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First Aid and CPR -- Adult

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1 First Aid and CPR -- Adult
American Red Cross First Aid and CPR -- Adult

2 Introduction – Before Giving Care
Lesson One Introduction – Before Giving Care

3 Key Points Purpose: Help participants identify and eliminate potentially hazardous conditions. Recognize and make appropriate decisions for first aid care. This course teaches skills needed to give immediate care until more advanced medical care arrives.

4 Recognizing and Responding to an Emergency
Key points: By recognizing an emergency and taking immediate action to help, you will provide the best chance for survival Emergencies can often be recognized because of an unusual sight, appearances, behaviors, odors, or noises.

5 Using Senses to Recognize Emergencies
Unusual sights Blood Smoke or fire Broken items People milling around

6 Unusual Appearances or Behaviors
One who is noticeably uncomfortable One who is clutches his / her chest or throat One who is unconscious One who appears to be confused or drowsy for unknown reasons One who has trouble breathing

7 Unusual Odors Unusual odors of the person’s breath Gasoline
Natural gas Smoke An unrecognizable smell

8 Unusual Noises Screaming Sudden silence for infants or children
An explosion Items falling Tires screeching Metal Crashing Changes in machinery sounds (e.g., pitch, tone) Breaking Glass

9 Overcoming Barriers to Act
Presence of others Uncertainty about the person’s condition Fear of catching a disease Fear of doing something wrong Fear of being sued Being unsure of when to call 911

10 Good Samaritan Laws Enacted to protect people who voluntarily give emergency care, without accepting anything in return. Laws protect you as long as you – Act in good faith Are not negligent Act within the scope of your training

11 Obtaining Consent You MUST obtain permission to help
If one refuses care, call 911 If unconscious, confused or seriously ill & not able to grant consent, the consent is implied.

12 Obtaining Consent If a minor, get consent from parent or guardian ASAP
Implied consent for a child means the parent or guardian would agree for care to be given

13 To Obtain Consent State your name
Tell the person you are trained in first aid Ask the person if you can help Explain what you think might be wrong Explain what you plan to do

14 Preventing Disease Transmission
Avoid contact with: Blood Body fluids Use PPE such as: Gloves CPR barriers Wash hands immediately after care                                      

15 Key Points The risk of getting a disease is extremely rare:
Taking precautions can reduce this even further Whenever possible, you should use Universal Precautions

16 Emergency Action Steps
Key Points: Follow the emergency action steps: CHECK CALL CARE Check the scene for safety Check the person for life-threatening conditions Call 911 Care for the ill or injured person

17 If alone, call first or care first
Cardiac emergencies Unconscious adult Witnessed sudden collapse of infant or child Unconscious infant or child with known heart problems Care first: Breathing emergencies 2 minutes of care then call 911 Unwitnessed collapse of someone under 12 yrs of age Any victim of drowning

18 Moving a person can lead to further injury
Moving a person can lead to further injury. You should move a person only when safe to do so or if there is immediate danger.

19 Checking an Ill or Injured Person
Lesson 2 Checking an Ill or Injured Person

20 Life Threatening Injuries/Illness
Unconsciousness Not breathing or having trouble breathing Choking Persistent chest pain No signs of life (normal breathing or movement) Severe bleeding Shock Seizures (that recur, last more than 5 min.)

21 Checking a Conscious Adult
Key Points Adult: over 12 years of age After checking the scene for safety, check the adult Obtain consent to give care Head to toe examination Care based on conditions found Take steps to minimize shock

22 Develops after a serious injury or illness including:
Life-threatening condition in which there is not enough blood being delivered to all parts of the body Develops after a serious injury or illness including: severe bleeding Serious internal injury Blood or body fluid loss

23 Signs of Shock Restlessness or irritability
Altered level of consciousness Nausea or Vomiting Pale, ashen, cool, moist skin Rapid breathing and pulse Excessive thirst

24 Care of Shock Call 911 Have the person lie down
Control any external bleeding Elevate the person’s legs 12 inches (unless you suspect head, neck or back injuries) Cover with 1 blanket DO NOT give anything to eat or drink Reassure the person Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation

25 Checking an Unconscious Adult
Check the scene for safety Check the person for life-threatening conditions Remember the ABC’s Airway Breathing Circulation

26 Airway Breathing Circulation Open airway Look, listen, feel
Two breaths Circulation Check for pulse Carotid pulse (neck) adult Brachial pulse (mid-arm) infant

27 Lesson 9 Soft Tissue Injury

28 Two basic types of injury
Key Point Five leading causes of injury-related to death Motor vehicle crashes Falls Poisonings Drownings Choking Two basic types of injury Soft tissue Musculoskeletal (muscles, bones, joints)

29 Types of Wounds 1. Soft tissues include layers of skin, fat, & muscle
2. Damage may be at the skin level or deeper in the body 3. A physical injury that damages the layers of skin is called a wound. 4. Wounds are typically classified as either opened or closed.

