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“What Works” applied to Corrections (not just treatment/services) “What Works” applied to Corrections (not just treatment/services) This project is sponsored.

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Presentation on theme: "“What Works” applied to Corrections (not just treatment/services) “What Works” applied to Corrections (not just treatment/services) This project is sponsored."— Presentation transcript:

1 “What Works” applied to Corrections (not just treatment/services) “What Works” applied to Corrections (not just treatment/services) This project is sponsored by the National Institute on Corrections, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the Maryland Division of Parole and Probation, and the University of Maryland. All questions should be directed to Prepared By: Faye S. Taxman, Ph.D. Virginia Commonwealth University

2 2 What Defines Evidence in EBPs? Practice Knowledge Development Best Practices EBP No Research Post Hoc Test Quasi- Experimental Designs Randomized Trial(s) Randomized Trials/ 2+Confirmations

3 3 What Has Been Tried: CJ Interventions? Intensive Supervision Boot Camp Case Management TASC DTAP (Diversion to TX, 12 Month Residential) Drug Courts Tx with Sanctions (e.g. Break the Cycle, Seamless System, etc.) In-Prison Tx (TC) with Aftercare Without engaging offender in change, doomed to failure!!!

4 4 What Has Been Tried: Clinical? Education (Psycho-Social) Non-Directive Counseling Directive Counseling Motivational Interviewing Moral Reasoning Emotional Skills 12 Step with Curriculum Cognitive Processing Cognitive Behavioral (Social Skills, Behavioral Management, etc.) Therapeutic Communities Contingency Management/Token Economies Skills & Decision-Making: Shape Behavior

5 5 What Does NOT Work (non-Behavioral)* Fear and other emotional appeals Threatening Shaming offenders Education programs Bibliotherapy Freudian approaches Talking cures Self-Help programs Vague unstructured programs Fostering self-regard (self-esteem) “Punishing smarter” Incarceration *Latessa, 2003

6 6 What Have We Learned? DOES NOT WORKDOES NOT WORK: Boot camps & control- interventions WORKSWORKS: Strong Change Orientation-Social Learning MIXED RESULTSMIXED RESULTS but positive if: Offender High Risk Engaging Offenders Compliance Mgt Program/Staff At Least 90 Days Contract to spell out Expectations Compliance Management Use Social Learning Models CBT/TC Organization Measure Fidelity Recognize Staff Service Integration Performance Driven

7 7 Quandary of Corrections Law Enforcement Social Work

8 8

9 9 Procedural Justice Treat like all others, Fairness Responsivity Diagnosis, Address Behavioral Drivers Behavioral Management Shape Behavior, Reinforcers, Contingency Management Social Learning Models

10 10 EBPs in Corrections Staff Tools: Social Learning Models Rapport Building Motivational Enhancements Positive Reinforcers Organization: Shared Vision Learning Environment Staff Development Measure Performance Reinforce Staff Gains Collaborations Engage others Offender: Recognize Drivers of Crml Behavior Place in Services for “Drivers” Place in Tx for “Drivers” Hold Accountable Reduce Recidivism Sustained Offender Change

11 11 Process for Offender Change Better Case Information More Vested Offender Engagement Formal Controls Services Informal Controls Sufficient Retention Change Behavioral Change Natural Support Systems Sustained Change Deportment Assessment & Case Planning Expectations & Ground Rules Reduced Crime Reduced Drug-Use Improved Family/ Community Express Empathy Avoid Argumentation Roll with Resistance Deploy Discrepancy Support Self-Efficacy 4 Months12 Months18 Months

12 12 Applying “What Works” Develop Rapport between offender/staff Gather Input of Offenders (Engagement) Diagnose Offender Typologies (Practice Guidelines) Identify Special Tracks with no more than 3 target behaviors at one time Use Proximal, Intermediate Performance Measures

13 13 Step 1: Communicating With the Offender

14 Communication Skills Use directive, offender-centered communication style Help offenders resolve ambivalence about change Develop deportment skills to work with other staff and offenders Use open questions, affirmations, summarizations, and reflective listening Utilize empathetic listening to address resistance 14

15 15 How to Improve Communication Use social learning theory to teach offenders Model new skills for offenders Monitor offenders for progress Reinforce the positives

16 16 Step 2: Assessing Risk/Need & Engaging Offenders

17 17 Assessment and Planning Select standardized or objective assessment tool (Essential) Diagnose risks and needs Provide cornerstone of intervention approach Draw offender into behavioral change process

18 18 Criminogenic Needs: 1)Anti-Social Values 3) Low Self-Control 4) Dysfunctional Family Ties 5) Substance Abuse 6) Criminal Personality 2) Criminal Peers Eric Shepardson & Lina Bello, Bureau of Governmental Research 2001, Focus On the “Big Six”

19 19 LSI-R Assessment Ranks LSI-R scores Helps prioritize responsibilities

20 20 Offender Behavioral Triggers Gathers key behavioral information Identifies triggers (people, places, things)

21 21 Step 3: Case Plans & Working Relationships with Offenders

22 22 Principles of Case Planning Provide offender with objective feedback Show results of assessment Allow offenders to have input into case plans Increase offender “buy-in”

