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High Transmission Areas: Key Populations

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1 High Transmission Areas: Key Populations
Additional Content to the National Sexually Transmitted Infections Care and Treatment Course for Health Care Workers High Transmission Areas: Key Populations

2 High Transmission Areas: Key Populations
“No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.”  ― Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom

3 High Transmission Area Programme (1)
Created by NDoH as a means to control HIV through implementation of targeted interventions for key populations Vision of program focuses on: reducing HIV/STI/TB incidence among key populations slowing HIV transmission in general population improving health outcomes of all key populations

4 High Transmission Area Programme (2)
Interventions: increased HIV prevention, care, treatment and support services Services include: HCT, STI, and TB screening and treatment Sexual and reproductive health screening and family planning Providing condoms and lubricant Risk reduction counselling, education

5 High Transmission Area Programme (3)
Strong focus on peer education Integrated approach – combined HIV/STI/TB – because of interacting causes of HIV/STI/TB risk and vulnerability Structural, biological, psychosocial and behavioural dimensions Best way to create change and see improvements in the health of key populations

6 Who are Key Populations in the Context of HIV/AIDS?
ASK participants the question on the slide and allow time for them to respond before clicking through to the next slide.

7 Key Populations Defined (1)
Populations at higher risk of HIV exposure – more likely to be exposed to HIV or to transmit it Includes both vulnerable populations and most at risk populations Engagement of key populations is critical to a successful HIV response Source: HEALTH SECTOR HIV PREVENTION STRATEGY FINAL DRAFT (1 October 2013)

8 Key Populations Defined (2)
Vulnerable: People who are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection in certain contexts, such as: adolescents orphans street children people in closed settings (e.g. correctional centres) people with disabilities and migrant and mobile workers Most-at-risk: men who have sex with men transgender people people who inject drugs sex workers offenders in prison settings Carry disproportionate burden of HIV and STIs Source: WHO 2014

9 Key Populations NSP 2012-2016 Young girls
Infants and children under age 15 Sex workers and their clients Men having Sex with Men Mobile and migrant populations Clientele of taverns and shebeens Offenders in correctional facilities People living in unstable communities Men between ages 12-49 Sero-discordant couples HIV-infected pregnant women TB/HIV co-infected patients

10 Key Populations: Groups
In this training, we will focus on the following key populations and issues specific to STIs: Sex workers Men who have sex with men (MSM) Prisoners Remind participants that all individuals who engage in sex are at risk of STIs. However, this module will provide additional content related to the special needs of several specific key populations, as they relate to STIs.

11 What Makes These Populations Vulnerable?
Sexual violence Drug & substance abuse Decreased ability to negotiate safe sex practices Increased risk of violence Poor living conditions Unique needs are ignored Stigma and discrimination Limited access to medical care Legal, political, religious and socio-cultural resistance Hostility and intolerance from the community Services are denied Note that this slide is animated. ASK participants the question in the slide title and allow time for them to respond before clicking through to show the answers.

12 Values, Attitudes and Beliefs
Our values, attitudes and beliefs are one of the most defining things about each of us. Think about your most important value. On a blank piece of paper, answer the following: Describe your most important values that make you who you are. Identify 3-5 beliefs that you find important. Who has influenced your values and beliefs and why? Why did you become a healthcare worker? CONDUCT activity as described on the slide. ALLOW 5 minutes for people to complete the questions. ASK for volunteers to give answers for each of the points listed on the slide. FACILITATE a brief discussion about values and beliefs and how that affects how we treat other people. HIGHLIGHT the role of the healthcare worker as a person who was trained to help others, regardless of who they are. SUMMARISE discussion by telling participants to be mindful of personal value systems as we continue today. Source: Adapted from Sex Workers: an introductory manual for health care workers in South Africa. Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation.

