Presentation on theme: "Interviewer Training www.utahposthighsurvey.org Developed & Presented by Lynese Gulczynski, WPHSOS Program Assistant Mary Kampa, WPHSOS Director Cooperative."— Presentation transcript:
Interviewer Training www.utahposthighsurvey.org Developed & Presented by Lynese Gulczynski, WPHSOS Program Assistant Mary Kampa, WPHSOS Director Cooperative Educational Service Agency #11, Turtle Lake, WI 2007 www.utahposthighsurvey.org
2 Acknowledgements This training session is adapted for UPHSOS from the following National Post-School Outcomes Center (NPS0) www.psocenter.orgwww.psocenter.org Indiana University, Center for Survey Research (CSR), John Kennedy, Director http://www.indiana.edu/~csr/ BRFFC http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.htm National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Systemhttp://www.indiana.edu/~csr/http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.htm St. Norbert College Survey Center http://www.snc.edu/surveycenter Charles Backstrom and Gerald Hursh-Cesar, Survey Research, 2 nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991.http://www.snc.edu/surveycenter
3 Welcome Interviewers There is a saying “What gets measured gets done.”
4 That is why you are here, to help measure post high school outcomes for students with disabilities!
5 In order to improve programming for the students we serve, we need information from them after they graduate. We need to collect it, analyze it, and measure it. Only then can we do something about it.
6 Interviewers could be considered the most important part of the Post High School Outcomes Project because you are counted on to collect accurate data. Fundamental changes in student services can be based on the information you collect. YOU ARE THE KEY!
7 Why are You Important? When you make telephone calls as a UPHSOS Interviewer: You will be asking past students about their experiences in their last year of school, about their current living, employment and work situations.
8 Numbers that you will collect will be analyzed - these are called statistics. The most accurate statistics come straight from the source—real people, some of whom are doing well since high school and others that are struggling with the transition into the adult world. Why are You Important?
9 Your Role Is Critical Therefore, one of the most important jobs in the UPHSOS process is yours— the Interviewer! You will record the information directly from the former students you talk to during telephone interviews.
10 Your Role is Critical! "Being an interviewer takes a lot of skill...it's a job full of responsibilities. You were hired for this job to collect accurate data, and because you're able to listen to people on the other end of the phone and deal with any questions and concerns they may have." Quote from Project Officer, Behavioral Surveillance Branch Division of Adult and Community Health, NCCDPHP, CDC
The 3 Es for UPHSOS Staff & Interviewers E EE
12 The 3 Es All work performed for the UPHSOS done by staff and interviewers will fall under 3 main guidelines referred to as “The 3 Es”. Excellence Ethics Efficiency
13 Excellence – The UPHSOS utilizes best practice in high quality academic research standards. The 3 Es
14 Ethics – The UPHSOS maintains the use of high ethical standards in its procedures and methods. – We are always honest with participants in our research, and inform them of their rights as respondents. The 3 Es
15 Efficiency – The UPHSOS interview staff are partners with USOE. – Interviewers are expected to do their best to work efficiently by sticking to task and minimizing social conversation in order to complete the phone interview process within the survey timelines. The 3 Es
UPHSOS Survey Basics
17 UPHSOS Survey Basics Interviewers read questions from the website and enter responses directly into the on-line survey This allows the project to: -interview a large sample of people, cheaper cost than going door to door or mailings -conduct interviews in a standardized, neutral way -program questions to appear in their proper sequence, no matter how the respondent answers
18 By using interviewers, we can clarify certain parts of the study that might be unclear to a participant Interviewers provide a friendly, human voice that can make the interview a pleasant experience. UPHSOS Survey Basics
19 Instruments are provided to assure the best possible data collection possible -Survey questions with script and skip patterns -Tips Sheet (alternative phrasing and answers to most asked questions) -Notes Sheet (log unusual answers, problems, etc.) -DO’s and DON’Ts Sheet -Website directions for the Interviewer UPHSOS Survey Basics
