2Introduction Trainer Introduction Course register Health & Safety Fire drill etc.Course Format
3Areas Covered in this Session Human AnatomyWhat is first aidAims of first aidThe Responsibilities of the First AiderDelegation / Confidence / CommunicationIncident / Casualty prioritiesMultiple casualtiesStaying Safe during First Aid DANGERTelephone the Emergency Services 999
11Take in oxygen Remove carbon dioxide Define RespirationRespiration is the exchange of gases, oxygenand carbon dioxide, which takes place in thelungs and cells of the body.FUNCTIONTake in oxygen Remove carbon dioxide
19AirwayBefore opening the airway (check) for any obstructions and remove (clear) them if possibleBy tilting the head back and lifting the chin forward, the tongue is drawn away (open) from the back of the throat. Suspected Spinal injuries will differ, majority are conscious.In an unconsciousness casualty the tongue may fall back to block the airway.
31Lay Rescuer CPR Guidelines Establish that the casualty is unresponsiveDial 112/999 ask for cardiac ambulanceOpen the AirwayHead tilt/chin lift or, if trauma is suspected, jaw thrust.Check for normal breathing.(look, listen, feel)If normal breathing is absentGive 2 slow breaths (2 seconds per breath)Ensure adequate chest rise, and allow exhalation between breaths.
32Lay Rescuer CPR Guidelines Check for signs of circulationNormal breathing, coughing, or movement in response to the 2 breathsIf signs of circulation are present but there is no normal breathing, provide rescue breathing1 breath every 6 seconds, about 10 breaths per minuteIf no signs of circulation are present,Begin cycles of 15 chest compressions (about 100 compressions per minute) followed by 2 slow breaths
37Complete Top to Toe Survey Complete Definitive Treatments Secondary SurveyMonitor Vital SignsBreathingPulseSkin ColourTemperatureLevel of responseComplete Top to Toe SurveyComplete Definitive Treatments
54Blood Loss 2-3 pints MODERATE LOSS 2 to 3 pints (20% - 30%) Pulse slightly raisedSkincold and sweatyColourpalePupilsdilating, but equalBreathingslightly raisedConsciousnesslight headed, faintHistoryconstant observation and monitoring of vital signs to determine medical progressPeripheral Temp.coolGeneral Conditionbecoming unstable
55Blood Loss over 3 pints SEVERE LOSS over 3 pints (30% and over) Pulse fast, light, threadySkincold and clammyColourpale - cyanosedPupilsdilated and equal, slow to react to lightBreathingdeep sighing - air hungerConsciousnessapathetic, low pain thresholdHistorymay become thirsty and suffer from blurred visionPeripheral Temp.coldGeneral Conditionpoor, could prove fatal
58Treatment for Fainting Raise and support lower limbsFresh air, open windowAs they recover reassure casualtyAssist casualty to sit upTreat any injuriesIf unconsciousness persistsCall for the ambulance
60Anaphylactic ShockThe name given to a major Allergic reaction within the body;Causes:Specific drugsStingsIngestion of certain foods (peanuts)Chemical released into the blood stream causing the blood vessels to dilate thus restricting the airway.
78Lots of blood, Possible underlying injury Scalp & Head WoundsTreatment;Displace skin flaps (Split wounds)Apply direct pressure (Sterile dressing, secure)Lay casualty down slightly raised head & shouldersUnconscious ABC (Recovery position)Lots of blood, Possible underlying injury
79Minor Wounds HYGIENE Minor wounds may need medical help Minor bleeding Dog bite,InfectedEmbedded object etc.Minor bleedingForeign bodiesBruisesHYGIENE
113Treatment of Spinal Injuries Call for an ambulance.do not attempt to treat casualty on your ownSupport head and neck.Instruct casualty not to move.Reassurance.Do not move casualty unless in extreme danger.IF IN DOUBTTREAT AS A SPINAL INJURY
114“LIFT WITH THE LEGS” Principles of Lifting Assess the Task - Area - LoadBend the kneesBroad stable baseBack straight (Not necessarily vertical)Firm grip with palm of handArms in line with trunkWeight close to center of gravityTurn feet in direction of movement“LIFT WITH THE LEGS”
115Types and Causes of Burns Dry BurnScaldElectrical BurnChemical BurnRadiationFriction BurnCold BurnFire- Domestic appliancesHot liquids - SteamLow and high voltage - LightningIndustrial & Domestic chemicalsSunburn - Exposure to radiationFast moving belts – MachineryBare skin contacting ice etc.
120Heat Stroke Recognition Treatment Hot dry red skin Rapid Lowered level of consciousnessNausea and/or vomitingBody temperature above 40ºC (104ºF)TreatmentRemove from offending environmentDial 999 for an AmbulanceCool patient with cold, wet sheetsNothing by mouth
123Define DiabetesA condition in which the body fails to regulate the concentration of sugar in the blood.Diabetics are prone to two main problems:HypoglycemiaHyperglycemia
124Hypoglycemia - Low blood glucose Signs and SymptomsHypoglycemia - Low blood glucoseColourpaleSkinprofuse sweating and coldConsciousnessirritable, confused or may be unconscious, fits may be present in later stagesPulserapid and weakBreathingnormal to rapidOnsetsudden, may be minutesTreatmentsugar
125Hyperglycemia - high blood glucose Signs and SymptomsHyperglycemia - high blood glucoseColourflushedSkindryrestless, drowsy or lethargic behaviourConsciousnessPulserapid and fullBreathingdeep and sighing, possible sweet smell - acetoneOnsetgradual, hours to daysTreatmentinsulin
130Forms of Epilepsy Absence Seizures Seizures A major form of epilepsy. A minor form of epilepsyResembles daydreaming.SeizuresA major form of epilepsy.The patient experiences fits with a period of unconsciousness.
131Risk AssessmentHazard means anything that can cause harm (e.g chemicals, electricity, working from ladders etc).Risk is the chance high or low, that somebody will be harmed by the hazard.Look for HazardsWho might be harmedEvaluate the riskRecord your findingsReview Assessment
132Risk Assessment A proper check was made Risk Assessments must be suitable and sufficient.You must be able to show that:A proper check was madeYou asked who might be affectedYou dealt with all obvious significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involvedThe precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low
133To establish RISK Rating, multiply LIKELIHOOD by the SEVERITY Risk AssessmentRISK ASSESSMENT SHEETCompany Name……………….Completed by………………..Date……..ActivityHazardsPersons exposedLikelihoodSeverityRiskWeight LiftingWeights falling onto fatigued bodyWeightLifter1. Most Unlikely2. Unlikely3. Likely4. Most Likely1. Trivial Injury2. Slight Injury3. Serious Injury4. Major Injuryor DeathRating Bands Action Required1 & 2 Minimal Risk Maintain Control Measures3 & 4 Low Risk Review Control MeasuresRating Bands Action Required6 & 8 Medium Risk Improve Control Measures9, 12 & Improve Controls immediatelyand consider stopping workTo establish RISK Rating, multiply LIKELIHOOD by the SEVERITY