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Risk Communication: Overview, Background, Typology, Stories, and Exercises 2nd workshop on development of platform of public health event information communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Risk Communication: Overview, Background, Typology, Stories, and Exercises 2nd workshop on development of platform of public health event information communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Risk Communication: Overview, Background, Typology, Stories, and Exercises 2nd workshop on development of platform of public health event information communication strategy among Health Departments in Guangdong Province, Hong Kong and Macao and risk communication capacity building Dongguan, Guangdong, China August 28-31, 2010 Jody Lanard M.D. The Peter Sandman Risk Communication Website

2 Risk Communication Slides from Jody Lanard Please feel free to copy and share these slides with others in your agency, or with other agencies. Please feel VERY free to adapt the slides for training purposes, adding a note “Adapted by [your name or agency] from slides by Jody Lanard.” Please delete any slides you do not wish to use. Please add any examples or other material, with a note stating the author of the slide.

3 O verview of Presentation – August 28 (Day 1) 1. Quick survey 2. Some outbreak communication stories 3. Introduction to risk communication 4.How normal people perceive risk. 5.Introduction to the three main kinds of risk communication

4 O verview of Presentation – August (Days 2 and 3) 1.Review and exercise: What kind of risk communication do you need when… 2.Crisis communication: How bad is it? How sure are you? Exercise: early bad news, very uncertain. Dealing with emotions in crisis Exercise: the situation gets worse. Involving the public Acknowledging errors and misimpressions 3.Barriers to doing “good risk communication” -- discussion 4.Evaluating your risk communication

5 A quick survey about your job! A quick survey about your job! 1.Do you see yourself as mostly a technical person in your work? (doctor, nurse, lab, public health ) 2.Do you see yourself as mostly a policy person or administrator? 3. Do you see yourself as mostly a communication person in your work? 4. If you are mostly a communication person, did you start out as a technical person? 5. Do you have a job that is not technical, and not related to communication, and not policy? 5

6 A quick survey about trust A quick survey about trust 1. How much trust and confidence do citizens have in your health agency? High? Medium? Low? 2. How much trust and confidence do you have in your citizens? High? Medium? Low? 6

7 Some true Outbreak Communication stories 7

8 Good example: China apologizes to Mexico for not giving advance warning about H1N1 containment plans. 8 CANCUN, Mexico (AFP) — China's Health Minister Chen Zhu Friday apologized to his Mexican counterpart for failing to warn him about the tough measures Beijing imposed on Mexicans to combat swine flu. "I regret that I did not talk first” [to the Mexican health minister]. (AFP, July )

9 But a couple days later, under government pressure, mining officials admitted on television that company failures were to blame as well. A company letter stated: "The Company was overconfident, had a lack of crisis awareness and didn't properly handle the balance between economic efficiency, ecological benefit and public interest.” [Quote and photo from July 20, 2010, Wall Street Journal Last month, wastewater from a copper processing plant in Fujian province leaked into a river. At first, the plant owner, Zijin Mining Group, blamed heavy rains. Good example: Quick acknowledgement of blame

10 Similar good example during SARS: WHO apologizes to Canada for (apparently) not giving advance warning about the travel advisory against unnecessary travel to Toronto. 10 “There was a breakdown in communications... there was some kind of mistake, that [the Canadian officials’ didn’t receive the message about the travel advisory]… And I think we’re ready to accept some blame here.” --WHO communication officer, April WHO communication officer, April 2003

11 Not such a good example: Failing to apologize. Very early in the pandemic, a western country with many cases of swine flu decided not to impose EXIT screening. Other countries demanded that the seriously- affected country screen airline passengers who were flying to their countries. The western country refused, and did not publicly explain its decision, and did not apologize for this lack of communication. 11

12 Excerpt from the pandemic plan of the country which refused to explain why it decided not to impose exit screening: “If a pandemic begins in or spreads to [our country], health authorities might screen outbound passengers to decrease exportation of disease. Early in a pandemic, [our country] might also implement domestic travel-related measures to slow disease spread within [our country.]” 12

