OBJECTIVES t Identify the anatomical differences in pediatrics which impact croup patients. t Review of pediatric assessment t Identify common presentations for croup. t Distinguish croup from Epliglottitis. t Describe the treatment for croup. t Explain the indications for treatment.
ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES t Anatomy is smaller and proportioned differently. t Head proportionately larger on a weak neck. t Obligatory nose breathers. (Infants)
AIRWAY - Pediatric vs. Adult t Narrower at all levels t The mandible is proportionally smaller in young children t The tongue is proportionally larger than adults t Larynx is more anterior and superior than an adults’ (C3- C4)
AIRWAY t Cricoid ring is the narrowest part of the airway in young children t Tracheal cartilage is softer t Trachea is smaller in both length and diameter
A Picture is Worth….. t Small, hypotonic jaw, large tongue, tonsils, adenoids, arytenoids, uvula, long floppy epiglottis. (prone to swelling) t Excessive secretions. (requires suctioning) t Gums are more delicate, bleed easily, softer teeth which dislodge easily
Anatomical Differences t Why is this difficult? t The larynx: –3-3-2 –More anterior. –More superior. thyromental distance –Big teeth or no teeth. –Cone shaped.
t BLS first –Open & maintain a/w –Ensure patency Suction & insert oral &/or nasal a/w –ORAL or NASAL ETT? –Assist/prep for intubation AIRWAY
HUMAN ERROR t Most preventable deaths that happen in the pre-hospital care setting are STILL attributed to poor airway management practices. t It has been found that upwards of 86% of preventable deaths of inhospital patients with airway complications were attributed to human error.
PEDIATRIC REVIEW CHEST AND LUNGS t Ribs are positioned horizontally t Ribs are more pliable and offer less protection to organs t Chest muscles are immature and fatigue easily t Lung tissue is more fragile t Mediastinum is more mobile t Thin chest wall allows for easily transmitted breath sounds
PEDIATRIC REVIEW ABDOMEN t Immature abdominal muscles offer less protection t Abdominal organs are closer together t Liver and spleen are proportionally larger and more vascular
PEDIATRIC REVIEW RESPIRATORY SYSTEM t Tidal volume is proportionally smaller to that of adolescents and adults t Metabolic oxygen requirements of infants and children are about double those of adolescents and adults t Children have proportionally smaller functional residual capacity, and therefore proportionally smaller oxygen reserves
PEDIATRIC REVIEW CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM t Cardiac output is rate dependent in infants and small children t Vigorous but limited cardiovascular reserve t Bradycardia is a response to hypoxia t Children can maintain blood pressure longer than adults t Circulating blood volume is proportionally larger than adults t Absolute blood volume is smaller than adults
WRAP UP! t Smaller chest and respiratory reserve, belly breathers. t Poorly developed accessory and abdominal muscles. ( prone to fatigue / injury) t Poorly developed rib cage. (prone injury) t Excessive air swallowing. (large stomach) t Poor gastric emptying. (vomit) t Immature temperature regulatory system. t Higher metabolic rate requires a higher respiratory and circulatory rate. Conversely they have a much lower blood pressure due to the lack of plaque, arteriosclerosis and muscle development in arteries.
SCENE ASSESSMENT t Observe the scene for hazards or potential hazards t Observe the scene for mechanism of injury/illness –Ingestion Pills, medicine bottles, household chemicals, etc. –Child abuse Injury and history do not coincide, bruises not where they should be for mechanism of injury, etc. –Position patient found
INITIAL ASSESSMENT t General impression –General impression of environment –General impression of parent/guardian and child interaction –General impression of the patient/pediatric assessment triangle A structure for assessing the pediatric patient Focuses on the most valuable information for pediatric patients Used to ascertain if any life-threatening condition exists Components
GCS / LOA t Determine level of consciousness –AVPU scale Alert Responds to verbal stimuli Responds to painful stimuli Unresponsive –Modified Glasgow Coma Scale –Signs of inadequate oxygenation
Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale 0-1 year old >1 year old Score Eye Opening Spontaneous spontaneous4 To shoutTo command3 To painTo pain2 No responseNo response1 VerbalCry, smiles, coosAppropriate words5 CriesDisorientated4 Inappropriate cryCries/screams or inappropriate3 GruntsGrunts or incomprehensible 2 No responseNo response 1 MotorObeys Command6 Localizes painLocalizes pain5 WithdrawsWithdraws 4 FlexionFlexion 3 ExtensionExtension 2 NoneNone 1
AIRWAY AND BREATHING t Airway – determine patency t Breathing should proceed with adequate chest rise and fall. Visualize/Expose chest. t Signs of respiratory distress –Tachypnea –Use of accessory muscles –Nasal flaring –Grunting –Bradypnea –Irregular breathing pattern –Head bobbing –Absent breath sounds –Abnormal breath sounds
CIRCULATION t Pulse –Central –Peripheral –Quality of pulse t Blood pressure –2 x Age + 80 = systolic –2/3 the systolic = diastolic t Skin color t Active hemorrhage
TRANSITION PHASE t Used to allow the infant or child to become familiar with you and your equipment t Use depends on the seriousness of the patient's condition –For the conscious, non-acutely ill child –For the unconscious, acutely ill child do not perform the transition phase but proceed directly to treatment and transport
APPROACH TO PEDIATRICS t Always remember there are 2 patients. t Stay CALM, reassure parents and child. –remain calm but be attentive and willing to act aggressively to reduce morbidity and mortality. t Handle child gently & explain before doing. t Try to examine small children on parents lap when appropriate. t If child or parents are extremis to the point they endanger resuscitation efforts, separate. t Prevent heat stress and preserve Child’s body heat.
