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American Red Cross First Aid and CPR -- Adult Lesson One Introduction – Before Giving Care.

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Presentation on theme: "American Red Cross First Aid and CPR -- Adult Lesson One Introduction – Before Giving Care."— Presentation transcript:


2 American Red Cross First Aid and CPR -- Adult

3 Lesson One Introduction – Before Giving Care

4 Key Points Purpose: –Help participants identify and eliminate potentially hazardous conditions. –Recognize and make appropriate decisions for first aid care. –This course teaches skills needed to give immediate care until more advanced medical care arrives.

5 Recognizing and Responding to an Emergency Key points: By recognizing an emergency and taking immediate action to help, you will provide the best chance for survival Emergencies can often be recognized because of an unusual sight, appearances, behaviors, odors, or noises.

6 Using Senses to Recognize Emergencies Unusual sights –Blood –Smoke or fire –Broken items –People milling around

7 Unusual Appearances or Behaviors One who is noticeably uncomfortable One who is clutches his / her chest or throat One who is unconscious One who appears to be confused or drowsy for unknown reasons One who has trouble breathing

8 Unusual Odors Unusual odors of the person’s breath Gasoline Natural gas Smoke An unrecognizable smell

9 Unusual Noises Screaming Sudden silence for infants or children An explosion Items falling Tires screeching Metal Crashing Changes in machinery sounds (e.g., pitch, tone) Breaking Glass

10 Overcoming Barriers to Act Presence of others Uncertainty about the person’s condition Fear of catching a disease Fear of doing something wrong Fear of being sued Being unsure of when to call 911

11 Good Samaritan Laws Enacted to protect people who voluntarily give emergency care, without accepting anything in return. Laws protect you as long as you – –Act in good faith –Are not negligent –Act within the scope of your training

12 Obtaining Consent You MUST obtain permission to help If one refuses care, call 911 If unconscious, confused or seriously ill & not able to grant consent, the consent is implied.

13 Obtaining Consent If a minor, get consent from parent or guardian ASAP Implied consent for a child means the parent or guardian would agree for care to be given

14 To Obtain Consent –State your name –Tell the person you are trained in first aid –Ask the person if you can help –Explain what you think might be wrong –Explain what you plan to do

15 Preventing Disease Transmission Avoid contact with: –Blood –Body fluids Use PPE such as: –Gloves –CPR barriers Wash hands immediately after care

16 Key Points –The risk of getting a disease is extremely rare: –Taking precautions can reduce this even further –Whenever possible, you should use Universal Precautions

17 Emergency Action Steps Key Points: –Follow the emergency action steps: CHECK CALL CARE –Check the scene for safety –Check the person for life-threatening conditions –Call 911 –Care for the ill or injured person

18 If alone, call first or care first –Call first: Cardiac emergencies Unconscious adult Witnessed sudden collapse of infant or child Unconscious infant or child with known heart problems –Care first: Breathing emergencies 2 minutes of care then call 911 –Unwitnessed collapse of someone under 12 yrs of age –Any victim of drowning

19 Moving a person can lead to further injury. You should move a person only when safe to do so or if there is immediate danger.

20 Lesson 2 Checking an Ill or Injured Person

21 Life Threatening Injuries/Illness Unconsciousness Not breathing or having trouble breathing Choking Persistent chest pain No signs of life (normal breathing or movement) Severe bleeding Shock Seizures (that recur, last more than 5 min.)

22 Checking a Conscious Adult Key Points –Adult: over 12 years of age –After checking the scene for safety, check the adult –Obtain consent to give care –Head to toe examination –Care based on conditions found –Take steps to minimize shock

23 Life-threatening condition in which there is not enough blood being delivered to all parts of the body Develops after a serious injury or illness including: –severe bleeding –Serious internal injury –Blood or body fluid loss

24 Signs of Shock –Restlessness or irritability –Altered level of consciousness –Nausea or Vomiting –Pale, ashen, cool, moist skin –Rapid breathing and pulse –Excessive thirst

25 Care of Shock –Call 911 –Have the person lie down –Control any external bleeding –Elevate the person’s legs 12 inches (unless you suspect head, neck or back injuries) –Cover with 1 blanket –DO NOT give anything to eat or drink –Reassure the person –Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation

26 Checking an Unconscious Adult Check the scene for safety Check the person for life-threatening conditions Remember the ABC’s –Airway –Breathing –Circulation

27 Airway –Open airway Breathing –Look, listen, feel –Two breaths Circulation –Check for pulse Carotid pulse (neck) adult Brachial pulse (mid-arm) infant

28 Lesson 9 Soft Tissue Injury

29 Key Point –Five leading causes of injury-related to death Motor vehicle crashes Falls Poisonings Drownings Choking –Two basic types of injury Soft tissue Musculoskeletal (muscles, bones, joints)

30 Types of Wounds 1. Soft tissues include layers of skin, fat, & muscle 2. Damage may be at the skin level or deeper in the body 3. A physical injury that damages the layers of skin is called a wound. 4. Wounds are typically classified as either opened or closed.