13 Bad example from early days of an unknown outbreak in Africa in 2007: Bad example from early days of an unknown outbreak in Africa in 2007: “Don't panic, it isn't Ebola, it is probably just plague, but the lab results aren't definite yet, and the situation is under control.” “Don't panic, it isn't Ebola, it is probably just plague, but the lab results aren't definite yet, and the situation is under control.” (…It DID turn out to be Ebola.) 13

14 Good example from early in an African outbreak which later turned out to be a new strain of Ebola: Describing a mysterious fever in Uganda, Health Ministry official Sam Okware said it was deadly, but not hemorrhagic. “We’re investigating but we really don’t know what it is. We tested for Marburg, thank God it was negative. It is most likely a virus, but we haven’t identified it... It is not at all contained.” -- New York Times, November,

15 "From the beginning we've been isolating cases... But we can't say it's contained. There may be other people in those villages unknown to us." --November Good example from later in the same outbreak: Doctor Sam Okware announces that the mysterious and deadly outbreak has been identified as a new strain of Ebola.

16 “Don’t panic” stories Typical over-reassuring statements by officials, at the start of outbreaks 16

17 Don’t Panic! Bermuda, first pandemic H1N1 case: “The spokesman further said there was no reason to panic or take any extra precautions as the boy has left the Island with his family.” “The spokesman further said there was no reason to panic or take any extra precautions as the boy has left the Island with his family.” 17

18 Don’t Panic! Early India headline: Fully prepared to face A(H1N1) challenge: Health Minister Azad Fully prepared to face A(H1N1) challenge: Health Minister Azad “We want to reassure the people that there is no need for panic. The disease is fully curable and we have enough stock of medicines.” “We want to reassure the people that there is no need for panic. The disease is fully curable and we have enough stock of medicines.” 18

19 Don’t Panic! Thailand: The health minister told the people not to panic as there was no domestic pandemic of the virus and that all of the patients had contracted the swine flu from abroad. The health minister told the people not to panic as there was no domestic pandemic of the virus and that all of the patients had contracted the swine flu from abroad. 19

20 Don’t Panic! An Asian country, announcing the end of “containment” efforts: The Health Minister predicted that there would eventually be a large-scale outbreak. “This is something we already knew and are already prepared for, so there is no need to panic.” The Health Minister predicted that there would eventually be a large-scale outbreak. “This is something we already knew and are already prepared for, so there is no need to panic.” 20

21 Don’t Panic! Brunei: The Brunei Minister of Health said there is no need for the nation to panic as Brunei remains unaffected. 21

22 Don’t Panic! Brunei, a couple weeks later… Brunei, a couple weeks later… The Health Minister said there is no cause to panic now that Brunei has recorded its first H1N1 case in the country. 22

23 Don’t Panic! India’s Health Minister, June : “There is absolutely no need for people to panic as the virus is a 100 per cent curable.” “There is absolutely no need for people to panic as the virus is a 100 per cent curable.” 23

24 Don’t Panic! New Zealand’s Health Minister: There is no cause for alarm because we are seeing what was to be expected; that is that some people would have very severe illness and some would die. There is no cause for alarm because we are seeing what was to be expected; that is that some people would have very severe illness and some would die. 24

25 To the public, "There is no need to panic“ implies at least four things: 1."The officials think or know that people are close to panicking. Things must be pretty bad.“ This increases public alarm. 25

26 . 2. "The officials think we're about to panic. How insulting." This decreases respect for officials. 26

27 . 3. The officials are close to panicking themselves." This increases public alarm. 27

28 . 4. "Sometimes there must indeed be a need to panic." 28

29 Three degrees of “Don’t Panic” 1. Don’t panic. 29

30 Three degrees of “Don’t Panic” 1.Don’t panic. 2.Don’t panic yet. 30

31 Three degrees of “Don’t Panic” 1.Don’t panic. 2.Don’t panic yet. 3.Don’t panic yet because… 31

32 “The situation is under control” examples Officials often have an irresistible urge to say this at the very start of an outbreak! We will discuss this urge to over-reassure – and strategies to resist that urge -- when we talk about: Crisis Communication: How Bad Is It? How Sure Are You?” How Sure Are You?” 32