13 When do values or beliefs become discrimination?
Discussion When do values or beliefs become discrimination? ASK participants question. FACILITATE brief discussion. Some Possible Answers: Denying treatment Treating people differently based on some reason (for example, using two pairs of gloves when working with an MSM) Harming someone because of their sexual orientation Preferential treatment towards some more than others based on sexual orientation or other reasons SUMMARISE discussion by saying that discrimination occurs when we let our values or beliefs impact the way we treat someone.

14 HIV Prevalence Among MSM vs. All Adults
EXPLAIN that the global prevalence of HIV in MSM compared with regional adult prevalence reported by UNAIDS, 2010 We obtained prevalence estimates of HIV reported in MSM by country from reports published after 2007 from studies done during or after Prevalence in all adults was from UNAIDS We include prevalence reported from biobehavioural surveillance without methods, sample size, or number positive in the prevalence map but not regional prevalence estimates. Error bars are 95% CIs. Rising HIV epidemic among MSM in many regions across the world Source: Beyrer, C., Baral, S. D., Griensven, F. et al, . (2012). Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet, 380(9839),

15 MSM Risks Occur in the Context of Mature and Widespread HIV Epidemics Among Heterosexuals
Slide Courtesy of Dr Stefan Baral

16 Sex Work Prevalence Slide Courtesy of Dr Stefan Baral

17 Approximate Number of Sex Workers in South Africa (1)
Female sex workers 5% Male 7 000 4% Transgender 6 000 NATIONAL TOTAL % of adult female population (0,9%) Source: South African National AIDS Council, “Estimating the Size of the Sex Worker Population in South Africa, 2013” – Sex Workers Education & Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT). Page 4, intermediate estimates.

18 Approximate Number of Sex Workers in South Africa (2)
Provincial distribution for intermediate estimate Source: South African National AIDS Council, “Estimating the Size of the Sex Worker Population in South Africa, 2013” – Sex Workers Education & Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT). Page 4, intermediate estimates.

19 Systematic Review of HIV Prevalence among Female Sex Workers
Source: Baral, S et al. Burden of HIV among female sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases

20 HIV among Offenders in South Africa
South Africa has the highest number of offenders in southern Africa: 413 / HIV prevalence among offenders in South Africa: Year HIV Prevalence Sample Size 22.8% HIV testing available to all sentenced offenders on average per year 2006 19.8% 8 649 (only participated) 2002 41% Modelled projection Ask participants why they think offenders would be at greater risk for STIs and a potentially vulnerable population? Discuss risk of MSM activity within correctional settings and risk of violence if reported. Thus, underlying the need for STI screening, condom provision and PEP availability and safety of individuals who do report rape/abuse. Source: Key Populations, Key Solutions: A Gap Analysis and Recommendations for Key Populations in South Africa, and Recommendations for the Ntaional Strategic Plan for HIB/AIDS, STIs, and TB (2012 – 2016), October 2011, pp

21 Discussion Key populations are estimated to contribute about one quarter of new HIV infections in South Africa*: How do you feel about this statistic? Why are key populations in our communities more at risk of HIV and STIs? How do my values or beliefs affect my opinion about this? How might my values or beliefs affect the way I deliver care to my clients who I suspect of being a key population? *Source: Getting to zero: HIV in eastern and southern Africa Regional Report. UNAIDS 2013 This slide is animated. Ask each question and discuss before moving to the next question. FACILITATE a brief discussion. Note: Probe for personal opinions and how that affects care. EXPLAIN that populations key populations are more vulnerable to HIV infection due to a variety of factors: more frequent exposure to the virus, involvement in risky behaviours, potentially weak family and social support systems, Marginalization, lack of resources, and inadequate access to health-care services or poor treatment at health facilities discouraging them to return and stay engaged in care EXPLAIN that providers who hold stigma toward certain groups or behaviours may not wish to treat patients with those characteristics, or may not provide them with the same level of care they provide to other patients. Patients who feel that a health care provider holds negative attitudes toward them or people like themselves may avoid seeking care. SUMMARISE discussion by saying that sometimes value systems or beliefs can challenge our ability to provide the best quality of care to our clients. When we treat people differently or poorly for any reason, it may inhibit them from returning to clinic, even if they need clinical care. It is important that we treat all of our clients with the same dignity and respect, regardless of sexual orientation or circumstances. We are all human and we all deserve to be treated equally, as protected in the constitution.