30 Care for a closed wound:
Apply direct pressure Elevate the injured body part if it does not cause more pain Apply ice or a cold pack Never put ice directly on the skin Leave ice or cold pack on 20 minutes, remove for 20 minutes, then ice 20 minutes

31 Types of open wounds: Abrasions Lacerations

32 Types of open wounds: Avulsions or amputations Punctures

33 Care for an open wound Use a barrier between your hand and the wound
Apply pressure to control bleeding Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. If possible irrigate the wound for 5 minutes with clean running water. Apply Neosporin or triple antibiotic to minor wound. Cover the wound with a sterile or clean dressing and a bandage. ·        If a person has a closed or open wound and complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain or if you think the force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage, seek advanced medical care stat.

34 Controlling Bleeding Shock can develop from a serious injury that results from severe external or internal bleeding Signs of internal bleeding: Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body. Example: abdomen Rapid, weak pulse Skin that feels cool or moist or looks pale or bluish

35 Excessive thirst Becoming confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious Vomiting or coughing up blood

36 Controlling Open Wound Bleeding
Elevate & Apply pressure with a gauze dressing If bleeds through dressing, apply another dressing over previous… NEVER remove a dressing.

37 Controlling Open Wound Bleeding
Apply a roller bandage Tie knot over the wound – tape dressing Check fingers / toes for circulation

38 Elevation Pressure Points Rt. and Lt. Brachial Artery
Rt. and Lt. Femoral Artery


40 Pressure on Brachial Artery
Put Thumb on outside of arm, fingers on inside of middle upper arm and Squeeze….

41 Pressure on Femoral Artery
Place heel of hand directly over femoral artery (located between upper leg and pubic area), lean forward keeping arm straight and apply pressure.

42 Tourniquet USE ONLY AS A LAST RESORT !!!!!!!!!
Once applied Never loosen Get Help at Once!!

43 Burns Cause: Thermal (heat) Chemicals Electricity Radiation

44 Classifications: by depth
1st degree sunburn epidermis only never blisters not calculated in burn extent 2nd degree through the epidermis into the dermis pink, moist, painful white, dry, less sensation 3rd degree All three layers burned May be tissue damage to the bone May or may not be painful

45 Caring for a Minor Burn Do: Check scene for safety
Remove source of burn Cool 1st and 2nd degree burns with cool running water Cover wound loosely with a sterile dressing

46 DO NOT!!!! Use ice Break blisters
Remove pieces of clothing stuck to burn Use any type of ointment on a severe burns Do not immerse 3rd degree burns in water Do not touch the area of a burn with anything but a clean covering

47 Chemical Burns Remove contaminated clothing if possible
Brush off dry chemicals Flush burn with water for 15 to 20 minutes Flush eye, if chemical in eye, for 15 – 20 min.

48 Electrical Burns Look First, Do Not Touch High-voltage: call 911
DO NOT go near person until he/she is not in contact with power source High-voltage: call 911 Turn off power source Observe for cardiac arrest Care for shock, thermal burns All need advanced medical care

49 When to Call 911 Trouble breathing
Burns covers more than one body part or a large surface area Suspected burns to the airway Burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitals 3rd degree burns in victims under 5, adults over 60 years Burns from chemicals, explosions, or electricity

50 Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints
Lesson 10 Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints

51 Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint Injuries
Fractures: break in bone Open Fracture: skin over fracture broken Closed Fracture: skin over fracture intact Dislocation: displacement of a bone at the joint

52 Sprain: partial or complete tearing or stretching of a ligament
Strain: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendon fibers

53 Care for Musculoskeletal System
R est I ce C ompress E levate R est I mmobilize C old E levate

54 Splinting Definition: method of immobilizing
Splint injury in position in which you find it Splint the injured area and the joints or bones above and below the injury site Check for circulation Feeling, warmth, and color

55 Types of Splints Soft Splint Rigid Splint Anatomical Splints
Use of pillows, folded blankets, towels, & a sling Rigid Splint Includes boards, metal strips & folded magazines or newspapers Use a triangular bandage Anatomical Splints Use uninjured body part as a splint to immobilize an injured area

56 Head, Neck or Back Injuries
Key Points: These injuries may cause unintentional death or life-long neurological damage The goal in caring for a person with a head, neck or back injury is to minimize movement

57 Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or Back
Call 911 Minimize movement of the head, neck or back Leave victim in the position found in If the head is turned sharply to one side, DO NOT try to align it. Support the head in the position you found it in.