23 23 Offender Self-Assessment (O-Self) Increases offender “buy- in” Provides offender the opportunity to prioritize needs Gives offender a role in identifying areas of interest

24 24 Case Plan Report Provides teaching tool for the offender Summarizes diagnosis & prescribed plan

25 25 Step 4: Applying the Responsivity Principle

26 26 Appropriate Services for Stages of Change Self Diagnosis Education B and C Analysis Treatment and Control Options Social and Life Skill Development Trigger Analysis Relapse Prevention Evaluation of Relapse Relapse Pre-contemplation Contemplation Determination Maintenance Action Adapted from Prochaska & DiClemente (1986)

27 27 Practice Guidelines TypologySupervision Plan Focus DisassociatedDeveloping a social network Domestic Violence Addressing violent tendencies, power and control issues, and substance abuse issues Drug-InvolvedAddressing addiction issues Mental Health Finding treatment and care for mental health issues Sex Offender Including controls and treatment to address sexual deviancy Violent Offender Internal and external controls for violent behaviors

28 28 Step 5: Enhancing Supervision Skills

29 29 Principles of Enhanced Supervision Utilize internal and external controls Target key behaviors Take incremental steps Provide appropriate services

30 30 Behavioral Management Target key behaviors: — Focus : 3 behaviors — Avoid Ambiguity: Be Clear and Crisp –Objectivity : Feedback to the offenders must be observable and concrete –Address behaviors in a Swift and Certain manner

31 31 Controls are “Keys” to Supervision External Controls Drug Testing Supervision Curfews Geographic Limitations Daily Structure Internal Controls Social Skill Development Emotional Stability Sense of Responsibility Morals Successful Supervision

32 32Services Target effective interventions (e.g. Cognitive Behavioral, Skill Based, etc.) Focus on dosage units (duration, frequency) Focus on supports—informal social controls Focus on geographical locations

33 33 Offender Behavioral Contract Serves as agreement Provides signatures (offender & agent) Summarizes responsibilities Monitors performance

34 34 Step 6: Managing Compliance

35 35 % Positive for Any Illicit Drug Petry et al., 2000

36 36 Behavioral Management Approaches What is a reinforcer? Anything that will be of value to the offender, and that will motivate production of good behavior. Withdrawal of aversive conditions: –Foregoing a urine test –Decreasing frequency of meetings with staff Reinforce Behaviors at a 4 to 1 Ratio. Having more positive reinforcements than negative reinforcements

37 37 Step 7: Helping the Organization

38 38 EBP Will Only Work if there is: Use data to make decisions Practice true system collaboration--sharing of influence Desire to stop doing some things and terminate programs Invest in research and data Desire to “retool” (programs, practices, and staff skills) Recognize that it may contradict current organizational culture and confront ideology

39 39 Organizational Development Organizational Development Establish coaches within organization Keep key concepts in the forefront of everyone’s mind Pre-Training Introduce concepts Answer questions Provide tools Core Training Explain concepts Practice skills Provide explanations Answer questions Booster Sessions Reassure staff concerns Assist in application Refresh concepts Quality Assurance Work with staff on site Reduce defensiveness Provide feedback to staff Booster Sessions Reassure staff concerns Assist in application Refresh concepts

40 40 1Introduced self or greeted offender in a confident, friendly manner and thanked them for their time and effort when closing the session. LOW12345HIGH 2Posture and physical gestures (e.g., hand shakes, eye contact, non-verbal communication) were deliberate, dignified, and conveyed interest and respect. LOW12345HIGH 3Was organized and prepared with case materials, recent test results, and session goals. LOW12345HIGH 4Achieved goal of meeting and closed session with review of immediate action plan for offender. LOW12345HIGH Deportment and Manner of Being With an Offender 5 Used appropriate communication skills to decrease tension and reinforce positive behavior, minimize interruptions and avoid raising voice LOW12345HIGH 6Reviewed and updated the offender ’ s progress towards previously established goals. LOW12345HIGH 7Explored and conducted on-going assessments for offender ’ s ambivalence (to change), criminogenic needs and relevant circumstances of the case. LOW12345HIGH 8Verified current case information and status (e.g., address, employment) and record case information that reflects minimal supervision standards. LOW12345HIGH 9Maintained focus for change on offender and their problem-solving ability. LOW12345HIGH 10Adequately discussed referral needs, and jointly planned goals & obstacles with offender and guided through the stages of change. LOW12345HIGH Assessment and Planning Agent Name: ____________________________________________________ Treatment and Service Referral 11 When necessary, appropriately reminded offender of ground rules for effective supervision and legal consequences for non-compliance. LOW12345HIGH 12When appropriate (dictated by sanction contract), provided sanctions clearly in a fair manner. LOW12345HIGH QUALITY CONTACT STANDARDS Sanctions and Ground Rules TOTAL++++= 40

41 41 To Do List: Identify objective assessment tool Emphasize rapport building between staff & offenders Train staff to identify appropriate services for each offender Measure staff’s ability and performance Evaluate implementation efforts on continual basis Focus on Incentives over punishments

42 42 Tools of the Trade: A Guide to Incorporating Science into Practice


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