31 Care for a closed wound: –Apply direct pressure –Elevate the injured body part if it does not cause more pain –Apply ice or a cold pack Never put ice directly on the skin Leave ice or cold pack on 20 minutes, remove for 20 minutes, then ice 20 minutes

32 Types of open wounds: –Abrasions –Lacerations

33 Types of open wounds: –Avulsions or amputations –Punctures

34 Care for an open wound –Use a barrier between your hand and the wound –Apply pressure to control bleeding –Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. If possible irrigate the wound for 5 minutes with clean running water. –Apply Neosporin or triple antibiotic to minor wound. –Cover the wound with a sterile or clean dressing and a bandage. –  If a person has a closed or open wound and complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain or if you think the force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage, seek advanced medical care stat.

35 Controlling Bleeding Shock can develop from a serious injury that results from severe external or internal bleeding Signs of internal bleeding: –Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body. Example: abdomen –Rapid, weak pulse –Skin that feels cool or moist or looks pale or bluish

36 –Excessive thirst –Becoming confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious –Vomiting or coughing up blood

37 Controlling Open Wound Bleeding Elevate & Apply pressure with a gauze dressing –If bleeds through dressing, apply another dressing over previous… NEVER remove a dressing.

38 Controlling Open Wound Bleeding Apply a roller bandage –Tie knot over the wound – tape dressing Check fingers / toes for circulation

39 Elevation Pressure Points –Rt. and Lt. Brachial Artery –Rt. and Lt. Femoral Artery


41 Pressure on Brachial Artery Put Thumb on outside of arm, fingers on inside of middle upper arm and Squeeze….

42 Pressure on Femoral Artery Place heel of hand directly over femoral artery (located between upper leg and pubic area), lean forward keeping arm straight and apply pressure.

43 Tourniquet USE ONLY AS A LAST RESORT !!!!!!!!! Once applied Never loosen Get Help at Once!!

44 Burns Cause: –Thermal (heat) –Chemicals –Electricity –Radiation

45 Classifications: by depth –1 st degree sunburn epidermis only never blisters not calculated in burn extent –2 nd degree through the epidermis into the dermis pink, moist, painful white, dry, less sensation –3 rd degree All three layers burned May be tissue damage to the bone May or may not be painful

46 Caring for a Minor Burn Do: –Check scene for safety –Remove source of burn –Cool 1 st and 2 nd degree burns with cool running water –Cover wound loosely with a sterile dressing

47 DO NOT!!!! –Use ice –Break blisters –Remove pieces of clothing stuck to burn –Use any type of ointment on a severe burns –Do not immerse 3 rd degree burns in water –Do not touch the area of a burn with anything but a clean covering

48 Chemical Burns Remove contaminated clothing if possible Brush off dry chemicals Flush burn with water for 15 to 20 minutes Flush eye, if chemical in eye, for 15 – 20 min.

49 Electrical Burns Look First, Do Not Touch –DO NOT go near person until he/she is not in contact with power source High-voltage: call 911 Turn off power source Observe for cardiac arrest Care for shock, thermal burns All need advanced medical care

50 When to Call 911 Trouble breathing Burns covers more than one body part or a large surface area Suspected burns to the airway Burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitals 3 rd degree burns in victims under 5, adults over 60 years Burns from chemicals, explosions, or electricity

51 Lesson 10 Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints

52 Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint Injuries Fractures: break in bone –Open Fracture: skin over fracture broken –Closed Fracture: skin over fracture intact Dislocation: displacement of a bone at the joint

53 Sprain: partial or complete tearing or stretching of a ligament Strain: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendon fibers

54 Care for Musculoskeletal System R est I ce C ompress E levate R est I mmobilize C old E levate

55 Splinting Definition: method of immobilizing Splint injury in position in which you find it Splint the injured area and the joints or bones above and below the injury site Check for circulation –Feeling, warmth, and color

56 Types of Splints Soft Splint –Use of pillows, folded blankets, towels, & a sling Rigid Splint –Includes boards, metal strips & folded magazines or newspapers –Use a triangular bandage Anatomical Splints –Use uninjured body part as a splint to immobilize an injured area

57 Head, Neck or Back Injuries Key Points: –These injuries may cause unintentional death or life-long neurological damage –The goal in caring for a person with a head, neck or back injury is to minimize movement

58 Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or Back Call 911 Minimize movement of the head, neck or back Leave victim in the position found in  If the head is turned sharply to one side, DO NOT try to align it. Support the head in the position you found it in.

