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150 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. External.

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Presentation on theme: "150 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. External."— Presentation transcript:

1 150 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. External Bleeding  The three major types of blood vessels are—  Arteries.  Capillaries.  Veins.  Blood in the arteries travels faster and under greater pressure.  Blood in the arteries pulses with each contraction of the heart.  Bleeding that is severe enough to critically reduce blood volume is life threatening because tissues will die from lack of oxygen.

2 151 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. External Bleeding  External bleeding occurs when a blood vessel is opened externally, such as a tear in the skin.  Each type of blood vessel bleeds differently.  Arterial bleeding is rapid and, if severe, is life threatening. The blood is bright red in color.  Venous blood is under less pressure and flows from the wound at a steady rate. The blood is dark red in color.  Capillary bleeding is usually slow because the vessels are small. Blood oozes from the wound.

3 152 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Internal Bleeding  Internal bleeding is the escape of blood from arteries, veins or capillaries into spaces within the body.  Severe internal bleeding can occur from injuries caused by blunt force or a chronic medical condition.  Internal bleeding can also occur when an object penetrates the skin and damages internal structures.  You should suspect internal bleeding in any serious injury.

4 153 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Shock  If there is minor internal bleeding, such as bruising, apply ice.  If you suspect internal bleeding, call or the local emergency number immediately.  Follow these general care steps:  Do no further harm.  Monitor signs of life and consciousness.  Help the victim rest comfortably.  Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.  Reassure the victim.  Give any specific care needed.

5 154 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Summary  Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink, even though he or she is likely to be thirsty.  Help the victim maintain normal body temperature by keeping him or her from getting chilled or overheated.

6 155 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Wounds  The hypodermis, located beneath the epidermis and dermis, contains—  Fat.  Blood vessels.  Connective tissues.  The muscles lie beneath the fat layer and comprise the largest segment of the body’s soft tissues.

7 156 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Care Wounds  If the victim has an embedded object in the wound—  Put on disposable gloves.  Do not remove the object.  Use bulky dressings to stabilize the object.  Control bleeding by bandaging the dressing in place around the object.  Wash your hands immediately after giving care.

8 157 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Care Wounds  A dressing is a pad placed directly over a wound to absorb blood and other body fluids and to prevent further contamination that could lead to infection.  A bandage is any material used to wrap or cover a body part.

9 158 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Musculoskeletal Care  If you are unsure whether the injury is serious, care for it as if it is a serious injury.  Take steps to minimize shock.  Comfort and reassure the victim.

10 159 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Musculoskeletal Care  Support the injured area.  Control external bleeding.  Check toes for feeling, warmth and color before and after splinting.  Use a soft splint to immobilize an ankle or foot.  Secure the splint with two or three cravats.  Elevate.  Apply ice or a cold pack.  Call or the local emergency number.

11 160 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Musculoskeletal Care  After the injury is immobilized, apply ice or a cold pack.  Help the victim rest in the most comfortable position.  Monitor the victim’s—  Level of consciousness.  Breathing.  Skin color.  Temperature.  Take steps to minimize shock.

12 161 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Head, Neck, etc.  To care for injuries to the pelvis—  Call or the local emergency number.  Do not move the victim unless necessary.  Control external bleeding.  Cover any protruding organs.  Take steps to minimize shock.  Care for a closed wound to the genitals as you would any closed wound.  If the genitalia has an open wound, apply a sterile dressing and control bleeding with direct pressure.

13 162 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Head, Neck, etc.  Injuries to the chest, abdomen or pelvis can be serious.  Some injuries can only be detected if the victim’s condition worsens over time.  Watch for signals of serious injury that require medical attention.  Care for life-threatening emergencies first.  Always call or the local emergency number as soon as possible.  For open wounds, control the bleeding.  If a fracture is suspected, immobilize the injured part.  Use occlusive dressings for sucking chest wounds and open abdominal wounds.

14 163 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Sudden Illness  Sudden illnesses often show the following signals:  Change in a person’s level of consciousness  Feeling lightheaded, dizzy or weak  Nausea or vomiting  Changes in breathing, circulation, skin temperature, color or moisture

15 164 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Sudden Illness  Sudden illnesses become evident in a variety of ways.  Common sudden illnesses include—  Fainting.  Diabetic emergencies.  Seizures.  Stroke.  Poisoning.  Heart attack.  Shock.

16 165 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Poison  Poisoning can occur in any one of four ways: inhalation, ingestion, absorption and injection.  The severity of a poisoning depends on factors such as—  The type and amount of poison.  How and where the poison entered the body.  The time elapsed since the poisoning.  The victim’s size, weight, medical condition and age.  For suspected poisoning call the National Poison Control Center, or the local emergency number.  Follow the directions of Poison Control Center personnel or the EMS call taker.  Questions?

17 166 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Poison  By following these guidelines you will be able to prevent most poisoning emergencies:  Keep the household products and medications out of the reach of children.  Use childproof safety caps on containers of medications and other potentially dangerous substances.  Use special latches and clamps to keep children from opening cabinets.  Keep products in their original containers.  Use poison symbols to identify dangerous substances.

18 167 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Poison  Dispose of outdated medications and household products.  Use chemicals only in well-ventilated areas.  Wear proper clothing.  Immediately wash those areas of the body that may have come in contact with a poison.

19 168 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Preventing Bites and Stings  Preventing bites and stings from insects, spiders, ticks, snakes, scorpions and marine life is the best protection against the transmission of injected poisons.

20 169 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Prevent Bite/Stings  Follow these general guidelines to prevent bites and stings:  Apply repellent.  Wear sturdy boots.  Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.  Tuck pant legs into socks or boots and tuck shirt into pants.  Wear light-colored clothing.  Use a rubber band or tape where pants and socks meet to prevent ticks or insects from getting under clothing.  Inspect yourself carefully after being outdoors.

21 170 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved.  Shower immediately after coming indoors.  Keep an eye out for and avoid nests.  Spray pets that go outdoors with repellent.  Stay in the middle of trails when hiking.  Avoid walking in areas known to be populated with snakes.  Make noise as you walk.  If you encounter a snake, walk away on the same path you were on. (continued) Prevent Bite/Stings

22 171 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Prevent Bite/Stings  To prevent stings from marine animals, you might consider wearing a wetsuit or drysuit or protective footwear in the water.  To prevent dog bites—  Do not run past a dog.  Avoid eye contact, try to remain motionless.  Do not approach a strange dog.  Always let a dog see and sniff you before you pet the animal.

23 172 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Drugs  There are six major categories of substances that, when abused or misused, can produce a variety of signals.  You do not have to diagnose the condition to give care.  If you suspect that the victim’s condition is caused by substance misuse or abuse—  Give care for a poisoning emergency.  Call 9-1-1, the local emergency number or National Poison Control Center personnel and follow their directions.  Call the police, if necessary.  Questions?

24 173 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Heat/Cold  Emergencies resulting from overexposure to extreme temperatures are usually preventable.  You can prevent overexposure to extreme temperatures by following these guidelines:  Avoid being outdoors  Dress appropriately  Change your activity level  Take frequent breaks  Drink large amounts of nonalcoholic or decaffeinated fluids

25 174 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Put Altogether  You can help prevent injury and disease by taking safety precautions and making lifestyle choices that promote health.  To reduce your risk of injury, it is important to take safety precautions in vehicles, at work, at play and in your home.  To reduce your risk of illness, make healthy choices about your lifestyle.  Eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, avoiding harmful substances and managing stress all contribute to a person’s health and well-being.  Questions?


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