22 South Africa’s Constitution Protects Key Populations
Section 9: the right to equality before the law and freedom from discrimination. Prohibited grounds of discrimination include race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth. Section 10: the right to human dignity. EXPLAIN that while sex work is currently illegal in South Africa, the South African government is currently in the process of potentially reforming the law and it may change in time. There is no laws that restrict healthcare workers from providing clinical care to sex workers, MSM or any other key population and the constitution still mandates freedom from discrimination.

23 What are Some Interventions that May Benefit Key Populations?
Discussion What are Some Interventions that May Benefit Key Populations? ASK participants question. FACILITATE brief discussion as a means of transitioning and introducing the topic of interventions for key populations.

24 Recommended Interventions for Key Populations
Behavioural interventions Biomedical interventions Structural interventions Additional care and support What are some examples of each of these types of interventions? Note that this slide is animated. ASK participants to give examples of each type of intervention before moving on to the next few slides.

25 1. Behavioural Interventions
Peer education and outreach Sexual health screening, risk reduction counselling and skills building Promotion, demonstration and distribution of condoms and lubricants Screening and referral for drug and alcohol abuse Promote utilisation of HIV, STI and TB screening and treatment

26 Information, Education and Communication
Awareness raising, information and education about HIV, STIs, viral hepatitis, and TB with all key populations Especially important in closed settings like correctional centres Peer education programmes, developed and implemented by trained key populations Fellow sex workers Fellow offenders

27 Counselling for Condoms (1)
Provision and counselling towards consistent condom use Access to lubrication especially for people practicing anal sex Female and male condom demonstrations Condom negotiation skills for sex workers: Taking client’s money prior to sexual encounter so clients cannot refuse to pay if condom is used Taking client to known sex work venue where rules of the venue require use of a condom Negotiating with client to engage in non-penetrative sex, like oral sex If safe, refusal to engage in sex without a condom

28 Counselling for Condoms (2)
Widespread condom accessibility Condom negotiation skills for other key populations Partner notification and partner treatment emphasis! Make condoms easily and discreetly accessible to offenders at various locations without having to request them & without them being seen by others HCWs should distribute condoms and lubrication to offenders and have condom campaigns

29 Male Condoms EXPLAIN steps in using male condoms:
Use a new condom for each sex act. The condom should be put on with rolled side out after the penis is fully erect, and just before penetration. Pull foreskin back (if uncircumcised) and unroll condom all the way to base of penis. After ejaculation, hold bottom rim of condom in place, and withdraw penis while it is still hard. Once the penis is soft, the condom should be removed carefully without spilling the semen, wrap in paper or tissue and discard into dustbin. Do not put in a toilet. Do not use oil-based lubricant such as Vaseline or mineral oil, as they destroy the integrity of the condom. Use only water-based lubricants. Use condom only once.

30 Female Condoms EXPLAIN steps in using female condoms:
Open package carefully. Make sure the condom is well lubricated inside. Choose a comfortable position – squat, raise one leg, sit or lie down. Squeeze the inner ring at the closed end and gently insert the inner ring into the vagina. Place the index finger inside condom, and push the inner ring up as far as it will go. Make sure the outer ring is outside the vagina and the condom is not twisted. Be sure that the penis enters inside the condom and stays inside it during intercourse. To remove, twist outer ring and pull gently. Discard into dustbin. Try to use a new condom with each sex act. Do not use the male and female condom at the same time.

