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Emergency Medical Supplies

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1 Emergency Medical Supplies
1 Welcome to your: Emergency First Aid Course Your Instructor is: Mr. Tom Gourley Emergency Medical Supplies © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

2 Introduction Trainer Introduction Course register Health & Safety
Fire drill etc. Course Format

3 Areas Covered in this Session
Human Anatomy What is first aid Aims of first aid The Responsibilities of the First Aider Delegation / Confidence / Communication Incident / Casualty priorities Multiple casualties Staying Safe during First Aid DANGER Telephone the Emergency Services 999

4 Human Anatomy (remind/revise)
4 1. Trachea 2. Lungs 3. Heart 4. Liver 5. Stomach 6. Pancreas 7. Large intestine 8. Small intestine 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 8 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

5 Circulatory System Veins Aorta Arteries
5 Veins Action of muscles around these thin walled vessels squeezes blood through them, and one-way valves keep it from flowing back towards the heart Aorta Largest artery in the body Arteries Strong muscular, elastic walls enable arteries to expand with each surge of blood away from the heart and towards tissues © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

6 Circulatory System 6

7 The Heart

8 Functions of the Blood Transportation of gases Nutrition Regulation
Protection Excretion

9 Pulse Points Carotid Brachial Radial Femoral 9
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

10 The Respiratory System
10 Respirtory Centre (Brain) Tongue Epiglottis Trachea Lung Bronchioles Alveoli Diaphragm © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

11 Take in oxygen Remove carbon dioxide
Define Respiration Respiration is the exchange of gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, which takes place in the lungs and cells of the body. FUNCTION Take in oxygen Remove carbon dioxide

12 What is First Aid 12 The treatment given for any injury, or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or any other qualified person. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

13 The Aims of First Aid To Preserve life To Prevent the condition
13 To Preserve life To Prevent the condition getting worse To Promote recovery © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

14 Responsibilities of First Aider
14 Incident Management - Assess the situation / get help Casualty Care - Protect casualty and others from Danger Assess the casualty Identify casualty’s injury / Illness Provide treatment Arrange transport Remain with the casualty Prevent cross infection © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

15 Approach and Action Assess the situation Telephone for help
15 Assess the situation Telephone for help Assess any further danger Can you cope Do you need assistance Begin Treatment © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

16 Danger your present environment
Primary Assessment Danger your present environment Responses of your casualty Airway Breathing Circulation

17 Road Traffic Accidents
17 Speed Kills Make the accident site safe © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

18 Levels of Response (AVPU)
18 Alert responds appropriately / aware of place / time Verbal responds in some manner to voice Pain responds in some manner to painful stimuli Unresponsive Does not respond to painful stimuli © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

19 Airway Before opening the airway (check) for any obstructions and remove (clear) them if possible By tilting the head back and lifting the chin forward, the tongue is drawn away (open) from the back of the throat. Suspected Spinal injuries will differ, majority are conscious. In an unconsciousness casualty the tongue may fall back to block the airway.

20 Airway 20 OPEN AIRWAY © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

21 Average Breathing Rates
21 Average Breathing Rates Adults 12 – 20 times per minute Infants and young children times per minute © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

22 Inspired and Expired Air
22 Inspired Air Other Gases 1% Carbon Dioxide 4% Expired Air Other Gases 1% © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

23 IF ABSENT BREATHE FOR YOUR CASUALTY !
Breathing 23 IF ABSENT BREATHE FOR YOUR CASUALTY ! Look, Listen & Feel up to 10seconds © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

24 When dealing with blood or body fluids
Self Protection 24 ALWAYS WEAR GLOVES When dealing with blood or body fluids © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

25 Staying Safe during First Aid
25 Blood and Bodily Fluid HIV Hepatitis B Always wear protective gloves and goggles when dealing with blood and body fluids Environmental Hazards Traffic Electrical Wires Gas Leak © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

26 Always Give the Following Information: DON'T HANG UP THE PHONE UNTIL
Emergency Services 999 26 Always Give the Following Information: Name and telephone number Give exact location Type of incident Seriousness of incident Number of casualties Condition of casualties Any hazards DON'T HANG UP THE PHONE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO ! © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