PATIENT COMMUNICATION t Try to never be alone with a pediatric patient. t Sit close, eye level, but do not overcrowd. t Use toys to aid your exam. t Demonstrate on parents. t Offer rewards. t Be direct, do not lie!!!!!!! t Parents sometimes feel guilty even if they did nothing wrong.
HISTORY TAKING t Parents of chronically ill children know the disease better than most care givers - ask them. t Ask if child has had a fever / are they hot. t Hx of laboured breathing or excessive drooling. t Lethargy. (A very quiet child is a scary thing) t Blank staring, twitching other bizarre behavior. t Poor appetite, refusal to eat, vomiting or diarrhea recently. t Increase or decrease in wet diapers. t Inconsolable crying / screaming does not recognize parents.
FOCUSED HISTORY– CONTENT t Chief complaint –Nature of illness/injury –How long has the patient been sick/injured –Presence of fever –Effects on behavior –Bowel/urine habits –Vomiting/diarrhea –Frequency of urination t Past medical history –Infant or child under the care of a physician –Chronic illnesses –Medications –Allergies
DETAILED PHYSICAL EXAMINATION t Should proceed from head-to-toe in older children t Should proceed from toe-to-head in younger children (less than 2 years of age) t Depending on the patient’s condition, some or all of the following assessments may be appropriate: –Pupils - Hydration –Capillary refill - Pulse oximetry –ECG monitoring t Is patient hypoglycemic?
ON-GOING ASSESSMENT t Appropriate for all patients t Should be continued throughout the patient care encounter t Purpose is to monitor the patient for changes in: –Respiratory effort –Skin color and temperature –Mental status –Vital signs (including pulse oximetry measurements) t Measurement tools should be appropriate for size of child
RESPIRATORY COMPROMISE t Several conditions manifest chiefly as respiratory distress in children including: –Upper and lower foreign body airway obstruction –Upper airway disease (croup, bacterial tracheitis, and epiglottitis) –Lower airway disease (asthma, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia) t Most cardiac arrests in children are secondary to respiratory insufficiency thus, respiratory emergencies require rapid prehospital assessment and management
CROUP t Laryngotracheobronchitis t Common inflammatory respiratory illness in children –Viral infection of the upper airway t Differentiation between croup and epiglottitis in the prehospital setting may be difficult
Upper Respiratory Distress t CROUP –upper airway infection with “barking” cough. –mild to moderate respiratory distress with predominant stridor. –may be relieved by cold air. (mist) –usually 2 - 7 years of age, Rapid onset. t Epiglottitis DEADLY EMERGENCY!!!!! Rarely have Stridor. (inspiratory when they do) Excessive drooling. Absence of a “barking seal cough.”. Preference for sitting in “sniffing position.” Very “eerie”, quiet & obtunded look. High grade fever.
CROUP PROTOCOL INDICATIONS t Any patient who is <8 years old. t A current Hx of upper respiratory infection. t Barking cough (seal-like) t Stridor at rest and/or t Altered level of consciousness and/or t Cyanosis.
PROCEDURE t Monitor heart rate t Attach cardiac monitor t Assess pulse rate. t Pulse rate must be <200 bpm.
PROCEDURE t Nebulized Epinephrine will not exceed 2 doses.
WHY EPINEPHRINE? t Epi. acts on the subglottic swollen area to vasoconstrict blood vessels and reduce the swelling with the alpha 1 effects. t Salbutamol has no vasoconstrictive effects and only acts on the smooth muscles of the bronchioles with its beta 2 effects.
PROCEDURE t Allow patient to assume position of comfort. t Reassure the patient and parents. t Administer 100% oxygen, via blow-by if needed, while preparing equipment
PROCEDURE t Nebulize Epinephrine 1:1000 based on patients weight and age.
EPINEPHRINE DOSING t <1y/o and <5kg 0.5 mg(0.5 ml) in 2 ml of normal saline. t 5kg 2.5 mg(2.5 ml) 2 ml of normal saline may be added. Age and Weight Dose t >1y/o and <8y/o 5.0 mg (5.0 ml)
REPEAT t Repeat treatment if no improvement is observed. t Max Epinephrine treatments is 2! t No exceptions.
TRANSPORT t ALL PATIENTS MUST BE TRANSPORTED WITHOUT DELAY.
REASSESS - ENROUTE t Reassess every 5 minutes. t Airway t Breathing t Circulation t Vitals t And document it all.