31 MSM: Men who have Sex with Men
A public health term used to define a risk group by its behaviour Different than identity: includes men who are homosexual, gay, bisexual and heterosexual Men usually do not identify themselves as ‘MSM’ Sexual behaviours, orientation and identity may change over time for various reasons Identity and terms used to describe oneself may change

32 Situational Role in Behaviour
Some men have male-to-male sex due to the situation they are in and may not have homosexual orientation Single-sex institutions: Military Correctional Centres Boarding schools Work in remote areas Other situations: Sex for money Forced sex Childhood exploration of sex with male peers

33 Male to Male Sexual Behaviour Overview
Male-Male sex Similar to male-female sex Involves feelings and emotions as well as physical pleasure How do MSM have sex? No fixed roles (insertive, receptive) Sexual tastes and likes can change over time

34 Male-Male Sexual Behaviours (1)
Kissing Touching Oral sex Also known as ‘fellatio,’ ‘blow job’ The most common type of male-male sex, performed by more than 90% of MSM in some studies Easily ‘performed,’ unobtrusive, easy to stop if interrupted Includes licking the testicles and scrotum Very low risk for HIV infection, but can transmit STIs to the genitalia, oropharynx or face

35 Male-Male Sexual Behaviours (2)
Anal sex Practiced by both men and women Not all MSM enjoy it or engage in it The perianal skin, anal canal and rectum are rich in nerve tissue and can produce pleasurable feelings when stimulated Massaging of the prostate during anal sex: Creates pleasurable sensations Heightens orgasm Increased risk of HIV and STI transmission if no condom and lubrication used

36 Counselling on Anal Sex Practices
Important with MSM clients and in correctional centre settings Practice with fingers or sex toys Gradually increase size of toys to train muscles Use of different positions and techniques Backing onto penis Sitting on penis Bearing down (abdominal pressure) Deep breathing

37 Penile-Anal Penetration
Use plenty of water-based lubrication and condoms Self-lubrication does not occur Water-based lubricant Reduces trauma during penetration Decreases ‘openings’ for infections, including HIV Oil-based lubricants damage condoms - should be avoided Cleanliness Men may be uncomfortable due to fear of faecal matter Gentle cleaning with mild soap and water on the outside is sufficient

38 Anal Play Use of toys (vibrators, dildos) to stimulate rectum
Rub perineum Insert into anus Objects should not be shared to avoid pathogen spread People should use their own toys or wash well before exchanging If necessary, condoms can be used on shared toys

39 Oral-Anal Sex Mouth-anal stimulation
Sometimes called rimming or anilingus Can be foreplay to anal penetration Can transmit STI or other infections (Hepatitis A, diarrheal diseases) Barriers can be employed to reduce pathogen risk Plastic wrap Dental dams

40 Safer Sexual Practices
When providing counselling to patients about safer sexual practices, the following non-penetrative alternatives may be given Masturbation Thigh-sex Body rubbing, “dry humping,” massage

41 Clinical Examination of Ano-rectal Region

42 Anorectal Region: Anatomy

43 Anorectal Region: Health Issues (1)
Optimal anal health is important for MSM and transgender people who practice anal sex Perianal skin is tough but prone to damage from: Faecal soiling Persistent moisture Toilet tissue abrasion Abrasion from scratching ‘Dry’ anal sex Forced, unlubricated Irritating treatments Over the counter pastes, creams Seek help before self-treatment

44 Anorectal Region: Health Issues (2)
Typical Symptoms Pain Lumps Ulcers Rashes Discharge Bleeding Difficulty defecating Tenesmus Sensation of needing to pass stool accompanied by pain, cramping, straining Detection STIs can be difficult to detect Asymptomatic Misinterpreted symptoms

45 Anorectal Health Care: Perianal Cleansing
Gently wash with water before/after anal sex May reduce amount of bacteria that could be spread May also remove some of the body’s natural protection against infection Use water only-- without soap or detergent-- can reduce the loss of this natural protection If decide to use soap: advise use of normal soap and water, not strong soap

