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Social stories Craig Domanski Caldwell College PS 572--Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism.

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Presentation on theme: "Social stories Craig Domanski Caldwell College PS 572--Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social stories Craig Domanski Caldwell College PS 572--Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism

2 Overview  History  Definitions  Uses  Components  Guidelines  4-Term Contingency  Example  References  History  Definitions  Uses  Components  Guidelines  4-Term Contingency  Example  References

3 History  Developed by Carol Gray  Director of The Gray Center for Social Learning and Understanding in Grand Rapids, Michigan   Had been a teacher of students with autism and a consultant to public schools for 22 years  First defined in 1991  Has undergone many revisions since then  Present description:  “Currently, a Social Story is considered a process that results in a product for a person with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder.” (Gray, pp. 13-1)  Developed by Carol Gray  Director of The Gray Center for Social Learning and Understanding in Grand Rapids, Michigan   Had been a teacher of students with autism and a consultant to public schools for 22 years  First defined in 1991  Has undergone many revisions since then  Present description:  “Currently, a Social Story is considered a process that results in a product for a person with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder.” (Gray, pp. 13-1)

4  Process  Must be written with consideration for the perspective of the child with ASD (Gray, 13-1)  Product  Short story in a specialized format  Describes a situation, concept, or social skill  Process  Must be written with consideration for the perspective of the child with ASD (Gray, 13-1)  Product  Short story in a specialized format  Describes a situation, concept, or social skill

5 What situations are Social Stories written for?  Are individualized based on the needs of the child  Possible uses:  Troubling situations  Describe skills that may be in the social or academic curriculums  Individualize skills that are taught in a social skills training setting  Break down a goal into manageable steps  Describe a classroom routine  Acknowledging achievement  First story should be about something that the child is successful in doing  Helps to identify with the story (Gray, pp. 13-2)  Are individualized based on the needs of the child  Possible uses:  Troubling situations  Describe skills that may be in the social or academic curriculums  Individualize skills that are taught in a social skills training setting  Break down a goal into manageable steps  Describe a classroom routine  Acknowledging achievement  First story should be about something that the child is successful in doing  Helps to identify with the story (Gray, pp. 13-2)

6 Components of a social story  Descriptive statements  Backbone of the story  The “logic” and “accuracy” of the story that might be “reassuring to those who are overwhelmed by social concepts and situations.” (Gray, 13-2)  Factual statements; no opinions  Should be the most frequent types of statements used  Descriptive statements  Backbone of the story  The “logic” and “accuracy” of the story that might be “reassuring to those who are overwhelmed by social concepts and situations.” (Gray, 13-2)  Factual statements; no opinions  Should be the most frequent types of statements used

7 Examples of descriptive statements  “My name is Craig.”  “I work in a school.”  “It’s hot during the summer.”  “My name is Craig.”  “I work in a school.”  “It’s hot during the summer.”

8  Perspective statements  The “heart” of the story  Describe feelings, opinions, thoughts that are involved in a situation  The invisible (but important) aspects of a social situation  Rarely used to describe the internal events in the child with autism  Used most often to refer to the other people in the story  Perspective statements  The “heart” of the story  Describe feelings, opinions, thoughts that are involved in a situation  The invisible (but important) aspects of a social situation  Rarely used to describe the internal events in the child with autism  Used most often to refer to the other people in the story

9 Examples of perspective statements  “My friends like to play on the playground.”  “The teacher knows the answer to the math homework.”  “Sometimes, people feel tired when they stay up late.”  “My friends like to play on the playground.”  “The teacher knows the answer to the math homework.”  “Sometimes, people feel tired when they stay up late.”

10  Directive statements  Name the desired response or list of possible responses  Tell the child what to do in a situation  Often begin with, “I will try…” or “I can…”  Avoids being taken too literally for fear of child not knowing there’s any wiggle room  Must be written with much consideration  Directive statements  Name the desired response or list of possible responses  Tell the child what to do in a situation  Often begin with, “I will try…” or “I can…”  Avoids being taken too literally for fear of child not knowing there’s any wiggle room  Must be written with much consideration

11 Examples of directive statements  “I will try to raise my hand.”  “I can try to share the toys with my friends.”  “I can decide to play with blocks, read a book, or color a picture.”  Offers a list of choices  “I will try to raise my hand.”  “I can try to share the toys with my friends.”  “I can decide to play with blocks, read a book, or color a picture.”  Offers a list of choices

12  Affirmative statements  Express a common opinion about an element of the situation  Usually accompany another type of statement in the story  Basically used to:  Stress an important point  Refer to a rule  Reassure the reader  Affirmative statements  Express a common opinion about an element of the situation  Usually accompany another type of statement in the story  Basically used to:  Stress an important point  Refer to a rule  Reassure the reader

13 Examples of affirmative statements  “It’s a good idea to …”  “It’s ok to…”  “ That’s the right thing to do.”  “It’s a good idea to …”  “It’s ok to…”  “ That’s the right thing to do.”

14  Partial statements  Fill-in statements that allow the child to actively participate in the story  Helps to show that the child comprehends to story  Partial statements  Fill-in statements that allow the child to actively participate in the story  Helps to show that the child comprehends to story

15 Examples of partial statements  “If I share, my friends will be so _____.”  “Mom and Dad will be so ____ if I go to bed like a big kid.”  “If I share, my friends will be so _____.”  “Mom and Dad will be so ____ if I go to bed like a big kid.”