59 Monitor the ABC’s –Airway –Breathing –Circulation

60 Lesson 11 Sudden Illness

61 General Guidelines –Do no further harm –Monitor breathing and consciousness –Help the person rest in the most comfortable position –Keep the person from getting chilled or overhead –Reassure the person –Give any specific care needed

62 Fainting Temporary loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain Usually self-correcting Victim recovers quickly with no lasting effects Place victim on back: elevate legs 8 – 12 inches

63 Diabetic Emergency Body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectively If victim conscious and able to swallow: –Give sugar If victim unable to swallow or sugar not available call 911

64 Seizures Disruption of normal electrical activity of the brain causing a loss of body control Protect from injury Remove objects that could cause injury Protect the victims head

65 When to call 911 –Seizure lasts more than 5 minutes –Person has repeated seizures, without regaining consciousness –Person is injured –Person has diabetes or pregnant –Person fails to regain consciousness after a seizure

66 Stroke Definition: –Brain Attack: blockage of blood flow to part of the brain causing death of brain tissue Signals of a Stroke: –Weakness or numbness on one side of face or arm or leg –Difficulty speaking or slurred speech –Sudden dizziness –Blurred vision or sudden severe headache

67 THINK –F weakness on one side of the face –A weakness or numbness in one arm –S slurred speech or trouble getting words out –T time to call 911 if you see any of these signals  Stay with the person and monitor his/her breathing and other signs of life.

68 Poisoning Definition: –Any substance that can cause injury, illness or death when introduced into the body How introduced into the body: –Inhalation –Swallowed –Absorption –Injection

69 Treatment –If life threatening call 911 –Call Poison Control Center and follow their directions 1-800-222-1222 –DO NOT give anything by mouth

70 Allergic Reaction Cause: –Drugs –Medications –Foods –Chemicals

71 Treatment: –Check –Call –Care Give care for any life-threatening condition –Epinephrine auto-injector


73 Insect Stings –Scrape away the stinger –Wash site with soap and water –Cold pack to reduce pain –Watch for signs of an allergic reaction Tick Bites –Remove tick with tweezers as close to skin as possible and pull slowly –DO NOT Burn tick off Apply petroleum jelly If rash, flu-like sx, or joint pain seek medical care

74 Lesson 12 Heat and Cold Related Emergencies

75 Heat Related Emergencies Causes: –Strenuous outdoor activity on a hot day –Working in a hot room with little air circulation –Not drinking enough water –Working in a building where the cooling system has failed

76 Types of Heat Related Emergencies –Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms Care: –Move to cool place –Cool body –Give cool fluids to drink –Lightly stretch muscles

77 –Heat Exhaustion (Early stage) Cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin Headache Nausea Dizziness and weakness Exhaustion Care: – Move to cool area –Loosen or remove clothing –Cool body Wet towel –Give cool fluids

78 –Heat Stroke (Late stage) Most severe….. Red skin Usually dry Change in consciousness Rapid, weak pulse Rapid, shallow breathing Care: –Move to cool area –Loosen or remove clothing –Cool body Wet towels, spray body with water, fan body –Call 911

79 Cold Related Illness Frostbite: –When body tissue freezes Hypothermia: –Entire body cools because body’s ability to regulate temperature fails –Victim may die

80 Signals of frostbite –Lack of feeling in affected area –Skin that appears waxy, cold to touch –Discoloration of skin (flushed, white, yellow, blue)

81 Care for Frostbite –Handle area gently –Never rub affected area – may damage soft tissues –DO NOT rewarm if chance of freezing again –If rewarming: Soak frostbite area in lukewarm water Loosely bandage in a dry sterile dressing DO NOT break blisters

82 Signals of hypothermia –Shivering –Numbness –Glassy stare –Shivering that stops without rewarming

83 Care for Hypothermia –Call 911 –Be sure victim is comfortable –Remove wet clothing and dry person –Warm body gradually by wrapping the person in blankets or moving victim to warm place –DO NOT warm the person to quickly

84 Lesson 13 Asthma

85 Tiggers –Dust,smoke, air pollution –Fear / anxiety –Exercise –Allergies –Colds –Infections

86 Signals of Asthma –Coughing / wheezing –Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath –Sweating –Tightness in the chest –Inability to talk without stopping for breath –Feeling of fear or confussion

87 Care of person with asthma –Remain calm –Reassure victim –Assist with use of inhaler –Call 911 if appropriate

88 Lesson 3 Breathing Emergencies and Conscious Choking – Adult, Child, or Infant


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