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Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861–1865.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861–1865."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861–1865

2 The Menace of Secession Abraham Lincoln was sworn into office on March 4, 1861 Lincoln’s primary goal was to bring the nation back together Lincoln’s arguments against secession – Division was geographically impossible – How much of national debt should South pay if they left the Union – What would be done about runaway slaves – Division left the nation weak and vulnerable to Europe

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4 South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter Civil War began at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861 Fort was a Northern fort and needed supplies Lincoln sent supplies, but Southerners opened fire on the fort Lincoln wanted South to be the instigator if war broke out Lincoln responded by issuing a “call to arms” and called for 75,000 volunteers He ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports which would remain intact until the war’s end His actions prompted 4 more states to secede

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6 Brothers’ Blood and Border Blood Border States (slave states that hadn’t seceded) were critical to both sides To keep Border States with the North, Lincoln declared martial law (rule by the military) to seize the railroad in Maryland to protect Washington D.C. In an effort to reassure the Border States, Lincoln reaffirmed that his goal was to bring the nation together not end slavery “Five Civilized Tribes” largely fought with the South and the Plains Indians sided with the North Volunteers for both sides came from Tennessee and West Virginia broke away from Virginia to fight on the North’s side

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8 The Balance of Forces Northern Advantages: – Larger population – More industry – More resources – Better banking system – More railroad mileage – Better leader (Abraham Lincoln) – Control of the Navy and Merchant Marines – Better balance between farming and industry – Functioning government

9 Balance of Forces - Continued Northern Disadvantages – Faced hostile people – Southern territory unfamiliar

10 Southern Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages – Strong popular support – Familiar territory – Superior military facilities and leaders Disadvantages – Smaller population – Few factories – Less food production – Fewer railroad miles – Fewer ships – Weak leader (Jefferson Davis) – Belief in state’s rights – Northern blockade made trade with Europe impossible – South’s shortages of supplies was major cause for its loss

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16 Civil War Problems North and South NorthSouth “Peace Democrats” (also called “Copperheads’) favored a truce with the Confederacy Enlistments declined Draft law drew names of men – could buy out of it for $300 – consequently war was being fought by the poor Draft riots took place in New York City in July, 1863 Enlistments declined Draft law drew names of men to serve for 3 years – could hire a substitute Bombing raids caused people to have to leave their homes Blockade caused imported goods to disappear Crops were destroyed, railroads were torn apart Clothing wore out and could not be replaced

17 Northern Aims and Strategies Main aim: Bring southern states back into the Union, ending slavery not major aim at first then changed as the war continued Strategies: The Anaconda Plan – Blockade Southern ports with superior navy to prevent supplies from reaching South and to prevent South from earning money by exporting cotton – Gain control of Mississippi River to cut Southern supply lines and split the Confederacy – Capture Richmond, the Southern capital

18 Southern Aims and Strategies Main aim: win recognition as an independent nation Strategies: – Defend homeland, hold as much territory as possible until North is tired of fighting – Get Britain and France, which imported large amounts of Southern Cotton, to pressure North to end war and recognize Confederate independence – Occasionally take offensive, move troops northward to persuade North it could not win war

19 Dethroning King Cotton Southern “game plan” relied on getting aid from Europe due to their need for Southern cotton Reasons for failure to succeed in their plan: – Many in Europe were against slavery and realized the war might end slavery in the US – Pro-North supporters had been influenced by Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Prior to war, England had bumper crop of cotton and were no long “cotton-needy” – North won support by sending food to Europe during the war – Southern King Cotton was defeated by Northern “King Wheat” and “King Corn

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22 The Decisiveness of Diplomacy South had unofficial, half-way support of England Trent Affair – Northern ship stopped the British ship Trent and forcibly took 2 Southerners – angered England and the South – Lincoln released the men saying “One war at a time” when it appeared that British might retaliate Alabama – Southern ship manned by British captured over sixty Northern vessels

23 Foreign Flare-ups Trouble on US-Canadian border when Canadians struck American cities and sometimes burned them down – small armies usually consisting of Irishmen were formed to strike back In Mexico, Emperor Napoleon III set up puppet government in Mexico City and named Austrian Archduke Maximilian as Mexico’s emperor which went against the Monroe Doctrine After war, the US was prepared to march to Mexico and boot him out but he was executed by a firing squad

24 President Davis Versus President Lincoln Southern government was a confederacy which made it only loosely united and weak President Jefferson Davis was clearly not qualified for the job and was very unpopular Lincoln had problems but was the leader of an established and stable government The problems the US experienced under the Articles of Confederation were repeated in the new Confederate States of America

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26 Limitations on Wartime Liberties Abraham Lincoln took several steps that were clearly against the Constitution and without Congressional approval – Increased the size of the Army – Sent $2 million to 3 private citizens for military purposes – Suspended Habeas Corpus so arrests could be made easily – “monitored” Border State elections so vote would go his way – Declared martial law in Maryland

27 Volunteers and Draftees: North and South The original plan for both the North and South was to only use volunteers When war dragged on and men died, enthusiasm died also Military draft (conscription) started in North and South but both allowed exemptions to be purchased New York City experienced a riot in protest over the draft 90% of the Union soldiers were volunteers South had fewer men and depended on draft Saying was born: “a rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”

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31 The Economic Stresses of War Demand for money led to passage of Morrill Tariff Act which raised tariff to 10% - then went even higher Treasury Department printed “greenback” money which was not adequately backed by gold causing inflation Largest fundraiser was through sales of bonds Creation of National Banking System which established a standardized money system, regulated quantity of money in circulation, and foreshadowed the Federal Reserve System In South, economy was even worse because of the blockade and inflation was out of control

32 The North’s Economic Boom North experienced an economic boom Manufacturers and businessmen made fortunes and created a millionaire class Standardized sizes of clothes were born Mechanical reapers harvested bountiful crops Oil was discovered in Pennsylvania

33 Women’s Roles Women: – Ran farms and businesses – Worked in factories – Became teachers and government workers – Served the military as nurses, messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers and spies Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell – first female doctor Clara Barton – founder of the Red Cross Dorothea Dix elevated nursing to professional level – Sally Tompkins did the same in the South

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36 A Crushed Cotton Kingdom South was beaten down by the war Southern economy was almost completely destroyed Before the war, the South held 30% of the nation’s wealth – afterward it was only 12% Southern wages dropped to 40% of that of Northern wages Although the South lost, they had given the North a strong fight

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