27 Assess Casualties responses
Multiple Casualties 27 Assess Danger Remove Danger Assess Casualties responses Assess Casualties A.B.C 4 X B’s © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

28 Immediate Care Conditions
28 Lack of Airway Lack of Breathing Lack of Pulse Suspected Spinal Injury Shock © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

29 Life Threatening Conditions
29 Asphyxia Bleeding Cardiac arrest Shock © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

30 Principles of Resuscitation
30 For life to be sustained,: A constant supply of oxygen must be maintained and delivered to the brain and other vital organs by circulating the blood. The “pump” that maintains this circulation: Is the heart. If the heart stops (cardiac arrest) urgent action must be taken if death is to be prevented. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

31 Lay Rescuer CPR Guidelines
Establish that the casualty is unresponsive Dial 112/999 ask for cardiac ambulance Open the Airway Head tilt/chin lift or, if trauma is suspected, jaw thrust. Check for normal breathing. (look, listen, feel) If normal breathing is absent Give 2 slow breaths (2 seconds per breath) Ensure adequate chest rise, and allow exhalation between breaths.

32 Lay Rescuer CPR Guidelines
Check for signs of circulation Normal breathing, coughing, or movement in response to the 2 breaths If signs of circulation are present but there is no normal breathing, provide rescue breathing 1 breath every 6 seconds, about 10 breaths per minute If no signs of circulation are present, Begin cycles of 15 chest compressions (about 100 compressions per minute) followed by 2 slow breaths

33 COMMENCE CARDIAC MASSAGE !
Circulation 33 IF NO PULSE PRESENT COMMENCE CARDIAC MASSAGE ! © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

34 Speed is Essential 34 CPR if Commenced within 3 Minutes of Arrest can Prevent Permanent Brain Damage Buys Time to Allow Successful Defibrillation by Trained personnel © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

35 The Chain of Survival Early Access Early CPR Early Defibrillation
35 Early Access Early CPR Early Defibrillation Early Advanced Cardiac Care © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

36 Making a Diagnosis 36 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

37 Complete Top to Toe Survey Complete Definitive Treatments
Secondary Survey Monitor Vital Signs Breathing Pulse Skin Colour Temperature Level of response Complete Top to Toe Survey Complete Definitive Treatments

38 Sequence of examination.
Top to Toe Survey 38 1. Head 2. Neck 4. Shoulders 3. Chest 5. Upper Limbs 6. Abdomen 7. Pelvis Lower Back 8. Lower Limbs Sequence of examination. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

39 If casualty is Unconscious
External Clues 39 If casualty is Unconscious Look for Clues © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

40 Treatment Priorities A B C Maintain airway (Recovery position)
40 A B C Maintain airway (Recovery position) Bleeding Treat large wounds and burns Immobilise bone and joint injuries Other injuries / Conditions Regularly monitor casualty ABC © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

41 Reporting Casualty’s name Casualty’s address History of the incident
41 Casualty’s name Casualty’s address History of the incident Description of any injuries Any unusual behavior Treatment given Breathing Pulse Response level © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

42 Patient Interview S Symptoms A Allergies M Medications
42 S Symptoms A Allergies M Medications P Past Medical History L Last Meal E Events © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

43 Dressings & Bandages: Uses
43 Dressings Control bleeding Reduce infection Bandages Direct pressure Securing dressings etc Reduce swelling, support limbs Restrict movement © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

44 Rules for Applying Dressings
44 Wear disposable gloves If possible, wash hands Correct size Place pad directly onto wound Avoid touching wound Try not to cough or sneeze © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

45 General Rules for Bandaging
45 Explain and reassure Posture Support Your positioning Natural hollows Apply bandages firmly Exposure of digits Check circulation © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

46 Preventing Cross Infection
46 Always wash your hands Before dressing a wound Wear disposable gloves Avoid touching the wound Do not sneeze or cough When treating a wound Place soiled dressing in suitable bag Seal and destroy by incineration © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

