Presentation on theme: "First Aid and CPR -- Adult"— Presentation transcript:
1First Aid and CPR -- Adult American Red CrossFirst AidandCPR -- Adult
2Introduction – Before Giving Care Lesson OneIntroduction – Before Giving Care
3Key PointsPurpose:Help participants identify and eliminate potentially hazardous conditions.Recognize and make appropriate decisions for first aid care.This course teaches skills needed to give immediate care until more advanced medical care arrives.
4Recognizing and Responding to an Emergency Key points:By recognizing an emergency and taking immediate action to help, you will provide the best chance for survivalEmergencies can often be recognized because of an unusual sight, appearances, behaviors, odors, or noises.
5Using Senses to Recognize Emergencies Unusual sightsBloodSmoke or fireBroken itemsPeople milling around
6Unusual Appearances or Behaviors One who is noticeably uncomfortableOne who is clutches his / her chest or throatOne who is unconsciousOne who appears to be confused or drowsy for unknown reasonsOne who has trouble breathing
7Unusual Odors Unusual odors of the person’s breath Gasoline Natural gasSmokeAn unrecognizable smell
8Unusual Noises Screaming Sudden silence for infants or children An explosionItems fallingTires screechingMetal CrashingChanges in machinery sounds (e.g., pitch, tone)Breaking Glass
9Overcoming Barriers to Act Presence of othersUncertainty about the person’s conditionFear of catching a diseaseFear of doing something wrongFear of being suedBeing unsure of when to call 911
10Good Samaritan LawsEnacted to protect people who voluntarily give emergency care, without accepting anything in return.Laws protect you as long as you –Act in good faithAre not negligentAct within the scope of your training
11Obtaining Consent You MUST obtain permission to help If one refuses care, call 911If unconscious, confused or seriously ill & not able to grant consent, the consent is implied.
12Obtaining Consent If a minor, get consent from parent or guardian ASAP Implied consent for a child means the parent or guardian would agree for care to be given
13To Obtain Consent State your name Tell the person you are trained in first aidAsk the person if you can helpExplain what you think might be wrongExplain what you plan to do
14Preventing Disease Transmission Avoid contact with:BloodBody fluidsUse PPE such as:GlovesCPR barriersWash hands immediately after care
15Key Points The risk of getting a disease is extremely rare: Taking precautions can reduce this even furtherWhenever possible, you should use Universal Precautions
16Emergency Action Steps Key Points:Follow the emergency action steps:CHECKCALLCARECheck the scene for safetyCheck the person for life-threatening conditionsCall 911Care for the ill or injured person
17If alone, call first or care first Cardiac emergenciesUnconscious adultWitnessed sudden collapse of infant or childUnconscious infant or child with known heart problemsCare first:Breathing emergencies2 minutes of care then call 911Unwitnessed collapse of someone under 12 yrs of ageAny victim of drowning
18Moving a person can lead to further injury Moving a person can lead to further injury. You should move a person only when safe to do so or if there is immediate danger.
19Checking an Ill or Injured Person Lesson 2Checking an IllorInjured Person
20Life Threatening Injuries/Illness UnconsciousnessNot breathing or having trouble breathingChokingPersistent chest painNo signs of life (normal breathing or movement)Severe bleedingShockSeizures (that recur, last more than 5 min.)
21Checking a Conscious Adult Key PointsAdult: over 12 years of ageAfter checking the scene for safety, check the adultObtain consent to give careHead to toe examinationCare based on conditions foundTake steps to minimize shock
22Develops after a serious injury or illness including: Life-threatening condition in which there is not enough blood being delivered to all parts of the bodyDevelops after a serious injury or illness including:severe bleedingSerious internal injuryBlood or body fluid loss
23Signs of Shock Restlessness or irritability Altered level of consciousnessNausea or VomitingPale, ashen, cool, moist skinRapid breathing and pulseExcessive thirst
24Care of Shock Call 911 Have the person lie down Control any external bleedingElevate the person’s legs 12 inches (unless you suspect head, neck or back injuries)Cover with 1 blanketDO NOT give anything to eat or drinkReassure the personMonitor airway, breathing, and circulation
25Checking an Unconscious Adult Check the scene for safetyCheck the person for life-threatening conditionsRemember the ABC’sAirwayBreathingCirculation
26Airway Breathing Circulation Open airway Look, listen, feel Two breathsCirculationCheck for pulseCarotid pulse (neck) adultBrachial pulse (mid-arm) infant
28Two basic types of injury Key PointFive leading causes of injury-related to deathMotor vehicle crashesFallsPoisoningsDrowningsChokingTwo basic types of injurySoft tissueMusculoskeletal (muscles, bones, joints)
29Types of Wounds 1. Soft tissues include layers of skin, fat, & muscle 2. Damage may be at the skin level or deeper in the body3. A physical injury that damages the layers of skin is called a wound.4. Wounds are typically classified as either opened or closed.
