be involved with the research. All procedures must conform to appropriate federal guidelines.

69 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals.

70 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. Animal housing areas must comply with current regulations.

71 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals.

72 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. If animals are not bred in the laboratory, they must be acquired in a lawful, humane manner.

73 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. V. Experimental Procedures.

74 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. V. Experimental Procedures. Humane consideration for the well-being of the animal should be incorporated into the design and conduct of all procedures involving animals, while keeping in mind the primary goal of experimental procedures – the acquisition of sound, replicable data.

75 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. V. Experimental Procedures. VI. Field Research.

76 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. V. Experimental Procedures. VI. Field Research. Field research must be approved by the appropriate review board. Investigators should take special precautions to disturb their research population(s) and the environment as little as possible.

77 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. V. Experimental Procedures. VI. Field Research. VII. Educational Use of Animals.

78 The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research Here is a brief summary of the APA (1985) guidelines for the use of animals: I. Justification of Research. II. Personnel. III. Care and Housing of Animals. IV. Acquisition of Animals. V. Experimental Procedures. VI. Field Research. VII. Educational Use of Animals. The educational use of animals also must be approved by the appropriate review board. Instruction in the ethics of animal research is encouraged.

79 The Institutional Review Board

80 The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects.

81 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. At some institutions the IRB also reviews projects that utilize animals.

82 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. At some institutions the IRB also reviews research projects that utilize animals. Many institutions have an Animal Care and Use Committee that reviews research projects that utilize animals.

83 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. At some institutions the IRB also reviews research projects that utilize animals. Many institutions have an Animal Care and Use Committee that reviews research projects that utilize animals. A veterinarian must be a member of any panel that reviews animal research proposals.

84 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. The typical IRB is composed of a cross-section of individuals.

85 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. The typical IRB is composed of a cross-section of individuals. IRB’s might contain faculty members from history, biology, education, psychology, and economics, as well as one or two members from the community who are not associated with the institution.

86 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. The typical IRB is composed of a cross-section of individuals.

87 The Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a campus review panel for the use of human participants in research projects. The typical IRB is composed of a cross-section of individuals. The IRB serves to ensure that the experimenter treats research participants, whether they are humans or animals, according to the established ethical guidelines.

88 The Experimenter’s Responsibility

89 The experimenter is the single individual who is ultimately accountable for the ethical conduct of the research project.

90 The Experimenter’s Responsibility The experimenter is the single individual who is ultimately accountable for the ethical conduct of the research project. The researcher carefully weighs the benefits and costs of a project and then decides whether to conduct it.

91 The Participant’s Responsibility

92 Korn (1988) indicated the research participant has the following responsibilities:

93 The Participant’s Responsibility Korn (1988) indicated the research participant has the following responsibilities: Be on time for the research appointment.

94 The Participant’s Responsibility Korn (1988) indicated the research participant has the following responsibilities: Be on time for the research appointment. Participants have the responsibility to listen carefully to the experimenter and ask questions in order to understand the research.

95 The Participant’s Responsibility Korn (1988) indicated the research participant has the following responsibilities: Be on time for the research appointment. Participants have the responsibility to listen carefully to the experimenter and ask questions in order to understand the research. Participants should take the research seriously and cooperate with the experimenter.

96 The Participant’s Responsibility Korn (1988) indicated the research participant has the following responsibilities: Be on time for the research appointment. Participants have the responsibility to listen carefully to the experimenter and ask questions in order to understand the research. Participants should take the research seriously and cooperate with the experimenter. When the study has been completed, participants share the responsibility for understanding what happened.

97 The Participant’s Responsibility Korn (1988) indicated the research participant has the following responsibilities: Be on time for the research appointment. Participants have the responsibility to listen carefully to the experimenter and ask questions in order to understand the research. Participants should take the research seriously and cooperate with the experimenter. When the study has been completed, participants share the responsibility for understanding what happened. Participants have the responsibility for honoring the researcher’s request that they not discuss the study with anyone else who might be a participant.

98 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed

99 Avoid Plagiarism

100 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Do not plagiarize (use someone else’s work without giving credit to the original author)

101 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following:

102 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: Any part of your paper that contains the exact words of an author must appear in quotation marks, with the author’s name, and the date of publication and page number(s) of the source attached.

103 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: Any part of your paper that contains the exact words of an author must appear in quotation marks, with the author’s name, and the date of publication and page number(s) of the source attached. You should not adapt material with only minor changes, such as combining sentences, omitting phrases, changing a few words, or inverting sentence order.

104 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: Any part of your paper that contains the exact words of an author must appear in quotation marks, with the author’s name, and the date of publication and page number(s) of the source attached. You should not adapt material with only minor changes, such as combining sentences, omitting phrases, changing a few words, or inverting sentence order. If what you have to say is substantially your own words, but you took the facts or ideas from a particular author, then omit the quotation marks and reference with a parenthetical citation such as (Jones, 1949).