47 The Choking Casualty Recognition Cannot Breathe Cannot Speak
47 Recognition Cannot Breathe Cannot Speak Cannot Cough May Clutch Throat © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

48 Effects of Fume Inhalation
Carbon monoxide Vehicle exhausts, chimneys headache, confusion aggression, nausea vomiting, incontinence dusky skin, red tinge unconsciousness Smoke Fires coughing swollen air passages unconsciousness soot around nose burns Solvents & Fuels Glues, lighter fluid headache, vomiting stupor unconsciousness death Carbon dioxide Deep enclosed spaces Breathlessness headache Hypoxia confusion unconsciousness

49 Treatment for Asthma Ensure A, B, C Reassure the patient.
49 Ensure A, B, C Reassure the patient. Position patient up-right Leaning forward. Ensure a good air supply. Monitor vital signs. Assist with medication. 999? © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

50 Medical Assistance for Asthma
50 Seek medical assistance if: First attack or is severe Inhaler has no effect after 5-10 minutes Casualty is getting worse Breathlessness makes talking difficult Exhaustion Unconsciousness ABC, Resuscitate if necessary © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

51 Causes of Shock Blood loss Heart attack Allergic reaction
51 Blood loss Heart attack Allergic reaction Loss of body fluids Massive infection Damage to spinal nerves © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

52 Shock - First Signs RECOGNITION: Rapid pulse Pale gray skin
52 RECOGNITION: (adrenaline causes) Rapid pulse Pale gray skin Cold clammy skin Sweating © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

53 Treatment for Shock 53 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

54 Blood Loss 2-3 pints MODERATE LOSS 2 to 3 pints (20% - 30%) Pulse
slightly raised Skin cold and sweaty Colour pale Pupils dilating, but equal Breathing slightly raised Consciousness light headed, faint History constant observation and monitoring of vital signs to determine medical progress Peripheral Temp. cool General Condition becoming unstable

55 Blood Loss over 3 pints SEVERE LOSS over 3 pints (30% and over) Pulse
fast, light, thready Skin cold and clammy Colour pale - cyanosed Pupils dilated and equal, slow to react to light Breathing deep sighing - air hunger Consciousness apathetic, low pain threshold History may become thirsty and suffer from blurred vision Peripheral Temp. cold General Condition poor, could prove fatal

56 Causes of Fainting Temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain
56 Temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain Reaction to pain or fright Emotional upset Exhaustion Lack of food Long periods of standing © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

57 Recognition of Fainting
57 Brief loss of consciousness Fall to the floor Slow pulse Pallor © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

58 Treatment for Fainting
Raise and support lower limbs Fresh air, open window As they recover reassure casualty Assist casualty to sit up Treat any injuries If unconsciousness persists Call for the ambulance

59 Anaphylactic Shock 59 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

60 Anaphylactic Shock The name given to a major Allergic reaction within the body; Causes: Specific drugs Stings Ingestion of certain foods (peanuts) Chemical released into the blood stream causing the blood vessels to dilate thus restricting the airway.

61 Severe Allergies Anxiety Blotchy skin Swelling of face
61 Anxiety Blotchy skin Swelling of face Swelling of neck Puffiness around eyes Breathing difficulties Rapid pulse © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

62 Treatment of Severe Allergies
62 Relieve Breathing Epi-pen 999 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

63 Common Heart Conditions
63 CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK ANGINA © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

64 The Heart Left Atrium Right Atrium Left Ventricle Right Ventricle 64
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

65 Heart Attack Blocked artery Complete blockage Infarcted area
65 Blocked artery causing complete blockage leading to death of heart tissue Complete blockage Infarcted area © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

66 Heart Attack Treatment
66 Your aims are; Make casualty comfortable Phone for ambulance Monitor vital signs Reassure Prepare to resuscitate if necessary © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

67 Narrowing of artery causing insufficient blood flow
Angina Pectoris 67 Narrowing of artery causing insufficient blood flow Partial block producing chest pain Area of decreased blood supply © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

68 Angina Pectoris Recognition
68 Often brought on by exertion Relieved by rest or medication Previous history Central chest pain may radiate to arms, Jaw Back Abdomen © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

