DEFINITIONS A SEIZURE IS A CHANGE IN Sensation, awareness, behavior, or involuntary muscle activity BROUGHT ABOUT BY An electrical disturbance in the brain A neurological condition that affects the nervous system and makes people susceptible to seizures.
NOT ALL SEIZURES INDICATE EPILEPSY Non-epileptic seizures may be caused by: High fever Alcohol & drug withdrawal Low blood sugar such Imbalance of body fluids Sudden loss of blood supply to the brain Seizures may look scary but they are not painful. Most seizures occur without warning.
TYPES OF SEIZURES GENERALIZED When the electrical disturbance involves the whole brain, the seizure is called generalized PARTIAL When only part of the brain is affected, it is called partial There are many types of seizures classified into two main types
GENERALIZED SEIZURE TYPES TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES MYOCLONIC SEIZURES ATONIC SEIZURES ABSENCE SEIZURES Involve electrical misfiring that affects the whole brain
TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES FIRST AID IS NECESSARY o Formally called grand mal seizures o Usually last 1-2 minutes o Stiffening of the limbs (tonic phase) o Loss of consciousness o Jerking movements (clonic phase) o Breathing may decrease or cease altogether, o Cyanosis (blue color) of the nail beds, lips and face o Breathing typically returns during the clonic phase, but may be irregular. o Possible loss of bladder or bowel o Some people experience only the tonic phase or the clonic phase; or a tonic-clonic pattern
ABSENCE SEIZURES NO FIRST AID NEEDED o Have been called petit mal seizures o Typically last 2-15 seconds o Brief episodes of staring o Awareness and responsiveness are impaired o May occur occasionally OR 100 times a day o Can be mistaken for daydreaming o Do not realize they’ve had one but alert thereafter Simple absence seizures only cause staring. Complex absence seizures include changes in muscle activity such as blinking, slight chewing movements, hand movements such as rubbing the fingers together, and contraction or relaxation of the muscles.
MYOCLONIC SEIZURES NO FIRST AID NEEDED o Lasts only a few seconds o Rapid, brief jerking (muscle contractions) o Usually occurs at the same time on both sides of the body o Occasionally, they involve one arm or a foot o People usually think of them as sudden jerks or clumsiness.
ATONIC SEIZURES FIRST AID USUALLY NOT NEEDED o Also known as drop attacks o Produces an abrupt loss of muscle tone o The head drops o Loss of posture or sudden collapse These seizures can result in injuries to the head and face because they are so abrupt, occur without warning and the people experiencing them fall with force. Protective head gear is sometimes used.
FIRST AID GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES Keep calm and reassure other people who may be nearby. Don't hold the person down or try to stop their movements. Time the seizure with your watch. Clear the area around the person of anything hard or sharp. Loosen ties or anything around the neck that may make breathing difficult. Remove glasses. Put something flat and soft, like a folded jacket, under the head. Turn the person gently onto one side. This will help keep the airway clear. Do not try to force the mouth open with any hard implement or with fingers. Don't attempt CPR except in the unlikely event that a person does not start breathing again after the seizure has stopped. Stay with the person until the seizure ends naturally. Be friendly and reassuring as consciousness returns. The person may be very sleepy after the seizure.
PARTIAL SEIZURES The impact of a partial seizure depends on where in the brain it begins and how it spreads. Partial seizures can spread to cause a generalized type of seizure, discussed in the previous slides. SIMPLE PARTIAL SEIZURES Awareness, memory and consciousness maintained COMPLEX PARTIAL SEIZURES Awareness, memory and consciousness are impaired or lost Electrical misfiring is limited to one part of the brain
SIMPLE PARTIAL SEIZURES Last about 90 seconds, while aware of their surroundings, with memory and consciousness retained MOTOR SEIZURES: Affect movement, usually on one side of the body SENSORY SEIZURES: Sensations may cause things to look, sound, taste, smell, or feel different. AUTONOMIC SEIZURES: Cause changes in the part of the nervous system that automatically controls bodily functions. PSYCHIC SEIZURES: Change how people think, feel or experience things.
COMPLEX PARTIAL SEIZURES Last about 1 – 2 minutes, alters awareness, memory and consciousness, and is different for each person depending on the part of the brain affected. Often starts with a blank stare and inability to interact normally with other people and no control of bodily movements, speech, or actions Eyes may be open Make mechanical movements Chewing Repeated movements Pick at clothes Picks objects up & put down Freezing in place Daydreaming Mumbles, repeat words Laugh, scream or cry May run and appear afraid Struggles or flails if restrained Remains frightened & confused afterward
SEIZURE TRIGGERS Certain things can trigger seizures in people with epilepsy, and include; Flashing or bright lights Lack of sleep Stress Overstimulation Fever Certain medications, Heavy alcohol use Hyperventilation Nutritional deficiencies Menstrual cycle
AURAS Partial seizures sometimes have an aura, a warning sign that a seizure is going to occur. Tingling Dizziness Headache Fear or Panic Upset Stomach Distorted Vision Racing Thoughts Strange Feelings Distorted Emotions Weird Smell or Taste Lightheaded & Numbness Auras usually occur seconds to minutes before a seizure Physical sensations that can occur as auras Sometimes the warning or aura is not followed by any other symptom
AFTER A SEIZURE May be sleepy or confused for a few minutes or even an hour or more May not remember the seizure or what happened immediately before the event May be alert and ready to resume whatever they were doing before the seizure happened
SEIZURE EMERGENCIES Seizure lasts over 5 minutes Seizures occur close together with no recovery between seizures Injury occurs Difficulty breathing-blue coloration Illness after seizure Suspect ingestion of poisons or medications Or other abnormalities Call 911 emergency medical services if
SEIZURE TREATMENT MEDICATIONDIET CHANGE SURGERY VAGUS NERVE STIMULATOR If drugs don’t work or child has a lot of medication side effects other treatments are considered
Learning/Academic issues At greater risk for learning problems and underachievement May have deficits in o Attention o Concentration o Memory o Organizational skills o Academic achievement May have fatigue from seizures And side effects from medication
To the needs of students with Seizures Let us be sensitive
This concludes the Health Services training module 1.Make a copy of the test for this module then answer the questions. 2.You can also make a copy of this power point to assist you with the test. 3. Check the answers. 4. Send a copy of your answers to the school nurse. Please follow the instructions below to complete a short quiz: Thank you for taking the time to learn how to assist students with Seizures Iron County School District Health Services