105 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: Any part of your paper that contains the exact words of an author must appear in quotation marks, with the author’s name, and the date of publication and page number(s) of the source attached. You should not adapt material with only minor changes, such as combining sentences, omitting phrases, changing a few words, or inverting sentence order. If what you have to say is substantially your own words, but you took the facts or ideas from a particular author, then omit the quotation marks and reference with a parenthetical citation such as (Jones, 1949). Always acknowledge secondary sources. (See p. XX)

106 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: Any part of your paper that contains the exact words of an author must appear in quotation marks, with the author’s name, and the date of publication and page number(s) of the source attached. You should not adapt material with only minor changes, such as combining sentences, omitting phrases, changing a few words, or inverting sentence order. If what you have to say is substantially your own words, but you took the facts or ideas from a particular author, then omit the quotation marks and reference with a parenthetical citation such as (Jones, 1949). Always acknowledge secondary sources. (See p. XX) You must reference every statement of fact and every idea or opinion not your own unless the item is part of common knowledge.

107 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: You should not adapt material with only minor changes, such as combining sentences, omitting phrases, changing a few words, or inverting sentence order. If what you have to say is substantially your own words, but you took the facts or ideas from a particular author, then omit the quotation marks and reference with a parenthetical citation such as (Jones, 1949). Always acknowledge secondary sources. (See p. XX) You must reference every statement of fact and every idea or opinion not your own unless the item is part of common knowledge. Do not hand in for credit a paper that is the same or similar to one you have handed in elsewhere.

108 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: You should not adapt material with only minor changes, such as combining sentences, omitting phrases, changing a few words, or inverting sentence order. If what you have to say is substantially your own words, but you took the facts or ideas from a particular author, then omit the quotation marks and reference with a parenthetical citation such as (Jones, 1949). Always acknowledge secondary sources. (See p. XX) You must reference every statement of fact and every idea or opinion not your own unless the item is part of common knowledge. Do not hand in for credit a paper that is the same or similar to one you have handed in elsewhere. It is permissible to ask someone to criticize (but not rewrite) a completed paper before you submit it.

109 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed The Department of Psychology at Bishop’s University (1994) has suggested the following: If what you have to say is substantially your own words, but you took the facts or ideas from a particular author, then omit the quotation marks and reference with a parenthetical citation such as (Jones, 1949). Always acknowledge secondary sources. (See p. XX) You must reference every statement of fact and every idea or opinion not your own unless the item is part of common knowledge. Do not hand in for credit a paper that is the same or similar to one you have handed in elsewhere. It is permissible to ask someone to criticize (but not rewrite) a completed paper before you submit it. Keep rough notes and drafts of your work and photocopies of material not available in your college or university library.

110 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Avoid Fabrication of Data

111 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Avoid Fabrication of Data Refers to situations where the experimenter either deliberately changes or alters data or

112 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Avoid Fabrication of Data Refers to situations where the experimenter either deliberately changes or alters data or Makes up data to suit his or her needs.

113 Psychological Detective

114 What would cause a scientist to fabricate data?

115 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Avoid Lying with Statistics

116 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Avoid Lying with Statistics Results should be presented in an unbiased manner.

117 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly

118 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly It is the researcher’s responsibility to cite and list only those articles that have been read.

119 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly It is the researcher’s responsibility to cite and list only those articles that have been read. The least you should do is cite the secondary source (see pp. XXX-XXX) you are using.

120 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly It is the researcher’s responsibility to cite and list only those articles that have been read. The least you should do is cite the secondary source (see pp. XXX-XXX) you are using. It is allowable to cite an article that is described and referenced in another article.

121 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly It is the researcher’s responsibility to cite and list only those articles that have been read. The least you should do is cite the secondary source (see pp. XXX-XXX) you are using. It is allowable to cite an article that is described and referenced in another article. If Smith and Davis (1999) described and referenced a research project conducted by Brown (1984), you can cite it as follows:

122 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly It is the researcher’s responsibility to cite and list only those articles that have been read. The least you should do is cite the secondary source (see pp. XXX-XXX) you are using. It is allowable to cite an article that is described and referenced in another article. If Smith and Davis (1999) described and referenced a research project conducted by Brown (1984), you can cite it as follows: Brown (as cited in Smith & Davis, 1999) found that……

123 Researcher’s Ethical Obligations Once The Research is Completed Cite Your References Correctly It is the researcher’s responsibility to cite and list only those articles that have been read. The least you should do is cite the secondary source (“see pp. XXX-XXX”) you are using. It is allowable to cite an article that is described and referenced in another article. If Smith and Davis (1999) described and referenced a research project conducted by Brown (1984), you can cite it as follows: Brown (as cited in Smith & Davis, 1999) found that…… In your reference section you would list only the Smith and Davis reference (the one you actually read).


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