Presentation on theme: "OPVL Created By: Amy Strong North Mecklenburg High School International Baccalaureate."— Presentation transcript:
OPVL Created By: Amy Strong North Mecklenburg High School International Baccalaureate
OPVL What’s the point? All sources must be approached with caution When reading a source one must consider who wrote it, why they wrote it, what is included, what is left out, and how helpful this source will be to one’s investigation
ORIGINS Author Date of original publication Date of any additional additions Location of publication How might the time, place, and author of this work affect the work produced? For example: George Washington writing about Valley Forge will have a different interpretation than General Cornwallis.
PURPOSE Why did the author write/draw/compose this work? * Consider the audience * Does this author have something to hide? * Is he/she trying to convince anyone of something? * For example: Is this a textbook that is written to inform a high school student or a press conference given to reassure the American public?
VALUE How is this source useful to your investigation? What is the author’s purpose and how can that perception aid your investigation? Has this work been particularly well researched? Is this a secondary source? If so, does that allow the author distance to create a subjective argument? Is this a primary source? If so, does that allow the author to provide a viewpoint that no one else can (since they experienced it for themselves?)
LIMITATIONS What about this source hinders your investigation? Does this author only present part of the story? Is this a secondary source? If so, does the author deliver only part of the story? Is this a primary source? If so, what viewpoint does the author present? What is missing from his/her side of the story?
L IMITATIONS E XPLAINED The task here is not to point out weaknesses of the source, but rather to say: at what point does this source cease to be of value to us as historians? With a primary source document, having an incomplete picture of the whole is a given because the source was created by one person (or a small group of people), naturally they will not have given every detail of the context. Do not say that the author left out information unless you have concrete proof (from another source) that they chose to leave information out. Also, it is obvious that the author did not have prior knowledge of events that came after the creation of the document. Do not state that the document “does not explain X” (if X happened later).
Being biased does not limit the value of a source! If you are going to comment on the bias of a document, you must go into detail. Who is it biased towards? Who is it biased against? What part of a story does it leave out? Sometimes a biased piece of work shows much about the history you are studying What part of the story can we NOT tell from this document? How can we verify the content of the piece? Does this piece inaccurately reflect anything about the time period? What does the author leave out and why does he/she leave it out (if you know)? What is purposely not addressed?
E X. D RAWINGS, PAINTINGS, CARTOONS Values : Can effectively capture the spirit of a time, and the opinions and sentiments generally characterizing that time. Contain evidence about a culture at specific moments in history – its customs, styles, preferences, atmosphere, architecture, and manner of dress, appearance. Provide a visually stimulating piece of historical evidence. Example of art styles of the time. Comment on features of regime (e.g. Role of an artist in a one-party state). Limitations : Produced by an artist with a definite point of view, and therefore inevitably influenced by the opinions and prejudices of its creator. Limited scope—generally highlight one specific aspect of a period of history. Artist not generally concerned with providing a factual account of a historical event or circumstance, but rather with producing a creative piece of work or expressing own opinions and emotional reactions.
P HOTOGRAPHS / F ILM Values : Can capture moments in history in vivid detail, providing a unique glimpse in to a point in time and stimulating a first-hand experience. Provide a visually stimulating piece of historical evidence. Examples of propaganda Can show aspects of the culture (i.e. dress) Reflections of attitudes, trends in filmmaking at a specific time. Limitations : Behind every photograph or film is a creator with own personal point of view and prejudices, which may be reflected in the work either consciously or subconsciously. Can be manipulated by the creator to convey a certain point or impress upon the viewer his/her own conceptions (parts can be edited, parts can be cut out.) Certain details can be excluded or downplayed. Certain details can be accentuated or focused on. The creator ultimately holds the power to decide the impression conveyed by the photograph or film. Tendency for commercial reasons, to seek scenes, which are graphic and interesting.
II. Sample “OPVL” Paragraph The origin of this source is a journal that was written by _________ in ________ in _______. Its purpose was to _________________ so _________________. A value of this is that it gives the perspective of ________________________. However, a limitation is that __________, making ______________________.
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Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe.” - Winston Churchill - March 5, 1946
Example – Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech Origin - Speech so it is a primary source - straight from the speakers mouth Given by Churchill (former Prime Minister of Great Britain) March 5, 1946 Purpose - Tell Americans that they need the US alliance - didn't want to be all alone To spread the ideas of the "iron curtain" - making America know about this threat Value - Clear expectation of what Great Britain wants and their view during the Cold War Hearing from someone very important to Great Britain Real implications - primary source Limitations - Is this what the British Government really wants? We don't have the Soviet side of the argument What are his private thoughts about this topic?