Presentation on theme: "Wrinkles? Already?. Wrinkles? Already? Neonates (0-1mo) & Infants (1mo-1yr) Characteristics Fear of strangers (begins 6-8 mos of age) Communicate discomfort."— Presentation transcript:
3 Neonates (0-1mo) & Infants (1mo-1yr) CharacteristicsFear of strangers (begins 6-8 mos of age)Communicate discomfort by crying, facial expressions, body movementPrefer to be held in familiar positionsLike established routines, verbal repetitionUnderstand simple commands, respond well to consistencyAre fearless, choke easily, accident prone, require constant supervisionNeed to consistently have needs met to develop sense of trust (feeding, changing)Nursing ImplicationsTalk to baby before touchingInvolve parents in procedure if possibleImitate how parent holds babyExplain procedure to parents beforehandRemove unnecessary equipmentKeep infant clothed as much as possibleDo not leave infant unattendedAllow parent to hold infant while waitingAsk parents about immunization recordR: HR:Systolic:
4 Toddlers (1yr -3yr) Characteristics Views hospitalization as punishmentNeeds security objectsCurious, unaware of dangerComprehension greater than ability to verbalizeShort attention spanFrequently says “NO” trying to demonstrating independenceCan be cooperative if trust is wonR: HR: Systolic:70-100Nursing ImplicationsReassure that treatment is not a punishmentSimple explanationsGive one direction at timeDemonstrate equipmentSpeak at eye level, maintain eye contactRemove unnecessary equipmentUse distraction techniquesInvolve parents, allow to be present during procedures
5 Preschoolers (4yr -6yr) Characteristics Seek explanations “Why?” By age 5 speaks in 8 word sentencesIncreased speech skills, attention span and memoryTruth importantFear bodily injury, separation, death, punishmentDifficulty expressing needsPrivacy importantAccident proneR: HR:Systolic:Nursing ImplicationsUse simple explanationAdapts to changes in environment more easily than toddlerBe truthful about pain, discomfortEncourage questions regarding fearsShow caregiver location of restroomsInclude parents in teachingPlan procedure to minimize waiting time
6 School Age (7yr -12yr) Developing greater sense of self CharacteristicsDeveloping greater sense of selfStart to negotiate for independenceNeed to fit in with peersRules very importantNeed respect for privacyFear mutilation, loss of controlNursing ImplicationsAllow child to exercise some controlAllow to handle equipment as learning tool (as appropriate)Respect privacyInclude parent in teachingReassure child it is okay to cryGuide in making choices that are healthy and safeR: HR:Systolic:
7 Adolescents (13yr -20yr) Characteristics Transition stage (developing identity) & stress filledContinually striving for independence and controlAppreciate being treated as adultsSelf-conscious about appearance (body image)Need respect of privacyRisk takers, strong sense of immortalityRapid growth, awkwardness on gross motor skills, development of occupational identityNursing ImplicationsEncourage questionsTreat more as adult, avoid authoritarian approachAllow maintenance of controlTalk directly to them, not through parents, and offer explanationsMaintain privacyEstablish trust to gain cooperationR: HR:Systolic:
8 Young Adult (21yr -39yr) Characteristics Sets career goals, chooses lifestyleMay start own family, building connectionsDeveloping responsible attitudeNeed to establish healthy lifestyleNutrition needed for maintenance not growthMental abilities peak during 20sNursing ImplicationsRespect personal values, be honest & supportiveConsider significant others, impact on jobEncourage to pursue healthy lifestyleTeach & encourage testicular & breast self-examMaintain privacyEncourage creating Advance DirectiveR: HR:Systolic: <120
9 Middle Adult (40yr -64yr) Characteristics May develop chronic health problemsDecrease in bone and muscle mass, short term memory, loss of skeletal height and calcium, skin elasticity, dry skin, wrinklesWomen experience menopause“Sandwich generation”Use life experiences to learn, solve problemsFuture oriented, has specific goalsNursing ImplicationsEncourage regular check-ups & preventative examsAssist person to recognize risk factors related to healthFocus on their strengthsAddress worries about children & aging parentsTreat with respectProvide explanations and educate
10 Older Adult (65yr -79yr) Characteristics Continue to be active learner/thinkerTakes on new roles, balances independence v. dependenceMost elderly are not depressedMay become isolatedSome decline in physical abilities, senses, memory skills (short term memory, attention span shortens)Nursing ImplicationsPromote mobility & ADLConsider needs related to diminished sight, hearing (may need to read information to patient, face person when talking to them)Allow reminiscing about the pastPromote physical, mental, social activities to prevent isolationAllow more time for processing new informationEducate about safety measures
11 Adult 80 & Older Characteristics Decline in physical ability, increased risk for chronic illnessDecline in memory & learning skillsMay need assistance in ADLMay have diminished appetite, fluid intakeNursing ImplicationsEncourage as much mobility & ADL as possibleEncourage healthy eating & adequate fluid intake, monitor bowel functionAvoid treating older adult like a childRespect & support end of lie decisions