69 Angina Pectoris Treatment
69 Your aims are; Make casualty as comfortable as possible Phone for ambulance Reassure Casualty may have “puffer” to ease attack © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

70 Cardiac Arrest Occurs when the Commence C.P.R. Immediately
70 Cardiac Arrest Occurs when the Heart Stops Beating Diagnosis: Unconscious No breathing No pulse Commence C.P.R. Immediately © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

71 First aid priorities Control blood loss Minimise shock
71 Control blood loss Pressure, Elevation Minimise shock Protect from infection Hospital The nature of the wounding force determines the type of wound and influences its treatment. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

72 Types of Bleeding Arterial Venous Capillary Always
72 Arterial Venous Capillary Always wear protective gloves and goggles when dealing with blood and body fluids © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

73 Wound Types Contusion Laceration Incised Puncture 73
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

74 999 Pressure Elevation Shock Infection Bleeding Control 74
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

75 Internal Bleeding Bruising / Rigid abdomen Tender abdomen
75 Bruising / Rigid abdomen Tender abdomen Guarding stomach Symptoms of shock Bleeding from orifices © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

76 Internal Bleeding Lungs Stomach Kidneys Upper / Lower Bowel
76 Lungs Stomach Kidneys Upper / Lower Bowel Fractured base of skull © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

77 Treatment - Internal Bleeding
77 A, B, C Treat for shock Elevate lower limbs if possible Place in the recovery position if patient becomes unconscious Reassure Monitor vital signs Urgent removal to hospital © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

78 Lots of blood, Possible underlying injury
Scalp & Head Wounds Treatment; Displace skin flaps (Split wounds) Apply direct pressure (Sterile dressing, secure) Lay casualty down slightly raised head & shoulders Unconscious ABC (Recovery position) Lots of blood, Possible underlying injury

79 Minor Wounds HYGIENE Minor wounds may need medical help Minor bleeding
Dog bite, Infected Embedded object etc. Minor bleeding Foreign bodies Bruises HYGIENE

80 Bleeding from Orifices
80 Mouth Ear Nose Anus Urethra Vagina © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

81 Various Injuries Palm wounds Bleeding varicose veins
Wounds at joint creases

82 Eye Injury Provide support for the casualty’s head
82 Provide support for the casualty’s head Give the casualty a sterile dressing to hold on the eye Arrange removal to hospital © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

83 Types of Head Injury All Head Injuries Are Serious;
Wounds to the scalp Fracture of the skull Concussion Cerebral compression

84 Fractured Skull 84 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

85 Recognition of Concussion
Brief or partial loss of consciousness Nausea, Dizziness on recover Memory loss

86 Cerebral Compression Noisy slow respiration's
Slow, full and bounding pulse Flushed face Diminished level of response going into unconsciousness Unequal or dilated pupils Intense headache

87 Fractured Skull 87 © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

88 Causes of Unconsciousness
Stroke F Fainting H Heart Attack I Infantile convulsion A Asphyxia S Shock P Poison E Epileptic Fit H Head injury D Diabetes

89 Types of Muscles Voluntary Involuntary Biceps etc.
89 Voluntary Biceps etc. Tendons Involuntary Operate vital organs Heart etc. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

90 Soft Tissue Injuries

91 Soft Tissue Injuries - Sprains
91 Sprains are injuries due to: Stretching or tearing ligaments or other tissues at a joint. Caused by a sudden twist or stretch of a joint beyond it’s normal motion © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

92 Soft Tissue Injuries - Sprains
92 The Symptoms of a Sprain are: Pain on movement Swelling Tenderness Discoluration © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

93 Soft Tissue Injuries - Strains
93 A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon caused by over-exertion. In severe cases muscles or tendons are torn and the muscle fibres are stretched. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

94 Soft Tissue Injuries - Strains
The Symptoms of a strain are; Intense pain Moderate swelling Painful movement Difficult movement Sometimes, discolouration