20 Think of the UPHSO survey questions as if it were a movie script. Movie actors with a very strict director stick to the script and say their lines exactly as the screenwriter wrote them. The dialogue seems so natural when we see the movie later, it's hard to believe it was scripted, and that the actors probably said those exact lines hundreds of times in rehearsal! The reason it seems so natural is because talented actors use voice personality, and they take advantage of techniques known as rapport and pace. UPHSOS Survey Basics
21 Adherence to the Questionnaire There will be times when you can "improvise your lines," such as when you are answering common questions about the survey. Rephrasing should not change the meaning or “intent” of the question. Practice alternate phrasing with your Administrator or other interviewers. UPHSOS Survey Basics
22 Access to the Website 1. Submit your signed/dated Confidentiality Agreement 2. Receive your Username and Password 3. Log-on to the UPHSOS website 4. Verify that you are in the Secure section of the site 5. Select “Edit Contacts” 6. Select appropriate district(s) you will be working with 7. Print the Student listing (phone numbers showing) 8. Select “enter surveys” next to the student name UPHSOS Survey Basics
23 Access to the Website (continued) 9. Get the student on the phone 10. Select “ I will be filling out this form while conducting the student interview. “ 11. Follow the on-line screens/scripts 12. Refer to your Tips & Do’s/Don’ts when necessaryTipsDo’s/Don’ts 13. Use Notes Sheet with comments or items to discuss with the administratorNotes Sheet 14. Before the closing goodbye, click “SAVE” to show any unanswered questions and complete them 15. Give final thank you and click “SAVE” UPHSOS Survey Basics
24 How Data are Used To improve programs for students Inform school personnel, public, others Track programs Track teaching trends over time Categorize the data into subgroups Compare one district with another Guide district program policies and services
25 Interviewer Responsibilities
26 The rationale behind Interviewer responsibilities should be upheld every time you conduct an interview Interviewer Responsibilities
27 1. Ensure respondents' confidentiality 2. Make quality a priority in all aspects of interviewing 3. Maintain a courteous and friendly tone 4. Manage interview problems appropriately Interviewer Responsibilities
28 Assure the person that nothing identifying them is open to anyone This includes any personal information like their telephone number Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Respondent Confidentiality
29 Ensure Respondent Confidentiality! Be Careful What You Say You may be thinking that you would never violate a respondent's confidentiality, even if you had the chance But consider what happened to Joyce…. Interviewer Responsibilities
30 Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality! : Joyce: "...and so they talked me into bringing cupcakes and brownies for the bake sale. Oh! Speaking of school, I think I talked to Tommy Jones on the phone today at work." Teresa: "One of my friends? I thought you weren't allowed to ask for people's names and stuff." …… Interviewer Responsibilities
31 Ensure Confidentiality! Joyce: "We're not. But I thought it sounded like his voice. Then, one of the questions we ask is about where they work, and he said was working at Burger King. He mentioned it was through the Job Service Agency." Teresa: "I bet it was him, then!" Interviewer Responsibilities
32 Ensure Confidentiality! Joyce: "You know, we have to ask questions about jobs, living arrangements, college and all that. Did you know he was doesn’t have enough money to go to school? I wonder why that is when his parents certainly make enough money?" Teresa: "Yeah, I heard that from Susie, who knows Tommy’s Mom. I guess they are divorcing and their money is tight now. But I can’t see how that should be, Tommy’s Dad makes well over $80,000 per year. Joyce: "Wow, you just never know.“ Interviewer Responsibilities
33 "What's wrong with this scenario?“ (select one) 1. It is a violation of Mrs. Jenkins' privacy 2. Joyce and Teresa are gossiping about things that are none of their business 3. Mr. Jenkins didn't really move out Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality!
34 The answer is 1 A conversation like this one is clearly a breach of confidentiality. Joyce should have either ended her interview with Tommy Jones as soon as she recognized his voice, or she should have let another interviewer take over the call. Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality!