33 The situation is under control: a bird flu example Turkey’s first announcement of an outbreak: "Bird flu is totally under control....The outbreak... occurred in one area and has been contained. " --Turkish official, October 13, 2005

34 Back to the pandemic: Announcing South Africa’s second case of pandemic influenza H1N1, June , the MOH spokesperson said: “the Government could assure that all systems were in place to respond appropriately to every suspected or confirmed case.” 34

35 Still under control … Headline: “Swine flu under control” (South Africa, June ) Swine flu is under control, [the Health Minister] said on Tuesday after reports of three more cases of the virus in South Africa. “Fortunately it is not virulent but just spreading widely. However, I must state that it is under control."

36 Good example: Trusting the public to bear bad news: First announcement that the Mexico outbreak is indeed Swine Flu, April “Before I talk about the cases and specific actions, I want to recognize some initial guiding concepts. First I want to recognize that people are concerned about this situation. “Before I talk about the cases and specific actions, I want to recognize some initial guiding concepts. First I want to recognize that people are concerned about this situation. “We hear from the public and from others about their concern, and we are worried, as well. Our concern has grown since yesterday in light of what we’ve learned since then.” -- Dr. Richard Besser, acting director, U.S. CDC 36

37 ; “I want to acknowledge the importance of uncertainty. At the early stages of an outbreak, there’s much uncertainty, and probably more than everyone would like. “Our guidelines and advice our likely to be interim and fluid, subject to change as we learn more. We’re moving quickly to learn as much as possible and working with many local state and international partners to do so.” -- Dr. Richard Besser, acting director, U.S. CDC 37

38 How does “telling people what to expect” sound, when it is done well? From New Zealand: New ZealandNew Zealand “The way the virus has spread in Australia is what we’re likely to see here – the numbers will increase and at some stage we will have community spread. 38

39 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines – final: TrustTrust Announcing earlyAnnouncing early TransparencyTransparency [Involving] The public[Involving] The public PlanningPlanning

40 Introduction to risk communication. 40

41 “Why are people afraid of the wrong risks?” Some risk communication history The 0.2 correlation between whether a risk is dangerous and whether it frightens (or angers) people “Risk” is defined in two completely different ways by experts and by everyone else!

42 Risk: a traditional definition 风险 = 强度 x 概率 The multiplication of Magnitude x Probability. How likely to happen? How bad if it happens?

43 Risk Perception: How normal people perceive risks

44 Peter Sandman 描述的 12 个 “ 愤怒情绪因素 ” 来自 Paul Slovic 的风险心理测试模型 (Handouts include this next chart.) 44

45 Outrage (and fear) Factors How normal people assess most hazards “safe”“risky” NaturalIndustrial VoluntaryInvoluntary Controlled by selfControlled by others Trustworthy sourcesUntrustworthy sources Responsive processUnresponsive process FamiliarUnfamiliar Not memorableMemorable No moral relevanceMoral relevance Not dreadedDreaded ChronicCatastrophic Peter Sandman 1987, 2006 (Based on the risk perception work of Paul Slovic)©

46 A new definition of risk: Risk 风险 Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman

47 A new definition of risk: Risk 风险 Hazard 危险 Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman

48 A new definition of risk: Risk 风险 Hazard 危险 Outrage 愤怒 Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman

49 A new “definition” of risk: 风险 = 危险 + 愤怒 (Peter Sandman 的公式 ) ( 愤怒 : 愤怒, 担心、, 恐惧和悲痛 ) Risk = Hazard + Outrage (Peter Sandman’s formula!) Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman

