Factors that influence the use of promotional tools
Slide 18-28 Promotional tools used over the product life cycle of Purina Dog Chow
6 Ms of Advertising Market - target consumer Mission - objectives. Money - to pay for the campaign. Message - to be delivered. Media - choice of advertising media. Measure - measuring the impact.
Mission - Advertising / Promotional objectives To increase sales To attract new customers To retain existing ones To encourage customer loyalty To encourage trial To create awareness To inform To remind To reassure To encourage customer contact To modify attitudes To create an image To position a product To encourage brand switching To improve position in the market To enlarge the market To pull the product through the channels To push the product through the channels
Personal selling vs advertising % of Promotional Effort Complex / Expensive GoodsSimple / Inexpensive Goods Relative importance of the two main elements in the promotional mix Personal Selling Advertising
Money - Determining the budget The Marketing Communications budget will be set in terms of one of: What can be afforded A given % of sales Comparison with rivals Objective and task- whatever is needed to achieve objectives
Media - Factors in the choice of media Marketing mix Relative Cost Target audience Impact of the media Reach and selectivity of the media Competition Legal constraints Permanence of the media The nature of the product Size and spread of the market Advertising budget The message to be conveyed
Advertising ROI What competitive benefit will be promised?
What personality will distinguish the brand? Consistency of traits Predictability different from and better than ….
Television Advantages Large audience Low cost per exposure High impact- colour, sound and movement Can target specific groups Disadvantages Very high overall cost Limited prime time space Short-lived May not be watched- visual wallpaper Proliferation of channels reduces audience Conveys only a limited message
Magazines Advantages Useful for targeting specific groups Good reproduction- high quality gloss images Long life-read at leisure Can be linked to features All consumer interests catered for Disadvantages Can be expensive Long lead time Some magazines are only published monthly Moderate impact Slow impact due to long life Magazines with limited readership are not suitable for mass marketing
Advertising on the Internet Paid-for search inclusion (e.g. Google Adwords) Company website. Banner ads - on line adverts on relevant website. Link exchange- mutual exchange of links between web sites or similar or complementary interest. Search engine/directory listing. Ezine/email sponsorship- on line magazines delivered to subscribers via email.
Advertising and Promotion Internet advertising is rapidly replacing some traditional ad forms
Radio Advantages Relatively inexpensive Can target specific segment Relatively mobile Local Disadvantages Limited impact No vision Short life Listener’s attention limited Audio wallpaper Mainly local rather than national
Newspapers Advantages Widely read Can target specific segments Frequent publication Short lead time Inexpensive compared to television Local, regional and national papers available Colour printing adds to impact Disadvantages Short life Low impact May get lost in the rest of the paper Not every group reads a paper High costs especially for national newspaper
Cinema Advantages High impact Captive audience Can be specifically targeted Local audience Visual, sound, movement Disadvantages Limited audience Mainly young audience Short lived message May only be seen once
Outdoor (Billboards) Advantages Repeatedly seen 24/7 coverage Target particular area May encourage impulse buying if close to shops Local media Disadvantages Message must be short and simple Cannot target socio economic groups Rarely attract full attention Short lived May be seen as traffic hazard Difficult to measure effectiveness
The Evolution of Advertising in the United States - Madison and Vine Branded Entertainment The blending of advertising and integrated brand promotion with entertainment programming Brand “placement” key tactic here Some films and television programs are considered hour long promotions
Social media classified by media richness and self- disclosure
Ability to Reach Both Large and Niche Audiences Expense and Access Training and Number of People Involved Permanence Credibility and Social Authority Time to Delivery UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL MEDIA COMPARING SOCIAL AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA
Social Media Lessons for Brand Managers Communicate with Key Influencers Respond Swiftly Communicate through Social Media Listen for Feedback to Recover Brand INTEGRATING SOCIAL MEDIA INTO TODAY’S MARKETING STRATEGIES
Selling and the promotional mix Personal selling is one element of the promotional mix. In business to consumer markets (B2C) personal selling and advertising are the main elements of the mix. Personal selling becomes more important when –The product is more complex –The product is more expensive –The product is bought infrequently –The customers is another business i.e. B2B markets
The essence of personal selling The presentation of products and associated persuasive communication to potential clients Involves two way, persuasive communication The aim is to match customer needs with the goods/services on offer Ultimate objective: to make a sale
B2C transactions where personal selling is…. Very important Motor vehicles Fitted kitchens Double glazing Security systems Conservatories Shopping and speciality goods Unimportant Food Grocery Clothing CDs/DVDs Books i.e. Convenience goods
A comparison of push and pull promotional strategies
Trade promotions Promotions aimed at intermediaries The purpose is to encourage intermediaries to stock the product Examples Loyalty bonuses Sale or return Range bonuses Credit Delayed invoicing New product offers Competitions Trade in offers Free services Training Reciprocal buying
The scope of PR Promoting products and services through media publicity. Enhancing public awareness of the company. Projecting the company’s mission and philosophy. Portrayal of the company as a good corporate citizen. Protecting the company’s reputation. Projecting the organization as a source of opportunities. Obtaining favourable comment in the media.
How the importance of promotional elements varies during the stages of the consumer purchase decision process
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