95 Soft Tissue injuries Treatment (RICER)
95 Rest the injured part. Apply Ice or cold compress. (15-20mins) Compress the injury. Elevate the injured part. Rehabilitate / Recuperation IF IN DOUBT - TREAT AS A FRACTURE ! © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

96 Rehabilitation Stop moaning I haven’t started yet…

97 Functions of the Skeleton
97 Support Movement Protection Produce blood cells © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

98 Definition of a Fracture
98 Definition; A broken or cracked bone TYPES Open/Closed Stable/Unstable Greenstick CAUSES: Direct force Indirect force Muscular action Disease © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

99 Simple Fracture Simple: This is a clean break or crack in the bone 99
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

100 Comminuted Fracture Comminuted: This is a type of fracture
100 Comminuted: This is a type of fracture that produces multiple bone fragments © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

101 Green-Stick Fracture Green stick: A split in a young, immature
101 Green stick: A split in a young, immature bone. Most common in children © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

102 Vulnerable to contamination
Open Fracture 102 The exposed bone is Vulnerable to contamination Wound Open: In a open fracture, part of the bone breaks through the skin causing bleeding © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

103 Closed Fracture Closed: The surrounding skin is unbroken. 103
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

104 Open Fractures Cover wound, apply dressing
104 Cover wound, apply dressing Place padding over and around the wound Secure dressing and padding Immobilise injured part 999 Treat casualty for shock N.B. Nothing to eat or drink © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

105 Closed Fractures / Dislocations
105 Support injured part Secure injured part 999 Circulation (10 minutes) N.B. Traction in extreme locations © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

106 Assessment of Injuries
106 History: (Ask the casualty what happened) Violent blow or fall Snapping sound Sharp pain Compare: One side of the body against another Visualise: Try and imagine what happened X-ray: Injury may not be obvious © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

107 Assessment of injuries
107 Recognition; Difficulty moving limbs Pain made worse by movement Distortion Coarse grating at bone ends Shock (Femur, Ribcage, Pelvis) Shortening, bending or twisting © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

108 Dislocations Partial or full displacement of bones at a joint
108 Partial or full displacement of bones at a joint Tears ligaments Associated fracture External wrenching force Violent muscle contraction Do not attempt to replace joint © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

109 Injuries to the face and jaw
Maintain airway Possible spinal injury Possible head injury Reduce swelling Hospital treatment

110 The Human Spine Spinal Cord Intervertebral discs
110 Spinal Cord Composed of nerve fibres Cervical 7 Intervertebral discs Padding or cushioning Gristle Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Sacrum 5 (fused) 4 coccyx (fused) © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

111 Spinal Injuries Three things are required; A high index of suspicion.
111 Three things are required; A high index of suspicion. Acute observation. Dexterous and gentle handling. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

112 Spinal Injury Your aims are; To prevent further injury
112 Your aims are; To prevent further injury Arrange removal to hospital © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

113 Treatment of Spinal Injuries
Call for an ambulance. do not attempt to treat casualty on your own Support head and neck. Instruct casualty not to move. Reassurance. Do not move casualty unless in extreme danger. IF IN DOUBT TREAT AS A SPINAL INJURY

114 “LIFT WITH THE LEGS” Principles of Lifting
Assess the Task - Area - Load Bend the knees Broad stable base Back straight (Not necessarily vertical) Firm grip with palm of hand Arms in line with trunk Weight close to center of gravity Turn feet in direction of movement “LIFT WITH THE LEGS”

115 Types and Causes of Burns
Dry Burn Scald Electrical Burn Chemical Burn Radiation Friction Burn Cold Burn Fire- Domestic appliances Hot liquids - Steam Low and high voltage - Lightning Industrial & Domestic chemicals Sunburn - Exposure to radiation Fast moving belts – Machinery Bare skin contacting ice etc.