50 For technical people: Risk = f( H, O ) Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman * 注意:对专业人士而言, R = f(H,0) * 注意:对专业人士而言, R = f(H,0) (" 风险是危险和愤怒情绪的函数 )

51 A new “definition” of risk: Risk = Hazard + Outrage 风险 = 危险 + 愤怒 Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman

52 Causality goes both ways, but -- Outrage Hazard Perception 愤怒 危险风险认知

53 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE Copyright 2003 Peter Sandman 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

54 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman PUBLIC RELATIONS HEALTH & SAFETY EDUCATION ACTIVISM Four kinds of risk communication 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

55 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman “Precaution Advocacy” 预防措施倡导 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

56 危险 HAZARD Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman “Precaution Advocacy” 预防措施倡导.. O U T R A G E Or F E A R 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

57 57 “ 小心 !” “Watch out!”

58 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGE MANAGEMENT 愤怒管理 Precaution Advocacy 预防措施倡导 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman O U T R A G E Or F E A R 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

59 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGE MANAGEMENT 愤怒情绪 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman O U T R A G E Or F E A R 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

60 危险 HAZARD O or U T F R E A G R E OUTRAGE MANAGEMENT 愤怒情绪 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒.

61 61 卡特里娜飓风后 新奥尔良被水淹没防洪堤的失败应当归咎与谁?

62 62 为在地震中倒塌的学校找到可指责的人: Looking for someone to blame about the schools that collapsed in the earthquake:

63 Pandemic outrage at different times Spending too much money ? Accusing WHO of a “Fake Pandemic?” Accusing governments of over-reacting? Accusing governments of under-preparing? Accusing governments of hiding information? Accusing governments of using “untested” vaccine? And much more! 63

64 For many of our online articles and handouts on Outrage Management See the Outrage Management Index of our website at:

65 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE OUTRAGE MANAGEMENT 愤怒情绪 Precaution Advocacy 预防措施倡导 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman.l 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

66 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE OUTRAGE MANAGEMENT 愤怒情绪 Precaution Advocacy 预防措施倡导 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman Two Arrows 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

67 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE CRISIS COMMUNICATION 危机沟通 OUTRAGE or FEAR MANAGEMENT 愤怒情绪 Precaution Advocacy 预防措施倡导 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman “ 我们共同度过难关.” 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

68 危险 HAZARD OUTRAGEOUTRAGE Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman Crisis Communication 危机沟通 Get through this together “We’ll get through this together” “ 我们共同度过难关.” 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

69 For many of our online articles and handouts on Crisis Communication See the Crisis Communication Index of our website at:

70 . Outrage or Fear 危险 Hazard Peter Sandman ©. 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒

71 3 Risk Communication Paradigms 1. Watch out!! 小心! (precaution advocacy) ( 预防措施倡导 ) Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

72 Risk Communication Paradigms 1. Watch out!! 小心! (precaution advocacy) ( 预防措施倡导 ) 2. Calm down!! 冷静下来! (outrage and fear management) ( 愤怒管理 ) Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

73 Risk Communication Paradigms 1. Watch out!! 小心! (precaution advocacy) ( 预防措施倡导 ) (precaution advocacy) ( 预防措施倡导 ) 2. Calm down!! 冷静下来! (outrage and fear management) ( 愤怒管理 ) 3. We’ll get through this together. 我们共同度过难关. (crisis communication) ( 危机沟通 ) (crisis communication) ( 危机沟通 ) Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

74 What “risk communication” is not: “Educating the public” “Educating the public” One-way communication One-way communication Talking to people who have no Talking to people who have no pre-existing views pre-existing views Information you give out after you Information you give out after you have made all your plans. have made all your plans. Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

75 第一个练习:小测验(两人一组较快完成) First Exercise: Quiz (work quickly in groups of two): 在以下情况中,需要哪种风险沟通?为什么?可以提 供不止一个答案。 在以下情况中,需要哪种风险沟通?为什么?可以提 供不止一个答案。 ( 预防措施倡导, 危机沟通, 愤怒情绪 ?) ( 预防措施倡导, 危机沟通, 愤怒情绪 ?) What type of risk communication is needed in the following situations? Why? You may give more than one answer.What type of risk communication is needed in the following situations? Why? You may give more than one answer.