16 The Social Story Ratio  Applied to the story as a whole  Desired ratio is: 0-1 directive statements 2-5 descriptive, perspective, and/or affirmative statements  Applied to the story as a whole  Desired ratio is: 0-1 directive statements 2-5 descriptive, perspective, and/or affirmative statements

17 Other kinds of statements  Control sentences  Identify strategies that the learner can use in a troubling situation  “When someone says, ‘I changed my mind,’ I can think the idea is getting better--like a caterpillar turning into a butterfly.” (Gray, 13-4)  Cooperative sentences  Identifies the people that will help the child, and how they will help  “Mom and Dad can help me take deep breaths when I’m upset.”  Control sentences  Identify strategies that the learner can use in a troubling situation  “When someone says, ‘I changed my mind,’ I can think the idea is getting better--like a caterpillar turning into a butterfly.” (Gray, 13-4)  Cooperative sentences  Identifies the people that will help the child, and how they will help  “Mom and Dad can help me take deep breaths when I’m upset.”

18 Guidelines  Step 1: Picture the goal  Important to depict all relevant information that will occur in a social situation  Use text and illustrations; be concrete  Step 2: Gather information  Include where and when the situation occurs, who is involved, how events are sequenced, what occurs, and why it occurs  Step 1: Picture the goal  Important to depict all relevant information that will occur in a social situation  Use text and illustrations; be concrete  Step 2: Gather information  Include where and when the situation occurs, who is involved, how events are sequenced, what occurs, and why it occurs

19  Step 3: Individualize the text  Remember the learning styles, needs, interests, and abilities of the target student  Always use positive statements  Step 4: Teach with the title  Should state the overall gist of the story  I.e., “Mike Ties his Shoes”  Step 3: Individualize the text  Remember the learning styles, needs, interests, and abilities of the target student  Always use positive statements  Step 4: Teach with the title  Should state the overall gist of the story  I.e., “Mike Ties his Shoes”

20 How to implement a Social Story  Introducing the story  Most important element in implementation  Introduced in a relaxed setting  Using it punitively is not recommended  Reviewing the story  “This is perhaps the most important element in the implementation of a social story.” (Gray, 13-8)  Share joint attention with the child on the story  Have multiple people review the story with the child  Encourages generalization  Introducing the story  Most important element in implementation  Introduced in a relaxed setting  Using it punitively is not recommended  Reviewing the story  “This is perhaps the most important element in the implementation of a social story.” (Gray, 13-8)  Share joint attention with the child on the story  Have multiple people review the story with the child  Encourages generalization

21  Fading the story  “Experience indicates it may not be possible, or advisable, to fade a Social Story from use.” (Gray, pp. 13-9)  Re-write it with systematic omissions  Use partial statements  Review it less frequently  Fading the story  “Experience indicates it may not be possible, or advisable, to fade a Social Story from use.” (Gray, pp. 13-9)  Re-write it with systematic omissions  Use partial statements  Review it less frequently

22 Where does a Social Story lie in the 4-term contingency? (Social Story for sharing a toy) Contextual stimulus S D Response Consequence Play setting Peer asks for toy Student shares Praise Peer present Social Story  NOTE: A Social Story would technically be considered a stimulus prompt, which occurs simultaneously (or in this case, just prior to) the S D (Social Story for sharing a toy) Contextual stimulus S D Response Consequence Play setting Peer asks for toy Student shares Praise Peer present Social Story  NOTE: A Social Story would technically be considered a stimulus prompt, which occurs simultaneously (or in this case, just prior to) the S D

23 Example of a Social Story: Craig works hard in school Hi, my name is Craig. Hi, my name is Craig.

24  I’m a big kid in Dr. Reeve’s PS 572 class at Caldwell College.

25  The students in class think that class is hard.  In class, there is a lot of work.  The students in class think that class is hard.  In class, there is a lot of work.

26  So much work makes me sad. When I get sad about too much work, it’s a good idea to: 1.Stop 2.Take a deep breath 3.Ask for a break  So much work makes me sad. When I get sad about too much work, it’s a good idea to: 1.Stop 2.Take a deep breath 3.Ask for a break

27  Doing my work is important.  Dr. Reeve will be so happy if I do all my work.  Doing my work is important.  Dr. Reeve will be so happy if I do all my work.

28  If I do a good job in class, Dr. Reeve will let me graduate. I can do it! I can graduate from Caldwell College!!!

29 References Gray, C. (2000). The New Social Story Book: Illustrated Edition. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc. Reynhout, G., & Carter, M. (2007). Social Story efficacy with a child with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, Thiemann, K.S., & Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: Effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, Weiss, M.J. (2008, June). Teaching children with autistic spectrum disorders. Presentation given for Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism, Caldwell College. Gray, C. (2000). The New Social Story Book: Illustrated Edition. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc. Reynhout, G., & Carter, M. (2007). Social Story efficacy with a child with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, Thiemann, K.S., & Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: Effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, Weiss, M.J. (2008, June). Teaching children with autistic spectrum disorders. Presentation given for Teaching Language and Social Skills to Children with Autism, Caldwell College.


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