116 Burns Superficial Partial Thickness Full Thickness 116
© 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

117 Treatment of Minor Burns
117 Your Aim Is; Halt the burning process Relieve the swelling Relieve the pain Minimise risk of infection Seek medical advice © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

118 Treatment of Severe Burns
118 Your Aim Is To Ensure; Scene safety A, B, C Halt the burning process, Relieve pain Treat for shock Resuscitate if necessary Treat associated injuries Minimise the risk of infection Arrange urgent removal to hospital © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

119 Heat Exhaustion Recognition Treatment
119 Recognition Wet / sweaty appearance, Fatigue / Pale look Headaches with possible cramps Treatment Remove from offending environment Fan / cool patient Provide cool drink Advise to see doctor or dial 999 if they deteriorate © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

120 Heat Stroke Recognition Treatment Hot dry red skin
Rapid Lowered level of consciousness Nausea and/or vomiting Body temperature above 40ºC (104ºF) Treatment Remove from offending environment Dial 999 for an Ambulance Cool patient with cold, wet sheets Nothing by mouth

121 General cooling of body
Hypothermia 121 General cooling of body Mild Hypothermia Shivers - Cool body < 98.6 temperature Severe Hypothermia No Shivers Sluggishness Lowered level of consciousness © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

122 Hypothermia Treatment Mild Severe Remove from offending environment
122 Treatment Remove from offending environment Remove wet clothing Insulate with blanket or covers Mild Offer hot drink Severe Activate EMS Provide source of heat © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

123 Define Diabetes A condition in which the body fails to regulate the concentration of sugar in the blood. Diabetics are prone to two main problems: Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia

124 Hypoglycemia - Low blood glucose
Signs and Symptoms Hypoglycemia - Low blood glucose Colour pale Skin profuse sweating and cold Consciousness irritable, confused or may be unconscious, fits may be present in later stages Pulse rapid and weak Breathing normal to rapid Onset sudden, may be minutes Treatment sugar

125 Hyperglycemia - high blood glucose
Signs and Symptoms Hyperglycemia - high blood glucose Colour flushed Skin dry restless, drowsy or lethargic behaviour Consciousness Pulse rapid and full Breathing deep and sighing, possible sweet smell - acetone Onset gradual, hours to days Treatment insulin

126 Hypoglycaemia - Treatment
126 Conscious Patient; Establish A, B, C Help patient to lie or sit down Give sugary foods, drinks etc. Advise to See their Doctor © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

127 Hypoglycaemia - Treatment
127 Unconscious Patient Establish A, B, C Place patient in recovery position Monitor vital signs Prevent chilling Look for other causes Urgent removal to hospital © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

128 Hyperglycaemia - Treatment
128 Establish A, B, C Place patient in recovery position Monitor vital signs / Prevent chilling Look for other causes Urgent removal to hospital © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

129 Define Epilepsy Definition:
129 Definition: A condition that causes brief disruptions in the normal electrical activity of the brain. © 2002 Abertay Nationwide Training

130 Forms of Epilepsy Absence Seizures Seizures A major form of epilepsy.
A minor form of epilepsy Resembles daydreaming. Seizures A major form of epilepsy. The patient experiences fits with a period of unconsciousness.

131 Risk Assessment Hazard means anything that can cause harm (e.g chemicals, electricity, working from ladders etc). Risk is the chance high or low, that somebody will be harmed by the hazard. Look for Hazards Who might be harmed Evaluate the risk Record your findings Review Assessment

132 Risk Assessment A proper check was made
Risk Assessments must be suitable and sufficient. You must be able to show that: A proper check was made You asked who might be affected You dealt with all obvious significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved The precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low

133 To establish RISK Rating, multiply LIKELIHOOD by the SEVERITY
Risk Assessment RISK ASSESSMENT SHEET Company Name……………….Completed by………………..Date…….. Activity Hazards Persons exposed Likelihood Severity Risk Weight Lifting Weights falling onto fatigued body Weight Lifter 1. Most Unlikely 2. Unlikely 3. Likely 4. Most Likely 1. Trivial Injury 2. Slight Injury 3. Serious Injury 4. Major Injury or Death Rating Bands Action Required 1 & 2 Minimal Risk Maintain Control Measures 3 & 4 Low Risk Review Control Measures Rating Bands Action Required 6 & 8 Medium Risk Improve Control Measures 9, 12 & Improve Controls immediately and consider stopping work To establish RISK Rating, multiply LIKELIHOOD by the SEVERITY


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