76 Quiz: What kind of risk communication should you do? Evacuating a coastal village when a typhoon is about to come ashore.Evacuating a coastal village when a typhoon is about to come ashore. Hint: At least two kinds of risk communication may be needed!Hint: At least two kinds of risk communication may be needed!

77 危险 危机沟通 愤怒情绪 预防措施倡导 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒 Evacuating a coastal village ???

78 Quiz: What kind of risk communication should you do? After published rumors that there is a large watery diarrhea outbreak: After published rumors that there is a large watery diarrhea outbreak: Reporting that the Ministry has known for several days that some of the diarrhea patients tested positive for cholera.

79 危险 危机沟通 愤怒情绪 预防措施倡导 Copyright  2003 Peter Sandman 愤怒愤怒愤怒愤怒 Admitting that the watery diarrhea outbreak is really cholera – and that the government knew several days ago. ???

80 Second exercise: Write down some of your big and small concerns about health-related problems that might happen during Expo.Write down some of your big and small concerns about health-related problems that might happen during Expo. Then write down which kind of risk communication might be necessary to communicate about each problem.Then write down which kind of risk communication might be necessary to communicate about each problem. 80

81 81. 危机沟通一:情况有多严重?你有多大把握? 1. 不要过分地安慰人心。 How bad is it? How sure are you? 1. Don’t over-reassure

82 1 . 1 . Don’t over-reassure When people are unsure or ambivalent about how worried they should be, they often become (paradoxically) more alarmed when officials seem too reassuring. This can lead to anger and skepticism as well, and to loss of essential credibility if the truth turns out more serious than predicted. A potential crisis is a classic high-magnitude low-probability risk; if you keep assuring people how unlikely it is, they tend to focus all the more on how awful it would be. 82

83 9/11 dust chasing people

84 俯瞰 911 袭击尘埃云

85 Christie Todd is pleased Bad example: Premature overconfident over-reassurance: "I am glad to reassure the people of New York and Washington, D.C. that their air is safe to breath and their water is safe to drink." – U.S.Environmental Protection Agency Director Whitman, September 18, 2001

86 Blasting Christie Todd Whitman Reaction to bad example: Judge Blasts Ex-EPA Chief For “for reassuring Manhattan residents that the environment was safe to return to homes and offices while toxic dust was polluting the neighborhood.” -- NBC News, February 2006

87 Normal view of U.S. at night, from outer space

88 Blackout PhotoBlackout PhotoBlackout PhotoBlackout Photo

89 9 New York Blackout, 2003 “Is it terrorism?” “The first radio reports reassured everyone that it was not an act of terrorism.” “The first radio reports reassured everyone that it was not an act of terrorism.” -- Leah Singer, blogger “People are a little scared and seem on edge. I don't hear the word terrorism, but the air is thick with the thought.” -- Jason Kottke, blogger

90 Bloomberg example don’t over-reassure Bad example: (premature reassurance) Mayor Bloomberg, early in the NY blackout of 2003 “I can tell you 100 percent sure that there is no evidence as of this moment whatsoever of any terrorism.” NY Mayor Michael Bloomberg talking to CNN anchor Kyra Phillips, 7:41 p.m., August 14, 2003

91 Quiz: What words “protect” him if he turns out wrong?What words “protect” him if he turns out wrong? Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

92 Answer: “…as of this moment…”

93 What words did CNN run as a caption, while the Mayor spoke? “???????”

94 e For about ten minutes, CNN ran the words: “100% sure”

95 See Saw

96 96. 危机沟通一:情况有多严重?你有多大把握? 2. 把安慰人心的信息放在从句中。 (I think the translation of 2 is not quite right! It is very difficult.) How bad is it? How sure are you? 2. Give reassuring information if you have it – but end on a note of caution. “Even though…”

