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Social stories Craig Domanski Caldwell College PS 572--Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism.

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Presentation on theme: "Social stories Craig Domanski Caldwell College PS 572--Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social stories Craig Domanski Caldwell College PS 572--Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism

2 Overview  History  Definitions  Uses  Components  Guidelines  4-Term Contingency  Example  References  History  Definitions  Uses  Components  Guidelines  4-Term Contingency  Example  References

3 History  Developed by Carol Gray  Director of The Gray Center for Social Learning and Understanding in Grand Rapids, Michigan  http://www.thegraycenter.org/ http://www.thegraycenter.org/  Had been a teacher of students with autism and a consultant to public schools for 22 years  First defined in 1991  Has undergone many revisions since then  Present description:  “Currently, a Social Story is considered a process that results in a product for a person with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder.” (Gray, pp. 13-1)  Developed by Carol Gray  Director of The Gray Center for Social Learning and Understanding in Grand Rapids, Michigan  http://www.thegraycenter.org/ http://www.thegraycenter.org/  Had been a teacher of students with autism and a consultant to public schools for 22 years  First defined in 1991  Has undergone many revisions since then  Present description:  “Currently, a Social Story is considered a process that results in a product for a person with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder.” (Gray, pp. 13-1)

4  Process  Must be written with consideration for the perspective of the child with ASD (Gray, 13-1)  Product  Short story in a specialized format  Describes a situation, concept, or social skill  Process  Must be written with consideration for the perspective of the child with ASD (Gray, 13-1)  Product  Short story in a specialized format  Describes a situation, concept, or social skill

5 What situations are Social Stories written for?  Are individualized based on the needs of the child  Possible uses:  Troubling situations  Describe skills that may be in the social or academic curriculums  Individualize skills that are taught in a social skills training setting  Break down a goal into manageable steps  Describe a classroom routine  Acknowledging achievement  First story should be about something that the child is successful in doing  Helps to identify with the story (Gray, pp. 13-2)  Are individualized based on the needs of the child  Possible uses:  Troubling situations  Describe skills that may be in the social or academic curriculums  Individualize skills that are taught in a social skills training setting  Break down a goal into manageable steps  Describe a classroom routine  Acknowledging achievement  First story should be about something that the child is successful in doing  Helps to identify with the story (Gray, pp. 13-2)

6 Components of a social story  Descriptive statements  Backbone of the story  The “logic” and “accuracy” of the story that might be “reassuring to those who are overwhelmed by social concepts and situations.” (Gray, 13-2)  Factual statements; no opinions  Should be the most frequent types of statements used  Descriptive statements  Backbone of the story  The “logic” and “accuracy” of the story that might be “reassuring to those who are overwhelmed by social concepts and situations.” (Gray, 13-2)  Factual statements; no opinions  Should be the most frequent types of statements used

7 Examples of descriptive statements  “My name is Craig.”  “I work in a school.”  “It’s hot during the summer.”  “My name is Craig.”  “I work in a school.”  “It’s hot during the summer.”

8  Perspective statements  The “heart” of the story  Describe feelings, opinions, thoughts that are involved in a situation  The invisible (but important) aspects of a social situation  Rarely used to describe the internal events in the child with autism  Used most often to refer to the other people in the story  Perspective statements  The “heart” of the story  Describe feelings, opinions, thoughts that are involved in a situation  The invisible (but important) aspects of a social situation  Rarely used to describe the internal events in the child with autism  Used most often to refer to the other people in the story

9 Examples of perspective statements  “My friends like to play on the playground.”  “The teacher knows the answer to the math homework.”  “Sometimes, people feel tired when they stay up late.”  “My friends like to play on the playground.”  “The teacher knows the answer to the math homework.”  “Sometimes, people feel tired when they stay up late.”

10  Directive statements  Name the desired response or list of possible responses  Tell the child what to do in a situation  Often begin with, “I will try…” or “I can…”  Avoids being taken too literally for fear of child not knowing there’s any wiggle room  Must be written with much consideration  Directive statements  Name the desired response or list of possible responses  Tell the child what to do in a situation  Often begin with, “I will try…” or “I can…”  Avoids being taken too literally for fear of child not knowing there’s any wiggle room  Must be written with much consideration

11 Examples of directive statements  “I will try to raise my hand.”  “I can try to share the toys with my friends.”  “I can decide to play with blocks, read a book, or color a picture.”  Offers a list of choices  “I will try to raise my hand.”  “I can try to share the toys with my friends.”  “I can decide to play with blocks, read a book, or color a picture.”  Offers a list of choices

12  Affirmative statements  Express a common opinion about an element of the situation  Usually accompany another type of statement in the story  Basically used to:  Stress an important point  Refer to a rule  Reassure the reader  Affirmative statements  Express a common opinion about an element of the situation  Usually accompany another type of statement in the story  Basically used to:  Stress an important point  Refer to a rule  Reassure the reader

13 Examples of affirmative statements  “It’s a good idea to …”  “It’s ok to…”  “ That’s the right thing to do.”  “It’s a good idea to …”  “It’s ok to…”  “ That’s the right thing to do.”