35 Explain that the data you are collecting will be combined with information collected in hundreds of interviews. Individual information is further protected because the data are combined and reports only include aggregate figures. For example, a report might say that 10% of the population has worked since high school and make less than minimum wage, not that Tommy Jones earns less than $5.00 per hour. Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality!
36 Don't discuss details of your interviews outside of the work environment Although discussion of respondent information among UPHSOS staff is a necessary part of the survey process, do not disclose interview information with family, friends, or anyone else not involved with the UPHSOS personnel. Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality!
37 Store your materials in a locked or secure area when you aren't at work Don't leave confidential materials on desks or tables overnight. Never take interview materials (telephone numbers, etc.) outside your survey area. Secure your phone list and your computer files that contain any of the student data used in the interview process. Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality!
38 Log-off and close your website connection if you leave your computer. Always close the Internet browser as well. Don't leave this confidential listing on desktops or open should you leave your computer station. Secure your phone list and your log-on information used in the interview process. Do not share your username or password with anyone. Interviewer Responsibilities Ensure Confidentiality!
39 Interviewer Responsibilities Make Quality a Prioity!
40 A lot of people are counting on you to do the best job you possibly can. These people include administrators, directors of special education, teachers, board members, state office of instruction, local district personnel, parents, and anyone whose child will benefit from the data you collect. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
41 Here are several ways you can be sure that you are making quality a priority in your work Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
42 1. Understand the nature and content of the questions so you can be comfortable with the interview process 2. Interview the correct respondent 3. Record responses and open-ended questions properly Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
43 4. Conduct interviews as efficiently as you can Follow the sequence of the survey Have the “Tips” sheet available for different script options Jot down any extraordinary responses or questions with the student name and question number (use the provided “Notes Sheet”) Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
44 5. Obtain a copy of the Interview Questions with Script, Tips Sheet and “Do’s and Don’ts” Sheet and read them thoroughly. Then discuss with your supervisor and other interviewers any topics or questions that make you uncomfortable or are unclear. 6. Inform the Administrator of any problems, glitches, oddities you encounter Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
45 7. Learn the terms If you've never heard terms like "postsecondary" or "respondents," chances are good that some of your respondents won't know those words either. When they ask you, "what does that mean?" it doesn't inspire much confidence if you say, "I don't know; I'm just an interviewer." ( See the Glossary under Resources as www.utahposthighsurvey.org )www.utahposthighsurvey.org Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
46 8. Learn the built in skip patterns If you understand the sequence used by the on-line survey, you will be better prepared for the interview and help you to answer questions more confidently. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
47 9.Understand intimidating question wording – Some respondents may view the questions as some kind of test for which their answers are either right or wrong. – Reassure them this is not a test, and there are no right or wrong answers. – Some respondents, fearful about how the information will be used, may not give you an honest answer. For example, reassure them the information you collect is strictly confidential, and that their answers will be combined with hundreds of others. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
48 10.Interviewing the Student is the priority Often the person selected is hard to reach or isn't home when you call, and the person who answers the telephone suggests you simply conduct the interview with him or her instead. Say something like, We would like to interview “Johnny” if at all possible. The survey is more accurate of if I speak directly to the former student. Is there a better time or different number where I can reach him?” (record this information in the “student contact form” on-line). Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