46 Anorectal Health Care: Barriers
Condoms help prevent spread of STIs (including HIV) when worn prior to and during anal contact Male condoms Female condoms, also termed receptive condom Oral–anal contact Safest when non-permeable membrane used Can use plastic food wrap Acts as a barrier between the mouth or fingers and the anus ADVISE that with the use of female condoms the internal ring should be removed for use during anal sex

47 Anorectal Health Care: Lubrication
Should be used during anal penetrative sex to prevent mucosal tearing Anus does not produce own lubrication Use water-based lubricant only Oil-based lubricants can cause irritation and increase the risk of breakage of latex condoms If lubrication not available, saliva can be used Avoid spermicides

48 Anorectal Examination
Ask patient to roll to left side, facing away from you (‘left lateral position’) Hips and knees flexed towards stomach Ask patient to retract right buttock with right hand Inspect the perianal region & natal cleft Look for warts, ulcers, rashes, hemorrhoids, bleeding, discharge, fissures

49 Digital Rectal Examination (1)
Ensure patient is comfortable Use plenty of water-based lubricant Use slow circular motions as you advance Valsalva manoeuvre will relax anal sphincters As patient does this, slowly advance your middle finger in the anus as far as possible Can take up to 1 minute Gauge their comfort

50 Digital Rectal Examination (2)
Note sphincter tone and any masses or disproportionate tenderness

51 Digital Rectal Examination (3)
Prostate Gland Palpate the prostate Note shape, consistency, regularity, and any tenderness Prostate examination – should be performed in all men over 60 Examine for symptoms of urinary obstruction (e.g. prostatitis, benign prostate hypertrophy) PROSTATE GLAND EXPLAIN that enlargement, tenderness or any masses can indicate infection of the prostate and/or prostate cancer.

52 Digital Rectal Examination (4)
Slowly withdraw your finger Make note of any blood on examination finger Perform testing on stool and rectal specimens if indicated

53 Completion of Examination and Visit
Remove & dispose of gloves Provide tissue for patient to wipe him/herself Ask patient to dress & sit by desk again Wash hands with soap and water Continue sexual health consultation Collect specimens for diagnostic tests Empiric treatment Prevention counselling, condoms and lubrication Counselling and provision of partner notification slips Follow-up

54 2. Biomedical Interventions
HIV counselling and testing (HCT) HIV care and treatment (including ART) STI and TB screening and treatment Sexual and reproductive health services Condoms and lubricants Post-exposure prophylaxis Voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) Biomedical interventions for PWID EXPLAIN the last bullet further: PWID = people who inject drugs Interventions include: Needle and syringe exchange programmes Drug dependency treatment Drug overdose prevention and treatment

55 HIV Testing Coverage Among Key Populations, Regional Median, 2011
EMPHASISE that we need to do a better job with HCT uptake among key populations! Though HIV is concentrated among key populations, less than half of them know their HIV status Source: Prepared by based on UNAIDS. (2012). Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012

56 ART Decreases hospitalisations Increases survival
Slows replication of HIV (reduces viral load) and stops immune deterioration Improves immune system function and prevents opportunistic infections Alters/reverses course of existing opportunistic infections Decreases hospitalisations Increases survival Improves quality of life Restores hope Reduces HIV transmission Benefits both adults and children EXPLAIN further about the benefits to using antiretroviral therapy: It helps to stabilise the immune system, reversing the progressive destruction of immune function and increasing the CD4 cell count. Because the development of opportunistic infections is associated with severe damage to the immune system and very low CD4 cell counts, these infections should be prevented with antiretroviral therapy. If the infections are already present, their course may be shortened or made less severe with antiretroviral therapy. Antiretroviral therapy has reduced hospitalizations for treatment of HIV-related infections and the death rate from AIDS has been dramatically reduced. The quality of life of HIV-infected individuals has improved with therapy, and their hope is restored. Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with major reductions in mother-to-child transmission in the developed world, and, by lowering the amount of virus in the blood, it is expected that other forms of HIV transmission may be reduced as well. Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to benefit both adults and children. The availability of therapy may be an incentive for voluntary HIV counselling and testing, which increases identification of HIV-infected individuals, allowing them to access health care and preventing further transmission.