14  Partial statements  Fill-in statements that allow the child to actively participate in the story  Helps to show that the child comprehends to story  Partial statements  Fill-in statements that allow the child to actively participate in the story  Helps to show that the child comprehends to story

15 Examples of partial statements  “If I share, my friends will be so _____.”  “Mom and Dad will be so ____ if I go to bed like a big kid.”  “If I share, my friends will be so _____.”  “Mom and Dad will be so ____ if I go to bed like a big kid.”

16 The Social Story Ratio  Applied to the story as a whole  Desired ratio is: 0-1 directive statements 2-5 descriptive, perspective, and/or affirmative statements  Applied to the story as a whole  Desired ratio is: 0-1 directive statements 2-5 descriptive, perspective, and/or affirmative statements

17 Other kinds of statements  Control sentences  Identify strategies that the learner can use in a troubling situation  “When someone says, ‘I changed my mind,’ I can think the idea is getting better--like a caterpillar turning into a butterfly.” (Gray, 13-4)  Cooperative sentences  Identifies the people that will help the child, and how they will help  “Mom and Dad can help me take deep breaths when I’m upset.”  Control sentences  Identify strategies that the learner can use in a troubling situation  “When someone says, ‘I changed my mind,’ I can think the idea is getting better--like a caterpillar turning into a butterfly.” (Gray, 13-4)  Cooperative sentences  Identifies the people that will help the child, and how they will help  “Mom and Dad can help me take deep breaths when I’m upset.”

18 Guidelines  Step 1: Picture the goal  Important to depict all relevant information that will occur in a social situation  Use text and illustrations; be concrete  Step 2: Gather information  Include where and when the situation occurs, who is involved, how events are sequenced, what occurs, and why it occurs  Step 1: Picture the goal  Important to depict all relevant information that will occur in a social situation  Use text and illustrations; be concrete  Step 2: Gather information  Include where and when the situation occurs, who is involved, how events are sequenced, what occurs, and why it occurs

19  Step 3: Individualize the text  Remember the learning styles, needs, interests, and abilities of the target student  Always use positive statements  Step 4: Teach with the title  Should state the overall gist of the story  I.e., “Mike Ties his Shoes”  Step 3: Individualize the text  Remember the learning styles, needs, interests, and abilities of the target student  Always use positive statements  Step 4: Teach with the title  Should state the overall gist of the story  I.e., “Mike Ties his Shoes”

20 How to implement a Social Story  Introducing the story  Most important element in implementation  Introduced in a relaxed setting  Using it punitively is not recommended  Reviewing the story  “This is perhaps the most important element in the implementation of a social story.” (Gray, 13-8)  Share joint attention with the child on the story  Have multiple people review the story with the child  Encourages generalization  Introducing the story  Most important element in implementation  Introduced in a relaxed setting  Using it punitively is not recommended  Reviewing the story  “This is perhaps the most important element in the implementation of a social story.” (Gray, 13-8)  Share joint attention with the child on the story  Have multiple people review the story with the child  Encourages generalization

21  Fading the story  “Experience indicates it may not be possible, or advisable, to fade a Social Story from use.” (Gray, pp. 13-9)  Re-write it with systematic omissions  Use partial statements  Review it less frequently  Fading the story  “Experience indicates it may not be possible, or advisable, to fade a Social Story from use.” (Gray, pp. 13-9)  Re-write it with systematic omissions  Use partial statements  Review it less frequently

22 Where does a Social Story lie in the 4-term contingency? (Social Story for sharing a toy) Contextual stimulus S D Response Consequence Play setting Peer asks for toy Student shares Praise Peer present Social Story  NOTE: A Social Story would technically be considered a stimulus prompt, which occurs simultaneously (or in this case, just prior to) the S D (Social Story for sharing a toy) Contextual stimulus S D Response Consequence Play setting Peer asks for toy Student shares Praise Peer present Social Story  NOTE: A Social Story would technically be considered a stimulus prompt, which occurs simultaneously (or in this case, just prior to) the S D

23 Example of a Social Story: Craig works hard in school Hi, my name is Craig. Hi, my name is Craig.

24  I’m a big kid in Dr. Reeve’s PS 572 class at Caldwell College.

25  The students in class think that class is hard.  In class, there is a lot of work.  The students in class think that class is hard.  In class, there is a lot of work.

26  So much work makes me sad. When I get sad about too much work, it’s a good idea to: 1.Stop 2.Take a deep breath 3.Ask for a break  So much work makes me sad. When I get sad about too much work, it’s a good idea to: 1.Stop 2.Take a deep breath 3.Ask for a break

27  Doing my work is important.  Dr. Reeve will be so happy if I do all my work.  Doing my work is important.  Dr. Reeve will be so happy if I do all my work.

28  If I do a good job in class, Dr. Reeve will let me graduate. I can do it! I can graduate from Caldwell College!!!

29 References Gray, C. (2000). The New Social Story Book: Illustrated Edition. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc. Reynhout, G., & Carter, M. (2007). Social Story efficacy with a child with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 173-182. Thiemann, K.S., & Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: Effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 425-446. Weiss, M.J. (2008, June). Teaching children with autistic spectrum disorders. Presentation given for Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism, Caldwell College. Gray, C. (2000). The New Social Story Book: Illustrated Edition. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc. Reynhout, G., & Carter, M. (2007). Social Story efficacy with a child with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 173-182. Thiemann, K.S., & Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: Effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 425-446. Weiss, M.J. (2008, June). Teaching children with autistic spectrum disorders. Presentation given for Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism, Caldwell College.


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