49 11. Interviewing the Student is the priority Get the Student on the phone if at all possible. There are up to 8 phone calls allowed in the on-line survey which includes a comments section to assist in connecting with the student. If the former student is not available, it is permissible to interview a Parent, Guardian, or other person that would know and feel comfortable answering the survey questions. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
50 12. All Interviewers should ask the questions as close to what is written without changing the intent a. First, if all states ask the questions the exact same way, the data collected are comparable across states. For example, does New York have more students with disabilities who have a driver’s license than those in California do? We'll never know for sure unless all interviewers ask the questions in similar fashion. b. Second, if you modify or rephrase a question too much, you may get an answer that is incorrect for the intended question. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
51 Ask the Questions as close to what is written without changing the intent Question rephrased incorrectly: “Are you working right now?” Student answers: “No, I’m at home watching T.V.” How you state a question can alter meaning and intent. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
52 Make a Second Contact When the First Call Ends in Refusal With the exception of verbally abusive respondents, eligible persons who initially refuse to be interviewed could be contacted at least one additional time and given the opportunity to be interviewed. This second contact may be made by a supervisor or a different interviewer. Reasons: The quality of the data depends in part on how complete it is. When an interviewer can encourage someone to respond and complete the survey, we have a better picture of how the former students in the state are doing since high school. Interviewer Responsibilities Quality
54 Interviewer Responsibilities Quality Efficiently Use Interviewer Tools 1. Interviewer Tips Sheet 2. Notes sheet 3. Administrator information/reporting Shauna Crane 1780 N. Research Parkway, Ste 112, Logan, UT 84341 435-752-0238 x19 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 4. Read/Study the Do’s & Don’ts sheet
55 Interviewer Responsibilities Maintain a Courteous and Friendly Tone
56 1. Practice reading all the questions. If you have questions about how to pronounce unfamiliar terms or how to emphasize particular words, ask the administrator. 2. Speak directly into the phone. Adjust the placement if necessary. A headset is preferable. 3. Use a low pitch of your voice, and don't raise your voice unnecessarily. Interviewer Responsibilities Maintain a Courteous and Friendly Tone
57 4. Speak at a moderate pace, deliberately and distinctly. Don’t rush. 5. Put a "smile" in your voice. (and on your face – it makes a difference!) 6. Put the respondent at ease by reading the questions in a natural, calm, and friendly manner. 7. Don't let your voice trail off at the end of a sentence. Interviewer Responsibilities Maintain a Courteous and Friendly Tone
58 8. Understand that the students you interview may have a language, hearing, cognitive or other disability. You may have to repeat, rephrase and speak slower, or differently in order for them to understand the questions. 9. Your patience and tact will improve your success rate in completed surveys. Interviewer Responsibilities Maintain a Courteous and Friendly Tone
60 1. Be kind, no matter what a respondent says to you. 2. Emphasize the respondent's importance to the survey. 3. Explain the reasons for the survey. 4. Find a convenient time to conduct the interview. 5. Emphasize that the survey is completely confidential. 6. Let them know that what they tell you will help other students in high school right now. 7. Have “help” information at your fingertips to direct students if necessary. 8. If the student terminates the interview, always thank them for their time. Interviewer Responsibilities Managing Problems
61 "It takes a while to get the hang of being a good interviewer. At first it was a bit overwhelming, but you start to figure out - why things need to be done a certain way. Then it just comes naturally, and it gets to be really fun and challenging." Quote from an Interviewer, Health Statistics Section, Colorado Department of Health A Good Interviewer
Quiz Yourself Quality-Courtesy-Responsibility
63 Quiz Yourself – Q.1 A respondent is cooperating and is quickly moving through the survey. On a question with several choices the respondent says “That’s the one,” after you have read just two of six choices. You should— a. Go on to the next question after selecting the correct response. b. Keep reading the remaining choices and ignore the respondent’s response until you have read all the choices. c. Briefly explain to the respondent that you have to read all the choices to make sure they are selecting the correct one. Then reread all the choices. d. Ask the respondent if they are sure their response is correct.