57 REDUCES HIV transmission by 96%. ART is essential to HIV prevention.
ART and HIV Prevention ART is a game changer When people take their medicine in the correctly REDUCES HIV transmission by 96%. ART is essential to HIV prevention.

58 Discussion What are some challenges related to ART as prevention within key populations? ASK participants question. FACILITATE brief discussion. Some Possible Answers: Discrimination Clinic hours and distance challenging Adherence does not fit with lifestyle or creates stigma/risk of violence Etc. SUMMARISE discussion by saying that multiple challenges can create barriers. Encourage a follow-up discussion related to solutions. The next slide demonstrates some of these.

59 ART in Key Populations Provision of services responsive to needs and requests of clients (for example, evening and weekends) Community settings or decentralized services through mobile units to take service delivery to clients themselves Family-centred Patient-held records for mobile populations Nutritional supplements for offenders in the prison setting Equal access to ART provided to all offenders to ensure continuity of care at all stages, from arrest to release Respectful and non-judgmental staff attitudes

60 Note that treatment of STIs still follows the NDOH algorithms – does NOT differ for key populations

61 TB Screening (1) Screening is essential in prison populations and sex workers Access to GeneXpert for timely diagnosis, especially for MDR-TB Intensified active case-finding Case finding tracked back to families for new offenders entering prison settings Periodic and systematic screening of entire prison populations IPT

62 TB Screening (2) Segregate offenders in prison setting until they are no longer infectious Educate on coughing etiquette and respiratory hygiene Continue treatment during all stages of detention, from arrest to release in prisons Provide PICT for persons with HIV Annually screen healthcare workers and other staff working in prisons and clinics

63 TB Screening Questions
Have you had a cough for two weeks (or ANY duration if HIV-positive) Do you have a fever? Do you have drenching night sweats OR weight loss? Have you lost your appetite?

64 Screening for STIs All patients ages should be screened for STIs regardless of clinical presentation Ask the following 3 questions: Do you have any genital discharge? Do you have any genital ulcers? Has/have your partner(s) been treated for an STI in the last 8 weeks?

65 STI Clinical Services: Sexual History Taking
Can be learned with training Becomes easier with practice Most patients are willing to answer detailed questions about their sexual behaviour if provider is comfortable and professional in approaching sexual history Important in all settings including prisons

66 General Guidelines for Taking a Sexual History (1)
Normalise sexual history as part of routine care for all patients Ensure privacy and confidentiality Do not start patient visit with sexual history: discuss easier issues first Use an open and non-judgmental attitude, good communication skills

67 General Guidelines for Taking a Sexual History (2)
Explain the reasons for taking a sexual history Ask less-threatening questions first Genital symptoms, last sexual episodes Make no assumptions! Ask all patients about same-sex and opposite-sex partners Focus on sexual behaviour rather than orientation

68 Privacy and Confidentiality
The sexual history should be done in a private room Auditory privacy Only the provider and patient present Request family members and others to leave the room CONFIDENTIALITY Medical information should not be released to anyone without the patient’s permission Reassure patient about the confidentiality of his/her medical information before taking the sexual history

69 Communicating with the Patient
Encourage patient communication Verbal prompts: Yes, OK, Thank you… Reflecting and repeating what the patient said Non-verbal prompts: Face the patient Look the patient in the eye Nod the head Do not label or categorise (MSM, gay, sex worker, etc.) Patient may choose to label himself or herself Use words that the patient can understand Explain medical terms Use slang words if comfortable with them and used appropriately

70 Prepare the Patient for the Sexual History
Tell them that you are going to ask sensitive questions Give them the option of not answering Reassure them the information is confidential Explain why you are asking these questions Explain that this is part of the examination for all patients DIRECT attention to pictures on the slide. EXPLAIN that they should ask some specific questions: Do you have any sores or discharge from your penis, vagina mouth or anus? Does it hurt to pass urine? If female: Do you have pain in your lower abdomen? AND Have you had contact with someone else’s genitals?