30Care for a closed wound: Apply direct pressureElevate the injured body part if it does not cause more painApply ice or a cold packNever put ice directly on the skinLeave ice or cold pack on 20 minutes, remove for 20 minutes, then ice 20 minutes
32Types of open wounds:Avulsions or amputationsPunctures
33Care for an open wound Use a barrier between your hand and the wound Apply pressure to control bleedingWash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. If possible irrigate the wound for 5 minutes with clean running water.Apply Neosporin or triple antibiotic to minor wound.Cover the wound with a sterile or clean dressing and a bandage.· If a person has a closed or open wound and complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain or if you think the force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage, seek advanced medical care stat.
34Controlling BleedingShock can develop from a serious injury that results from severe external or internal bleedingSigns of internal bleeding:Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body. Example: abdomenRapid, weak pulseSkin that feels cool or moist or looks pale or bluish
35Excessive thirstBecoming confused, faint, drowsy or unconsciousVomiting or coughing up blood
36Controlling Open Wound Bleeding Elevate & Apply pressure with a gauze dressingIf bleeds through dressing, apply another dressing over previous… NEVER remove a dressing.
37Controlling Open Wound Bleeding Apply a roller bandageTie knot over the wound – tape dressingCheck fingers / toes for circulation
38Elevation Pressure Points Rt. and Lt. Brachial Artery Rt. and Lt. Femoral Artery
44Classifications: by depth 1st degreesunburnepidermis onlynever blistersnot calculated in burn extent2nd degreethrough the epidermis into the dermispink, moist, painfulwhite, dry, less sensation3rd degreeAll three layers burnedMay be tissue damage to the boneMay or may not be painful
45Caring for a Minor Burn Do: Check scene for safety Remove source of burnCool 1st and 2nd degree burns with cool running waterCover wound loosely with a sterile dressing
46DO NOT!!!! Use ice Break blisters Remove pieces of clothing stuck to burnUse any type of ointment on a severe burnsDo not immerse 3rd degree burns in waterDo not touch the area of a burn with anything but a clean covering
47Chemical Burns Remove contaminated clothing if possible Brush off dry chemicalsFlush burn with water for 15 to 20 minutesFlush eye, if chemical in eye, for 15 – 20 min.
48Electrical Burns Look First, Do Not Touch High-voltage: call 911 DO NOT go near person until he/she is not in contact with power sourceHigh-voltage: call 911Turn off power sourceObserve for cardiac arrestCare for shock, thermal burnsAll need advanced medical care
49When to Call 911 Trouble breathing Burns covers more than one body part or a large surface areaSuspected burns to the airwayBurns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitals3rd degree burns in victims under 5, adults over 60 yearsBurns from chemicals, explosions, or electricity
50Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints Lesson 10Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints
51Types of Muscle, Bone and Joint Injuries Fractures: break in boneOpen Fracture: skin over fracture brokenClosed Fracture: skin over fracture intactDislocation: displacement of a bone at the joint
52Sprain: partial or complete tearing or stretching of a ligament Strain: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendon fibers
53Care for Musculoskeletal System R estI ceC ompressE levateR estI mmobilizeC oldE levate
54Splinting Definition: method of immobilizing Splint injury in position in which you find itSplint the injured area and the joints or bones above and below the injury siteCheck for circulationFeeling, warmth, and color
55Types of Splints Soft Splint Rigid Splint Anatomical Splints Use of pillows, folded blankets, towels, & a slingRigid SplintIncludes boards, metal strips & folded magazines or newspapersUse a triangular bandageAnatomical SplintsUse uninjured body part as a splint to immobilize an injured area
56Head, Neck or Back Injuries Key Points:These injuries may cause unintentional death or life-long neurological damageThe goal in caring for a person with a head, neck or back injury is to minimize movement
57Care for Injuries to the Head, Neck, or Back Call 911Minimize movement of the head, neck or backLeave victim in the position found inIf the head is turned sharply to one side, DO NOT try to align it. Support the head in the position you found it in.