97 2 . 2 . Put reassuring information in subordinate clauses. When giving reassuring information to frightened or ambivalent people, it is helpful to de-emphasize the fact that it is reassuring. “Even though we haven’t seen a new case in18 days, it is too soon to say we’re out of the woods yet.” This is particularly important when the news is good so far, but there may be bad news coming. Practice converting one- sided reassurances into two-sided good-news bad- news combinations until the technique comes naturally. 97

98 Good example: Singapore “subordinates” the good news “The WHO said the [SARS] peak is over in Singapore, but our minister has said it is too early to tell." Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

99 See Saw

100 Good example: U.S. CDC Director Julie Gerberding “subordinates” the good news When asked if there was community transmission of SARS, Dr. Gerberding said: When asked if there was community transmission of SARS, Dr. Gerberding said: "Even though there is no sign of community spread, we are continuing intense surveillance and we're not out of the woods yet." "Even though there is no sign of community spread, we are continuing intense surveillance and we're not out of the woods yet."

101 Good example: U.S. CDC Director Julie Gerberding “subordinates” the good news When asked if SARS could possibly be due to terrorism, Dr. Gerberding said: When asked if SARS could possibly be due to terrorism, Dr. Gerberding said: “Although this virus appears to be of entirely natural origin, we are being vigilant about all possibilities." “Although this virus appears to be of entirely natural origin, we are being vigilant about all possibilities."

102 One day, when there was very little important SARS news … Copyright 2006 Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard

103 Photo from: “Is SARS From Outer Space?” –CNN headline, May 23, 2003

104 Good example: U.S. CDC Director Julie Gerberding “subordinates” the good news "Even though there is no evidence that SARS comes from outer space, we're keeping an open mind.” -- Dr. Julie Gerberding, U.S. CDC copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

105 3.Err on the alarming side 要错就错在轻事重报。 How bad is it? How sure are you? 危机沟通一:情况有多严重?你有多大把握? Err Alarming Side copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

106 4. Acknowledge uncertainty. 4. 承认不确定性: 情况有多严重?你有多大把握? How bad is it? How sure are you? Uncertainty

107 5. Share dilemmas. 5. 与人分享两难困境。 情况有多严重?你有多大把握? How bad is it? How sure are you? copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

108 6. Acknowledge opinion diversity 6. 承认有不同的意见。 情况有多严重?你有多大把握? How bad is it? How sure are you? copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

109 SARS in Singapore: To close the schools? Or not? In the middle of the SARS crisis, the Singapore government told the public about internal disagreements about whether to close the schools…

110 7.Be willing to speculate. 7. 勇于做推测。 情况有多严重?你有多大把握? How bad is it? How sure are you? Share Dilemmas copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

111 China Daily, December 12, 2007: The possibilities of regional bird flu outbreaks were "very high" in the winter and coming spring, said Vice Minister of Agriculture Yin Chengjie on Monday. The possibilities of regional bird flu outbreaks were "very high" in the winter and coming spring, said Vice Minister of Agriculture Yin Chengjie on Monday. VERY GOOD EXAMPLE OF: --DON'T OVER-REASSURE --DON'T OVER-REASSURE --TELL PEOPLE WHAT TO EXPECT --TELL PEOPLE WHAT TO EXPECT --SPECULATE RESPONSIBLY --SPECULATE RESPONSIBLY --AIM FOR CANDOR --AIM FOR CANDOR

112 8.Don't overdiagnose or overplan for panic. 8. 不要对恐慌做出过度的诊断或过分的计划。 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis

113 9. Don't aim for zero fear. 9. 不要指望零恐惧。 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis Zero Fear copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

114 不要忘记除恐惧以外还有其他的 情绪反应。 10. 不要忘记除恐惧以外还有其他的 情绪反应。 10. Don’t forget other emotions in addition to fear. Don’t forget other emotions copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis

115 1. Fear 2. Empathy/Misery 3. Anger 4. Hurt 5. Guilt 6. Resilience! Emotional Responses to Crisis copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

