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Paediatric First Aid Course Introduction to your course work book.

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Presentation on theme: "Paediatric First Aid Course Introduction to your course work book."— Presentation transcript:


2 Paediatric First Aid Course

3 Introduction to your course work book

4 House Rules MMMMobile phones switched off TTTToilets BBBBreak times SSSStart and finish times

5 Competence assessment  CPR practical session  Incident training  Certificates

6 Paediatric First Aid  Write down in your own words why you have chosen or asked by your employers to attend this course.  From a personal point of view, what would you like to achieve / learn on the course

7 Course objectives  Identify a range of illnesses and injuries  Treat a range of illnesses and injuries  Manage an unconscious casualty  Manage the airway  Perform effective Cardio pulmonary resuscitation  Manage bleeding

8 What is First Aid? First Aid is the immediate assistance or treatment given to someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the arrival of a ambulance, doctor or other appropriately qualified person

9 First Aid and the Law

10 Acts and Regulations  Health & Safety at Work Act 1974  Health & Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981  Reporting of Injuries, Diseases & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)

11 Risk assessment of First Aid needs To consider  Workplace hazards and risks  Size of the organization  History of accidents  Nature & distribution of work force  Remoteness for medical services  Needs of travelling, lone or remote workers  Working on shared or multi-occupied sites  Annual leave and other absences of First Aiders

12 The Aims of First Aid  Preserve life  Prevent the injury from worsening  Promote recovery

13 Role and Responsibilities First Aider must always  Assess  Danger  Prioritise  Ask  Treat/Transfer

14 Managing casualties Managing casualties

15 Aims and Objectives  Understand how oxygen gets to the vital organs  State the priorities of life  Triage a group of casualties P3

16 Transfer of oxygen Your trainer will now explain how oxygen is transferred around the body P3

17 Multiple casualties  From the following list decide who needs your attention first.  Remember you can only deal with one casualty at a time.  Please give reasons for your answers. P3

18 Who needs you first  Screaming child  Nose bleed  Arterial bleed  Broken leg  Asthma attack  Shock  Quiet child on the floor  Choking  Anaphylactic shock P3

19 Answers  Quiet child on floor  Choking  Anaphylactic shock  Asthma attack  Arterial bleed  Nose bleed  Broken leg  Shock  Screaming child P3

20 Triage BreathingoverBleedingoverBurnsoverBones

21 Aims and objectives  Identify life threatening problems  Perform the primary assessment  Maintain an airway  State which three sets of clues help make up a diagnosis  Perform a secondary assessment  Place a casualty in the recovery position P3

22 Primary Assessment D: Danger R: Response A: Airway B: Breathing C: Circulation P3

23 Aims and Objectives  Perform effective CPR on the adult, child and baby  Deal with problems that may occur during CPR  Manage a range of scenarios P4

24 Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation Adult Child Baby P4

25 Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Danger Response Airway Breathing Compressions P4

26 Child and baby In cases involving children and infants we should attempt one minutes CPR (3 cycles) before leaving the casualty to go and get help P5

27 Unresponsive Shout for help Open airway Not breathing normally Call 999 30 chest compressions 2 rescue breaths 30 compressions Adult P6

28 CPR Adult  30 compressions : 2 inflations  5 - 6cm depth of compression  2 Hands  100 - 120 rate per minute P6

29 Problems during resuscitation  Broken ribs  Casualty vomits  Stomach distension  Not making a good seal P9

30 Hygiene Considerations During Resuscitation P9

31 Tetanus and Lock Jaw What is tetanus?

32 Unresponsive Shout for help Open Airway Not breathing normally 5 rescue breaths 30:2 (x 3 cycles) Call 999 2 Rescue breaths 30 compressions Paediatric CPR P10

33 CPR Child  30 compressions : 2 inflations  3 cycles of 30:2 = 1 minute  At least a 1/3 rd depth of chest  1 hand  100 – 120 rate per minute P10

34 CPR Infant  30 compressions : 2 inflations  3 cycles of 30:2 = 1 minute  At least a 1/3 rd depth of chest  2 fingers  100 – 120 rate per minute P12


36 Assessing casualties Assessing casualties Primary assessment Secondary assessment Recovery position A practical session

37 Secondary Assessment P14

38 Secondary Assessment HistorySignsSymptoms Remember children & babies may not be able to clearly explain how they feel & what has happened P14