14 Age Specific Competency Post Test 1. When performing any procedure on an infant, it is important to:A. Move as quickly as possibleB. Talk to the baby while performing the procedureC. Avoid eye contactD. Allow mother to hold infant while waiting2. It is important to always speak to the infant before a touch:A. TrueB. False3. To help the newborn feel secure, caregivers can:A. Hold the infant only when he criesB. Imitate how the parent holds the newbornC. Encourage friends and neighbors to be involved in care
15 Age Specific Competency Post Test 4. As a healthcare provider, one of the most important parts of the infant's history is:A. Favorite mealsB. Likes and dislikesC. Favorite toysD. Immunization record5. The toddler who is having blood drawn:A. Will usually want a parent presentB. Will be concerned with privacyC. Will require a detailed explanation of the procedure6. Use of the word "No" by a toddler indicates:A. He has limited vocabularyB. He is showing his independenceC. He is not friendly towards strangersD. He hasn't learned how to say "Yes"
16 Age Specific Competency Post Test 7. Preschoolers have increased speech skills, attention span and memory. This helps them to:A. Manipulate their environmentB. Sleep better without their parentsC. Change their routines more easilyD. Understand what is happening to them8. School-aged children have a need to:A. Gain independence from their friendsB. Fit in with peersC. Be separated from siblings in a stressful situation9. When doing procedures with children, it is important to let them:A. Know they can cryB. Become separated from their parentsC. Know your first nameD. Leave them alone to gain control of their emotions
17 Age Specific Competency Post Test 10. During the adolescent period, it is normal to be concerned with:A. Current eventsB. Childhood memoriesC. The same things as adultsD. Body image11. It is important for staff working with adolescents to:A. Assume the patients will ask if they have any questionsB. Talk to the parents since an adolescent is unable to really understand fullyC. Talk directly to the adolescent and offer explanationsD. Tell them as little as possible so they will not be frightened12. The hospitalized adolescent patient :A. Is not affected by the hospital stayB. Continually strives for independence and controlC. Is not concerned with assisting with plan of care, and encourages parents adviceD. Is too immature to understand or care about the changes occurring in their bodies
18 Age Specific Competency Post Test 13. The adolescent population is usually characterized by:A. Rapid growthB. Awkwardness on gross motor skillsC. Beginning of development of occupational identityD. All of the aboveE. None of the above14. For the young adult, it is important to involve the individual and significant other in the plan of care.A. TrueB. False15. Which statement about young adults is NOT true:A. Nutritional needs are for growth, not maintenanceB. Seeks closeness with others & may start own familyC. Makes lifelong decisionsD. Needs to be encouraged to have regular checkups
19 Age Specific Competency Post Test 16.Young adults like others to make decisions for them and to control their lives.A. TrueB. False17. Which of the following physical change(s) occur in middle adulthood?A. Loss of skin elasticity, dry skin and an increase in wrinklesB. Decrease in muscle strength and massC. Decrease in bone massD. Loss of skeletal height and calciumE. All of the above18. During middle adulthood, short-term memory or recall increases.
20 Age Specific Competency Post Test 19. We should be patient with the middle-aged adult who is part of the “sandwichgeneration” (caring for aging parents and their own children).A. TrueB. False20. Which of the following intervention(s) should we do with middle-aged adults?A. Treat them with respect and explain everything to themB. Encourage as much dependency as possibleC. Make decisions for them instead of allowing them choicesD. All of the above21. The middle-aged adult is future-oriented and has specific goals.
21 Age Specific Competency Post Test 22. Which of the following statement(s) is true, related to the elderly? Select all that apply.A. They do not like to talk about the pastB. They may have difficulty hearing and/or seeingC. They tend to be depressedD. They need more time to process new information23. When giving an elderly person instructions, it is important to:A. Shout in the earB. Treat the person as you would a person of any ageC. Face the person so he/she can see your lipsD. Wait until a family member is present
22 Age Specific Competency Post Test 24. Identify the appropriate change for visual impairment in theelderly.A. No change in lighting is neededB. With glasses, no changes in lighting neededC. Staff may need to read information to the patientD. The family is responsible for the accommodations25. When educating a person over 65, the following changes incognitive functioning need to be considered:A. Short-term memory may be impairedB. More time is needed to process informationC. Attention span shortensD. All of the above