71 Sample Script to Prepare the Patient
Example: “I’m going to ask you questions about your sexual behaviour. These are questions I ask all my patients. This information will help me to treat you and give you the correct advice on how to protect your health. Everything you tell me is confidential and will not be released to anyone else without your permission. If there are questions that make you uncomfortable or you do not want to answer, just tell me…”

72 Types of Questions Ask open-ended questions to get details of sexual behaviour Who, What, Where, How Ask the patient to clarify In general do not ask ‘why’ questions Usually not necessary to know why in regard to sexual behaviour Asking why implies the behaviour was bad and sounds like a parent scolding a child One “Why” question that is OK: “Why did you not use a condom?”

73 Sexual History: Sample Questions
Can you tell me a little about your sex (romantic) life? When was the last time you had sex? Do you ever have sex with men? Do you ever have sex with women? Do you ever have sex for money or favours? When you have sex with men, what kind of sex do you have? Do you ever have oral sex? Do you ever have anal sex? When was the last time you had anal sex and did not use a condom? What got in the way of using a condom that time? What prevents you from always using a condom?

74 STI Clinical Services Symptomatic screening of STIs including cervical and ano-rectal infections Syndromic case management Regular screening for asymptomatic infections using lab tests Type of Screening Recommended Action Syphilis screening In MSM offer periodic serological testing for asymptomatic syphilis infection Offer regular screening to sex workers Gonorrhoea and chlamydia screening In MSM offer periodic testing for asymptomatic and rectal N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis infection Periodic presumptive Treatment in sex workers In areas where STIs>15% prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis infection with counselling and informed consent This slide is sensitising HCWs that although the syndromic management approach is typically practiced within the general population, there are times when routine laboratory screening for asymptomatic STIs may be helpful. This is most useful in high risk populations, such as with key populations.

75 STI Drug Resistance (2) Consider treatment failure with clients, especially MSM - at increased risk of resistance Aggressively treat suspected resistance cases according to the guidelines Take swabs from all exposed anatomical sites which includes urethra, vagina, pharynx and ano-rectum in suspected resistance cases Look specifically for isolated Nisseria Gonorrhoea Partner notification slips and counselling on importance of partner treatment especially important!

76 Sexual and Reproductive Health Services (1)
Pregnancy testing Family planning counselling and services Provision of contraception – dual methods Emergency contraception within 5 days/120 hours TOP and post-TOP services Safe pregnancy: ANC, HIV and STI prevention and testing, nutrition and safe delivery Especially important in female offenders prior to release Family planning counselling for sex workers Sexual history Menstrual hygiene Promote family planning methods Assess need and counsel on family planning choices

77 Sexual and Reproductive Health Services (2)
Treatment of reproductive tract infections Reproductive tract cancer screening (cervical, breast, anorectal and prostatic) Care for unintended pregnancies (post abortion care) Partner notification slips and counselling on importance of partner treatment EMTCT services in prisons for HIV-positive pregnant women, with ensured continuity

78 3. Structural Interventions
Services to mitigate sexual violence Sensitisation of healthcare workers, police, correctional staff Capacity building of Key Population support groups and individuals Implementation of existing policies that safeguard health rights of Key Populations

79 Gender Based Violence/Sexual Assault Support Services (1)
Complete history and physical exam to determine appropriate care Emergency contraception for women presenting within 5 days of sexual assault HIV post-exposure prophylaxis for women presenting within 72 hours of assault STI post-exposure prophylaxis