39 UnconsciousnessCausesFaintingStroke Heart attack Shock Head injuries HypoxiaPoisoningEpilepsyDiabetes P15

40 The AVPU Code To check response: A Alert V Responds to Voice P Responds to Pain U Unresponsive P15

41 The Recovery Position P15

42 Choking P16

43 Children & babies C auses of airway obstruction  I I I Inhalation of vomit  F F F Foreign object e.g. toy, peanut  S S S Submersion in water  I I I Infection of the lungs or throat  I I I Injuries to the head, neck or chest  C C C Cot death P16

44 Recognition of choking  Often stand up very quickly clutching throat clutching throat  Congested face, veins prominent in face and neck prominent in face and neck  Coughing  Difficulty breathing  May have been eating P16

45 Choking Adult Treatment Assess severity Severe airway obstruction Ineffective cough Unconscious Start CPR Conscious 5 back blows 5 Abdominal thrusts Mild airway obstruction Effective cough Encourage to cough Monitor for deterioration

46 Adult choking  Encourage the casualty to cough  Up to 5 sharp back slaps  Up to 5 abdominal thrusts  Repeat cycle  Unconscious CPR

47 Choking Paediatric Treatment Assess severity Ineffective cough Unconscious Open airway 5 breaths Start CPR Conscious 5 back blows 5 thrusts* Effective cough Continue to check for deterioration to ineffective cough or relief of obstruction * Chest for infants/abdominal for child > 1 P16

48 Child Choking  Encourage to cough  Up to 5 sharp back slaps  Up to 5 abdominal thrusts  Unconscious CPR P16

49 Baby Choking  Up to 5 sharp back slaps  Up to 5 chest thrusts  Unconscious CPR P17

50 Obtaining medical assistance In pairs write a list of information the 999 operator may ask you for

51 Conditions that affect the breathing

52 Causes of breathing problems Make a list of all of the conditions that could affect your casualties breathing Workshop

53 Hypoxia Blockage Suffocation Febrile convulsions Gas/smoke Sickle cell anemia Paralysis Lack of O² Electrical injury Poisoning Carbon monoxide Compression of chest Fits

54 Anaphylactic Shock P19

55 Anaphylactic shock  Major allergic reaction  Bee stings  Peanuts, foods  Drugs P19

56 Anaphylactic shock  Anxiety  Red blotchy skin  Swelling of the face and neck  Puffiness around the eyes  Impaired breathing  A rapid pulse P19

57 Anaphylactic shock Treatment  Calm and reassure  Get help  Help the casualty to sit up if conscious  Recovery position if unconscious  Help them to take their Epipen P19

58 Asthma Where the air passages to the lungs go into spasm causing the lining of the airways to swell. The casualty then finds it difficult to breathe Causes of attack  Pollen / Dust / Cigarette smoke  Allergens such as pet hair  Exercise P20

59 Asthma recognition Difficulty breathing Wheezing Distress and anxiety Difficulty in speaking Grey blue skin Dry, tickly cough May become exhausted P20

60 Asthma treatment  Calm and reassure casualty  Sit them down, leaning forward supported  Plenty of fresh air  Allow him to use medication  If attack is prolonged or medication does not relieve attack, seek medical help P20

61 P22 Conditions that affect the circulation

62 Aims and objectives  List the different types of blood vessel blood vessel  Treat bleeding  Apply a dressing  Identify different types of injury  Recognise and treat various conditions affecting circulation P22

63 Section 7 What sudden illnesses or conditions can affect the circulatory system? P22

64 Shock  What is it?  Causes P22

65 Causes of shock  Severe bleeding  Loss of body fluids  Loss of serum  Severe pain  Acute heart attack  Abdominal emergencies P22

66 Shock Recognition  Pale or grey skin  Cold, clammy skin  Feel faint or giddy  Feels sick or may vomit  Feels thirsty  Anxious or restless  Yawn or gasp for air  Rapid, weak pulse  Shallow, rapid breathing  May lose consciousness P22

67 Shock Treatment  Deal with the injury or cause  Lay casualty down, raise legs if possible  Head low and turned to one side  Loosen tight clothing  Moisten lips if thirsty  Keep casualty warm  Transfer to hospital P22