60Sudden Illness General Guidelines Do no further harm Monitor breathing and consciousnessHelp the person rest in the most comfortable positionKeep the person from getting chilled or overheadReassure the personGive any specific care needed
61Fainting Temporary loss of consciousness Caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brainUsually self-correctingVictim recovers quickly with no lasting effectsPlace victim on back: elevate legs 8 – 12 inches
62Diabetic EmergencyBody does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectivelyIf victim conscious and able to swallow:Give sugarIf victim unable to swallow or sugar not available call 911
63SeizuresDisruption of normal electrical activity of the brain causing a loss of body controlProtect from injuryRemove objects that could cause injuryProtect the victims head
64When to call 911 Seizure lasts more than 5 minutes Person has repeated seizures, without regaining consciousnessPerson is injuredPerson has diabetes or pregnantPerson fails to regain consciousness after a seizure
65Stroke Definition: Signals of a Stroke: Brain Attack: blockage of blood flow to part of the brain causing death of brain tissueSignals of a Stroke:Weakness or numbness on one side of face or arm or legDifficulty speaking or slurred speechSudden dizzinessBlurred vision or sudden severe headache
66F weakness on one side of the face A weakness or numbness in one arm THINKF weakness on one side of the faceA weakness or numbness in one armS slurred speech or trouble getting words outT time to call 911 if you see any of these signalsStay with the person and monitor his/her breathing and other signs of life.
67Poisoning Definition: How introduced into the body: Any substance that can cause injury, illness or death when introduced into the bodyHow introduced into the body:InhalationSwallowedAbsorptionInjection
68Treatment If life threatening call 911 Call Poison Control Center and follow their directionsDO NOT give anything by mouth
72Insect Stings Tick Bites Scrape away the stinger Wash site with soap and waterCold pack to reduce painWatch for signs of an allergic reactionTick BitesRemove tick with tweezers as close to skin as possible and pull slowlyDO NOTBurn tick offApply petroleum jellyIf rash, flu-like sx, or joint pain seek medical care
73Heat and Cold Related Emergencies Lesson 12Heat and Cold Related Emergencies
74Heat Related Emergencies Causes:Strenuous outdoor activity on a hot dayWorking in a hot room with little air circulationNot drinking enough waterWorking in a building where the cooling system has failed
75Types of Heat Related Emergencies Heat CrampsPainful muscle spasmsCare:Move to cool placeCool bodyGive cool fluids to drinkLightly stretch muscles
76Care: Heat Exhaustion (Early stage) Move to cool area Cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skinHeadacheNauseaDizziness and weaknessExhaustionCare:Move to cool areaLoosen or remove clothingCool bodyWet towelGive cool fluids
77Care: Heat Stroke (Late stage) Move to cool area Most severe…..Red skinUsually dryChange in consciousnessRapid, weak pulseRapid, shallow breathingCare:Move to cool areaLoosen or remove clothingCool bodyWet towels, spray body with water, fan bodyCall 911
78Cold Related Illness Frostbite: Hypothermia: When body tissue freezes Entire body cools because body’s ability to regulate temperature failsVictim may die
79Signals of frostbite Lack of feeling in affected area Skin that appears waxy, cold to touchDiscoloration of skin (flushed, white, yellow, blue)
80Care for Frostbite Handle area gently Never rub affected area – may damage soft tissuesDO NOT rewarm if chance of freezing againIf rewarming:Soak frostbite area in lukewarm waterLoosely bandage in a dry sterile dressingDO NOT break blisters
81Signals of hypothermia ShiveringNumbnessGlassy stareShivering that stops without rewarming
82Care for Hypothermia Call 911 Be sure victim is comfortable Remove wet clothing and dry personWarm body gradually by wrapping the person in blankets or moving victim to warm placeDO NOT warm the person to quickly