116 11.Don't ridicule the public's emotions. 11. 不要嘲笑公众的情绪。 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

117 12. Legitimize people’s fears (and anger) 12. 认为人们的恐惧情绪是正当的。 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

118 Good example: Singapore Prime Minister Goh validates SARS fear "For me, the most appropriate coinage for SARS was 'Singaporeans Are Really Scared'. Yes, we were really scared. Scared for our lives and our loved ones. Scared of taking a taxi, scared of going to the hospital. Scared that tourists and customers would not return, and we might lose our jobs. “For the first time in our history, all Singaporeans felt the same fear at the same time. But far from being frozen by the fear, the entire nation sprang into action."

119 13. 容忍事件早期公众的过度反应。 13. Tolerate early over-reactions. 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

120 13. 容忍事件早期公众的过度反应。 一开始人们接受新的危险时采取的一种主要方式是 “ 过度 反应 ” 。我们不再做那些突然间显得危险的事情;我们 对一些消息变得高度警觉甚至对街上的陌生人也提高 了警惕;我们按个人的理解来应对这些风险,过早地 采取不必要的防范措施。心理学家称之为 “ 适应反应 ” 。 从情感上和逻辑上,这是一种很有用的预演形式 — 官 员们如果处理得当,可以把它当作一个可教学的机会 。人们很快就会平稳下来,进入新的正常状态。 copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

121 Adjustment Reactions the Teachable Moment in crisis communications! You can harness and channel it, Or you can waste the opportunity! copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

122 容忍事件早期公众的过度反应。 Use the “Teachable Moment” Fear ? copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

123 14. Show your own humanity 14. 表现出你自己人性的一面。 处理危机的情绪反应 Coping with the emotional side of the crisis copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

124 15. Tell people what to expect. “Anticipatory guidance” – telling people what to expect – does raise some anxiety, especially if you’re predicting bad news. But being forewarned helps us cope, it keeps us from feeling blindsided or misled, and it reduces the dispiriting impact of sudden negative events. Warning people to expect uncertainty and possible error is especially useful. So is warning people about their own likely future reactions, particularly the ones they may want to overrule: “You’ll probably feel like stopping the medicine before it’s all gone.” 124

125 Be explicit about changes in official opinion, prediction, and policy. In emerging crises, authorities are likely to learn things that justify changes in official opinions, predictions, or policies. With a new disease, for example, there are bound to be changes in the recommended precautions and the treatment protocol. Announcing the new doctrine without reminding the public that it deviates from the old, though tempting, slows learning and fosters confusion or even suspicion. 125

126 Convert “typical” risk communication into “good” risk communication. Work in groups of two. 126 Third exercise:

127 Exercise: Convert “typical” risk communication into “good” risk communication. Work in groups of two. Goal: Re-write statement of official, to practice using good risk communication strategies. Exercise: Convert “typical” risk communication into “good” risk communication. Work in groups of two. Goal: Re-write statement of official, to practice using good risk communication strategies.. When a mysterious respiratory disease was spreading in Hong Kong hospitals in 2003, Health Secretary E.K. Yeow said: n “Hong Kong is absolutely safe, and no different from any other big city in the world. Hong Kong does not have an outbreak, okay?” 127

128 Premier Wen has often been a good example. 11. 不要嘲笑公众的情绪。 12. 认为人们的恐惧情绪是正当的。 13. 容忍事件早期公众的过度反应。 14. 表现出你自己人性的一面。 11. Don’t ridicule the public’s emotions 12.Legitimize people's fears. 13.Tolerate early over-reactions. 14.Show your own humanity Coping with the emotional side of the crisis: copyright Peter Sandman and Jody Lanard 2006

129 129 不仅要用智力领导人民, 还要用情感来领导人民,这一点至关重要。 It is absolutely crucial to lead with your intellect AND with your emotions.