68 Wounds and bleeding IncisedLacerationPunctureContusionAbrasion

69 ArteriesVeinsCapillaries P22 Blood Vessels

70 Types of bleeding Arterial Severe. Bright red oxygenated blood spurts from wound with each heartbeat Venous Dark red. Blood may escape from the body as quickly as an arterial bleed, may gush profusely Capillary Oozing occurs at the site of all wounds, blood loss is usually slight P22

71 External bleeding  Pale skin with cold clammy skin  Rapid weak pulse  Shallow fast breathing  Feels sick or may vomit  Feels cold and thirsty  Confused/distressed  Obvious injury P23

72 Internal bleeding Recognition CCCCold, clammy skin RRRRapid, weak pulse PPPPain TTTThirst CCCConfusion, restlessness PPPPossible collapse PPPPattern bruising BBBBleeding from orifices P23

73 Treatment of severe bleeding DDDDirect pressure EEEElevate the injury AAAApply a sterile dressing TTTTransfer to hospital P23

74 Treatment for Bleeding Practical Dressings and Bandages P24

75 Hygiene considerations during first aid  Wash your hands  Wear protective gloves  Wash the affected area  Don’t talk or cough  Clean up after

76 Foreign Objects Eyes  Irrigate the eye with eye wash, dress if the object won’t come out Ears & Nose  Do not insert anything into the ear to remove the object, seek medical attention P25

77 Bites and Stings Animal bites and stings can be extremely painful and distressing, bites are susceptible to infection, stings can lead to anaphylactic shock P27

78 Treatment  Seek medical assistance where the child or infant suffers an allergic reaction  Scrape the sting out of the skin using a credit card or similar  Apply a cold compress to relieve pain  Wash bites with soap and water and dress any open injuries P27

79 Poisons A poison is a substance which, if taken into the body in sufficient quantity, may cause temporary or permanent damage P28

80 Workshop In small groups compile a list of things which could poison children and infants. Think carefully about your work place. Think carefully about your work place. P28

81 Poisons How can a poison enter the body? Ingested Inhaled Instilled Injected Absorbed

82 Poisons The affects of poisons CCCCause confusion, fits and unconsciousness BBBBurn lips, mouth and food passages AAAAffect the normal action of the heart CCCCause vomiting & diarrhea DDDDamage blood preventing oxygen reaching the tissues IIIInhaled poisons can cause severe respiratory distress

83 Burns and Scalds P30

84 Burns and Scalds  What sort of things cause burns and scalds?  What could cause a burn to a child or infant in the care environment? P30

85 Burns and Scalds Causes  Friction  Dry  Dry heat  Electric  Electric current  Acids  Acids and alkalis  Intense  Intense cold  Radiation  Scalds  Scalds are caused by moist heat, water, steam P30

86 Classification of Burns Superficial: Redness, swelling, tenderness Partial thickness: rawness of skin and blisters Full thickness: scorching, damage to nerves, fat tissue and muscles P30

87 Treatment of Burns and Scalds  Burns  Scalds  Chemical burns  Chemicals to the eye  And: Foreign objects in the eye P30

88 Medical Attention Must be sought for: FFFFull thickness burns BBBBurns to face, hands, feet or genital area BBBBurns that extend all around a limb PPPPartial thickness burns greater than 1% of body surface = palm of casualties hand P30

89 Electricity P31

90 Electricity in the Workplace Where in the work place could the children and infants in your care receive an electric shock? P31

91 Domestic Voltage Shocks  Isolate the appliance  Once safe D.R.A.B.  If not breathing start CPR  Treat any burns  Monitor and record condition  Recovery position if unconscious P31

92 High Voltage Injuries P31

93 Fractures P32

94 Aims and Objectives  Recognise fractures  Manage the treatment of fractures  Recognise and treat injuries to muscles and joints P32

95 Causes of Fractures  Direct force  Indirect force  Can you think of some examples of incidents or accidents that may cause a fracture to a bone? P32

96 Open Fracture P32 Fractured ends of the bone protrude through the skin

97 Closed Fracture P32 When the skin is not broken

98 Complicated Fracture Leads to further damage and injury to major organs or blood vessels. P32

99 Green Stick Fracture A partial fracture or hairline fracture A partial fracture or hairline fracture where the bone does not break in two where the bone does not break in two are quite common in children and infants where bones are still quite flexible are quite common in children and infants where bones are still quite flexible P32