80 Gender Based Violence/Sexual Assault Support Services (2)
Psychological support and care Crisis centres Other community resources Vulnerable prisoners, such as people with different sexual orientation, young offenders and women should be held separately from adult or male offenders Appropriate measures to report and address instances of violence in prison settings

81 4. Additional Care and Support
Psycho-social support Family and social services Substance abuse services

82 Key Populations Require a Tailored Counselling Approach
Due to risk factors like increased stigma and gender based violence, counselling should be tailored to specific needs of each key population e.g.: Population Counselling Needs Prisoners condom negotiation HIV and TB counselling and testing Sex workers gender based violence, negotiating safer sex prevention interventions (e.g. condoms, HCT, early treatment and TB screening) MSM safe sex practices early treatment

83 Crisis Counselling What are some strategies you have used to counsel clients who have experienced gender based violence or sexual assault?

84 Steps in Crisis Counselling
Intervene immediately Determine facts of crisis Focus on short-term goals Foster hope and positive expectations Provide support Focus on problem solving EXPLAIN that healthcare workers play a critical role in crisis counselling. REVIEW steps using additional points as necessary: Intervene immediately Individuals cannot tolerate stress of a crisis for too long He/she may become self-destructive if not given immediate help Determine facts of crisis Embark promptly on helping client understand their crisis Review previous strengths and weaknesses Reveal precipitating events before crisis Focus on short-term goals Help the client reach some sort of limited goal This helps provide a sense of relief and control over the situation Foster hope and positive expectations Counsellor should expect the client’s crisis to be resolved in some way at some time This expectation must be instilled in the client who works with the counsellor to solve the problem Provide support One of the reasons a problem develops into a crisis is lack of adequate social support The counsellor needs to provide support and also assist the client expand his/her support system as soon as possible Provide attention to person in crisis Focus on problem solving: Determine main problem Brainstorm solutions Implement realistic plan of action

85 Mental Health Key populations are vulnerable to mental health problems because of: Poverty Marginalization Discrimination Violence Screen and provide treatment for depression, alcohol-use disorders, self harm, suicidal ideation, & other emotional or medically unexplained conditions

86 Group Activity If a client feels she/he is being judged for lifestyle choices, what will happen? How can I ensure that my clients don’t feel judged? What is my role as a HCW in protecting the rights of key populations? What will I do to improve my clinical practices with key populations? How will I personally contribute to improving the quality of life of key populations in my community? Note: This slide is animated. ASK each person to pull out a piece of paper. READ the first question on the slide. ALLOW 2 minutes to answer it. Have each person write their response on their paper. ADVANCE the next question and repeat until all questions are done. ASK them then to turn to their neighbour and disclose their responses. ASK for a few volunteers to say their responses aloud to the entire group.

87 For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others. - Nelson Mandela

88 References (1) D. Lewis, C. Sriruttan, Etienne E. Muller, et al. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of the first two cases of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in South Africa and association with cefixime treatment failure. J Antimicrob Chemother. doi: /jac/dkt034 Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender people: recommendations for a public health approach. World Health Organization, 2011. Implementing comprehensive HIV/STI programmes with sex workers: practical approaches from collaborative interventions. World Health Organization, 2013.

89 References (2) HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons and other closed settings: a comprehensive package of interventions policy brief. UNODC, ILO, UNDP, WHO, UNAIDS. Accessed January 2014. HIV in Prisons: A WHO guide to the essentials in prison health. WHO Sex Workers: an introductory manual for health care workers in South Africa. Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation. HIV Transmission Area Program Guidelines. NDOH, Republic of South Africa. Operational Guidelines for HIV, STIs and TB Programmes for Key Populations in South Africa. Version 0.5.3, Sept NDOH, Republic of South Africa.

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