58 Monitor the ABC’s Airway Breathing Circulation

59 Lesson 11 Sudden Illness

60 Sudden Illness General Guidelines Do no further harm
Monitor breathing and consciousness Help the person rest in the most comfortable position Keep the person from getting chilled or overhead Reassure the person Give any specific care needed

61 Fainting Temporary loss of consciousness
Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain Usually self-correcting Victim recovers quickly with no lasting effects Place victim on back: elevate legs 8 – 12 inches

62 Diabetic Emergency Body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectively If victim conscious and able to swallow: Give sugar If victim unable to swallow or sugar not available call 911

63 Seizures Disruption of normal electrical activity of the brain causing a loss of body control Protect from injury Remove objects that could cause injury Protect the victims head

64 When to call 911 Seizure lasts more than 5 minutes
Person has repeated seizures, without regaining consciousness Person is injured Person has diabetes or pregnant Person fails to regain consciousness after a seizure

65 Stroke Definition: Signals of a Stroke:
Brain Attack: blockage of blood flow to part of the brain causing death of brain tissue Signals of a Stroke: Weakness or numbness on one side of face or arm or leg Difficulty speaking or slurred speech Sudden dizziness Blurred vision or sudden severe headache

66 F weakness on one side of the face A weakness or numbness in one arm
THINK F weakness on one side of the face A weakness or numbness in one arm S slurred speech or trouble getting words out T time to call 911 if you see any of these signals Stay with the person and monitor his/her breathing and other signs of life.

67 Poisoning Definition: How introduced into the body:
Any substance that can cause injury, illness or death when introduced into the body How introduced into the body: Inhalation Swallowed Absorption Injection

68 Treatment If life threatening call 911
Call Poison Control Center and follow their directions DO NOT give anything by mouth

69 Allergic Reaction Cause: Drugs Medications Foods Chemicals

70 Treatment: Check Call Care Epinephrine auto-injector
Give care for any life-threatening condition Epinephrine auto-injector


72 Insect Stings Tick Bites Scrape away the stinger
Wash site with soap and water Cold pack to reduce pain Watch for signs of an allergic reaction Tick Bites Remove tick with tweezers as close to skin as possible and pull slowly DO NOT Burn tick off Apply petroleum jelly If rash, flu-like sx, or joint pain seek medical care

73 Heat and Cold Related Emergencies
Lesson 12 Heat and Cold Related Emergencies

74 Heat Related Emergencies
Causes: Strenuous outdoor activity on a hot day Working in a hot room with little air circulation Not drinking enough water Working in a building where the cooling system has failed

75 Types of Heat Related Emergencies
Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms Care: Move to cool place Cool body Give cool fluids to drink Lightly stretch muscles

76 Care: Heat Exhaustion (Early stage) Move to cool area
Cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin Headache Nausea Dizziness and weakness Exhaustion Care: Move to cool area Loosen or remove clothing Cool body Wet towel Give cool fluids

77 Care: Heat Stroke (Late stage) Move to cool area
Most severe….. Red skin Usually dry Change in consciousness Rapid, weak pulse Rapid, shallow breathing Care: Move to cool area Loosen or remove clothing Cool body Wet towels, spray body with water, fan body Call 911

78 Cold Related Illness Frostbite: Hypothermia: When body tissue freezes
Entire body cools because body’s ability to regulate temperature fails Victim may die

79 Signals of frostbite Lack of feeling in affected area
Skin that appears waxy, cold to touch Discoloration of skin (flushed, white, yellow, blue)

80 Care for Frostbite Handle area gently
Never rub affected area – may damage soft tissues DO NOT rewarm if chance of freezing again If rewarming: Soak frostbite area in lukewarm water Loosely bandage in a dry sterile dressing DO NOT break blisters

81 Signals of hypothermia
Shivering Numbness Glassy stare Shivering that stops without rewarming

82 Care for Hypothermia Call 911 Be sure victim is comfortable
Remove wet clothing and dry person Warm body gradually by wrapping the person in blankets or moving victim to warm place DO NOT warm the person to quickly

83 Lesson 13 Asthma

84 Asthma Tiggers Dust,smoke, air pollution Fear / anxiety Exercise
Allergies Colds Infections

85 Signals of Asthma Coughing / wheezing
Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath Sweating Tightness in the chest Inability to talk without stopping for breath Feeling of fear or confussion

86 Care of person with asthma
Remain calm Reassure victim Assist with use of inhaler Call 911 if appropriate

87 Breathing Emergencies and Conscious Choking – Adult, Child, or Infant
Lesson 3 Breathing Emergencies and Conscious Choking – Adult, Child, or Infant


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