100 Fractures Recognition features CCCCasualty may hear the bone snap PPPPain TTTTenderness SSSSwelling, bruising LLLLoss of power GGGGrating sound on movement DDDDeformity

101 Practical Treatment of Fractures  A practical session  Collarbone  Upper arm  Lower arm / wrist  Hand / fingers  Thigh  Lower leg / ankle P32

102 Bones, Muscles and Joints Provides support, protects vital organs and allows movement

103 Sprains, Strains & Dislocations SSSSprain is an injury to a ligament at a joint SSSStrain is an injury to a muscle or tendon DDDDislocation is the dislodging of a bone head at a ball and socket joint P33

104 Treatment  R est  I ce  C omfortable Position  E levation P33

105 Disorders of the Brain P34

106 Aims and Objectives  Identify the various levels of consciousness  Recognise a range of head injuries and describe the treatment for them  Recognise and manage epilepsy P34

107 The AVPU Code To check response: A Alert V Responds to Voice P Responds to Pain U Unresponsive

108 Concussion History of blow to the head Brief or partial loss of consciousness Dizziness or nausea Loss of memory Mild headache Monitor and sent to hospital P34

109 Compression  May be disorientated, confused, unconscious or weeping  Progressive loss of consciousness  Strong pulse  Weakness or paralysis of mouth, face and one side of the body  Flushed face with hot, dry skin  Pupils unevenly dilated

110 Treatment  Monitor and record levels of response  Calm and reassure  Ensure privacy  Carry out the general management and treatment for unconsciousness  Arrange for urgent transfer to hospital P34

111 Skull fracture P34

112 Skull fracture Could lead to compression  A wound or bruise to the head  A soft area or depression of the scalp  Deterioration in level of response  Clear fluid or watery blood coming form the nose or ears  Blood in white of the eye  Distortion of the face or head  Monitor & seek medical attention P34

113 Treatment  Monitor and record levels of response  Calm and reassure  Ensure privacy  Carry out the general management and treatment for unconsciousness  Arrange for urgent transfer to hospital P34

114 Observation of head injuries  Eyes  Skin  Breathing  Consciousness  Pulse P35

115 The Spinal Column Spinal injuries are rare in children and infants but we should still have an awareness of the recognition features P36

116 Spinal Injuries Recognition features Damage to spinal bones: PPPPain at injury site SSSStep or twist in spine TTTTenderness Damage to the cord: LLLLoss of control or one or more limbs AAAAbnormal sensations, tingling DDDDisorientation or bewilderment DDDDifficulty in breathing P36

117 How should we manage a suspected spinal injury? P36

118 Spine Cord Injury Management skills  Management using two people  Head tilt and chin lift P36

119 DDDDiabetes AAAAffects of heat and cold PPPPoisoning FFFForeign bodies EEEElectrical injuries BBBBites and stings FFFFebrile convulsions SSSSickle cell MMMMeningitis P37 Other Medical Conditions

120 Aims and Objectives  Recognise a range of injuries  Manage a range of illnesses  Treat a range of injuries P37

121 Sickle Cell Anaemia  A serious condition where the red blood cells become sickle shaped instead of the normal doughnut shape. This prevents oxygen moving around the body causes severe pain and organ damage.  Is common in families from Africa, Caribbean, eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and Asia. P37

122 Sickle Cell Anaemia Recognition features:  Severe abdominal pain Treatment:  Keep the child comfortable and transport to hospital P37

123 Meningitis  Viral and aseptic meningitis are both relatively mild.  Bacterial meningitis is far more serious.  Infection attacks the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. P38

124 Meningitis Caused by a viral or bacterial infection, this can be spread by discharge from the nose and throat of the infected person P38

125 Recognition Features  Newborns and infants  Inactivity  Irritability  Vomiting  Poor feeding and high pitched cry  Fever, headache and neck stiffness P38

126 Recognition Features Over two years old  High fever (101 – 106f or 38.3 – 41.1c)  Headache, stiff neck developing between 1 – 2 days  Nausea, vomiting  Back pain, fuzziness  Red or purple skin rash  Loss of appetite P38