130 130 温总理感同身受 在中国一个类似于 YouTube 的网站 上贴了一段视频,www.tudou.com 题目为 “ 亲爱的温总理,你感动了中国。 ” (新华社报道)

131 Premier Wen Jiabao consoles the son of a dead coal miner in Premier Wen Jiabao consoles the son of a dead coal miner in

132 132 “ 冷静、自信、勇气 ”.

133 133 在危机中,表达出对人们感同身受,可以建立信 任并有助于提升你的领导能力。 表达出你能够承受这种痛苦(而且你希望你的人 民也能承受得住这种痛苦)有助于建立信心和灾 后恢复能力 。 Showing empathy builds trust, and supports your ability to lead in a crisis. Showing that you can bear the agony (and that you expect your people to bear it too) encourages confidence and resilience.

134 Fear of Fear: The Role of Fear in Preparedness – and Why It Terrifies Officials 134 By Peter M. Sandman and Jody Lanard, September

135 III .公众的参与 15. 告诉人们该期待什么。 16. 告诉人们该做些什么。 17. 让人们选择自己该做什么。 18. 求助于更多的人。 135

136 IV .过失,错误的印象和半真半假的话 19. 勇于承认错误、不足和过失行为。 20. 经常对出现的错误、不足和过失行为道歉。 21. 清楚地说明 “ 锚杆框架 ” 。 22. 清楚地说明官方意见、预测或政策改变的缘由。 23. 不要说谎,也别用半真半假的话欺骗公众。 24. 力求做到完全的坦率和透明。 25. 对风险的比较要非常谨慎。 136

137 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines TrustTrust Announcing earlyAnnouncing early TransparencyTransparency The publicThe public PlanningPlanning

138 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines Trust (strategies from this seminar)Trust (strategies from this seminar) –Don't over-reassure. –Share dilemmas. –Acknowledge opinion diversity. –Tolerate early "over-reactions." –Acknowledge and apologize for errors and deficiencies. –Be explicit about changes in policy and predictions.

139 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines Announcing early (strategies from this seminar)Announcing early (strategies from this seminar) –Don't over-reassure. –"Err on the alarming side." (Most extreme: discuss your own worst cases; respond to worst cases others are concerned about.) –Acknowledge uncertainty. –Tolerate early "over-reactions." –Be willing to speculate (responsibly). –Tell people what to expect.

140 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines Transparency (strategies from this seminar)Transparency (strategies from this seminar) –Don't over-reassure. –"Err on the alarming side." (Most extreme: discuss your own worst cases; respond to worst cases others are concerned about.) –Acknowledge uncertainty. –Share dilemmas. –Acknowledge opinion diversity. –Establish your own humanity. –Tell people what to expect. –Acknowledge and apologize for errors and deficiencies. –Be explicit about changes in policy or predictions.

141 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines [Know and respond to] The public[Know and respond to] The public (strategies from this seminar) –Don't ridicule the public's emotions ("irrational, hysterical"). –Legitimize people's fear and other emotions. –Tolerate early "over-reactions." –Offer people things to do. –Let people choose their own actions [from a range]. –Ask more of people. –Acknowledge and empathize with people's starting beliefs and attitudes, before trying to change them.

142 Who Outbreak Communication Guidelines Planning (such as some strategies from this seminar)Planning (such as some strategies from this seminar) –Acknowledge and empathize with people's [policy and subject expert's] starting beliefs and attitudes before trying to change them. –Include risk communication planners in every stage of risk assessment and risk management.

143 . See also: WHO’s Outbreak Communication Best Practices for communicating with the public during an outbreak: The report of the WHO Expert Consultation on Outbreak Communications held in Singapore, September 2004

144 Crisis Communication: Guidelines for action, a 64-page manual of handouts covering the material in this presentation is freely downloadable from The Peter Sandman Risk Communication Website, at: “Tell it like it is” – a short risk communication article in Chinese, at: hinese/article3_ch.pdf Thank you! hinese/article3_ch.pdf hinese/article3_ch.pdf


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