64 C—Correct! If you chose answer C, you're right! A, B, and D—Incorrect! If your answer is A or D this is incorrect. It is important to read all the choices to the respondent in order for them to make the proper choice. If your answer is B, you are correct in reading all the choices, but it would be better to explain to the respondent why you have to do so. Quiz Yourself – Q.1
65 Which of the statements below is true about refusals? a. They are grumpy people—who cares what they say? b. It is important to try and get first time refusals to answer the questionnaire. Getting them to complete the survey on a second call helps the data quality. c. No matter what an interviewer does, they won’t talk to us. d. Trying to call them again won’t help. Quiz Yourself – Q.2
66 2B—Correct! You're right! It's important to try to get all selected respondents to complete the survey, even if they refuse the first time you call. 2A, C and D—Incorrect! Answer A is incorrect. - For data quality reasons it is important to try and interview individuals who have refused once. Answers C and D are incorrect. By using refusal conversion techniques it is often possible to get these individuals to complete the survey. Quiz Yourself – Q.2
67 Confidentiality is important to the UPHSOS. What scenario below could possibly violate the confidentiality with the respondent? If you— a. Write down a respondent’s telephone number and leave it on your desk in an open place when you are not there. b. Talk about what a respondent said in a public place (like an elevator). c. Tell your family some of the strange things people say on the telephone. d. Interview a respondent whose telephone number or voice you recognize. e. Make general statements in public such as “many respondents say they don’t exercise much.” f. All of the above. Quiz Yourself – Q.3
68 8F—Correct! F is the best answer because all of these scenarios could violate confidentiality with the respondent. 8A, B, C, D, and E—Incorrect! If your answer is A, B, C, D, or E, they are true, but all the other answers also violate the respondent’s confidentiality, so F is the correct answer. Quiz Yourself – Q.3
69 What should you do when a respondent is concerned with confidentiality? a. Say “Trust me” with a sincere voice. b. Assure them that their answers will be kept confidential and combined with thousands of others. c. Tell them to stop being paranoid, then ask them if they watch The X-files. d. Ignore them and just keep going. Quiz Yourself – Q.4
70 4B—Correct! You're right! If a respondent is concerned about confidentiality, you should assure them that their answers will be kept confidential and combined with thousands of other responses. 4A, C, and D—Incorrect! Answer A is wrong. This will not reassure them. Answers C and D are wrong. You must reassure them and explain to them that the data are kept confidential and that the data are combined with thousands of other responses. So B is the correct answer. Quiz Yourself – Q.4
UPHSOS Key Terms and Concepts
72 Professionalism & Confidence – You are part of the Utah State Office of Education as an Interviewer. Convey that importance. – Be positive and factual in your explanations of the survey and it’s purpose. – Have no background noise during the phone interview. – Follow the guidelines of Confidentiality, Quality, Courtesy and Manners at all times. Key Terms and Concepts
73 Know the name of the Respondent (R) before you begin calling – The name and telephone number are provided by USOE with help from individual school districts. – If able, try calling the R at different telephone numbers. – Some states mail pre-survey letters to Rs in order to explain the purpose of the call. Key Terms and Concepts
74 Review the Glossary for Other Key Terms www.utahposthighsurvey.org/glossary www.utahposthighsurvey.org/glossary Key Terms and Concepts
76 Wrap-up! The UPHSOS is a tool that will – Serve the academic community and public policy researchers through its commitment to high quality survey research. – Provide educational and experiential opportunities to USOE, school districts, and the community
77 Wrap-up! The UPHSOS is to be taken seriously – Your professionalism and confidence will relay the message that this survey is important and will help other students – Confidentiality, quality, courtesy, and good manners are expected – Managing problems efficiently is necessary
78 Wrap-up! Manage any problems immediately – Contact your survey administrator immediately upon encountering any problems or concerns Shauna Crane 1780 N. Research Parkway, Ste 112, Logan, UT84341 435-752-0238 x19 firstname.lastname@example.org
79 Wrap-up! Reference tools and information on the UPHSOS website www.utahposthighsurvey.org
80 Wrap-up! Thank you for being an important part of our services to students in the State of Utah
81 This website was produced in cooperation with: Utah State Office of Education (USOE) Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center (MPRRC) Cooperative Educational Service Agency #11 MagicEdge Web Design
Interviewer Training www.utahposthighsurvey.org 2007 www.utahposthighsurvey.org