127 Treatment Seek urgent medical assistance Be aware not all sufferers develop all the recognition features P38

128 Diabetes This condition is caused when the body can no longer regulate the levels of sugar in the blood The pancreas fails to produce the hormone insulin HypoglycaemiaHyperglycaemia P39

129 Diabetes Recognition of Hypoglycemia  Pallor of skin  Profuse sweating  Casualties pulse is rapid  Breathing is shallow  Limbs may tremble  Confused or abnormally aggressive, can be mistaken for someone who is drunk  Faintness or unconsciousness P39

130 Treatment of Hypoglycemia Conscious casualty:  Give a sweetened drink with 2 or tablespoons of sugar, or other sweet substance of sugar, or other sweet substance  If the casualty improves dramatically ensure he gets more sugar, as the problem was an he gets more sugar, as the problem was an excess of insulin excess of insulin Unconscious casualty:  Place into recovery position  Ensure open airway  Sent to hospital P39

131 Diabetes Recognition of Hyperglycemia  Hot red face  Dry skin  Acetone smell on the breath  May be wearing a medic alert bracelet  May be carrying a testing kit  Confused or abnormally aggressive, can be mistaken for someone who is drunk  Faintness or unconsciousness P39

132 Diabetes Treatment of Hyperglycemia  Calm and reassure  Loosen tight clothing  Advise to seek medical assistance  Place into recovery position if unconscious P39

133 Major epilepsy Disturbance in the normal electrical activity of the brain  May have an “Aura” or warning period  Sudden loss of consciousness, falls to the floor and becomes rigid  Flushed or livid face and neck  Commences convulsions, may lose control of bladder or bowel  Relaxes and becomes unconscious  Recovers after a few minutes P40

134 Treatment  Try to support or ease the fall of the casualty, lay him down  Clear the space around the casualty  Loosen tight clothing, put something soft under the head  DO NOT move, restrain, try to wake or put anything in the casualties mouth  When convulsion has finished place into the recovery position, check for other injuries  Advise casualty to see a doctor P40

135 Effects of heat and cold Heat exhaustion Caused by a loss of salt and water from excessive sweating Hypothermia Body temperature falls below 35C Heat stroke A failure of the “thermostat” in the brain causes this condition P41

136 Febrile Convulsions Associated with high temperature caused by ear, nose and throat infections. Occasionally seen after MMR vaccination P42

137 Febrile Convulsions  Unconsciousness  Violent muscle spasms  Fever, hot flushed skin  Breath holding, red “puffy” face and neck  Convulsions lasting no more than four minutes P42

138 Febrile Convulsions  Prevent injury by padding around the body during seizure  Supply cool fresh air  Sponge the skin with tepid water to assist cooling  Maintain airway, place into the recovery position P42

139 How to recognise Heat Exhaustion  May have a head ache  Be profusely sweating or has stopped sweating  Be hot to the touch  Become pale with cold clammy skin  Suffer from cramp  Become confused P43

140 Treatment for Heat Exhaustion  Move the casualty to a cool place  Allow to sip cool water  Arrange for medical assistance if they don’t recover quickly P43

141 Heat stroke Keep the casualty comfortable and send to hospital urgently P43

142 Hypothermia Hypothermia is where the body's core temperature drops below 35c P44

143 How to recognise Hypothermia  May have very cold skin which feels like marble  Have white skin and blue extremities  Be shivering uncontrollably  Have slow breathing  Have a slow pulse  Become confused and very slow to react P44

144 Infants with Hypothermia Infants may not shiver and as such cannot warm themselves in this way P44

145 The Aftermath  Report to the HSE  Record in the accident book  Replenish first aid supplies P47

146 Accident details  Name of casualty  Home address  Name of person writing the report  When the accident happened  Where the accident happened  What happened  Treatment given  Method of disposal P47

147 First Aid containers Workshop P48

148 First Aid Containers Think about the type of injuries and illnesses you see in your workplace. Think about the type of injuries and illnesses you see in your workplace. What do you need in your first aid kit? What do you need in your first aid kit? P48

149 First Aid Containers Contents  Disposable gloves  Guidance card  20 individually wrapped sterile dressings  2 sterile eye pads  4 individually wrapped triangular bandages  6 safety pins  6 medium sized individually wrapped sterile dressings  2 large sized individually wrapped sterile dressings P48

150 Question and Answer Session

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