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First Aid. Principles of Providing First Aid Immediate care that is provided to the victim of injury or illness to minimize the adverse effects until.

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid. Principles of Providing First Aid Immediate care that is provided to the victim of injury or illness to minimize the adverse effects until."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid

2 Principles of Providing First Aid Immediate care that is provided to the victim of injury or illness to minimize the adverse effects until experts take over. Immediate care that is provided to the victim of injury or illness to minimize the adverse effects until experts take over. Proper first aid can mean the difference between life and death. Proper first aid can mean the difference between life and death. When you encounter an emergency: When you encounter an emergency: REMAIN CALM REMAIN CALM Avoid panic Avoid panic Evaluate the situation Evaluate the situation What you will do depends on the type of injury, environment, others present, etc. – so THINK before you act! What you will do depends on the type of injury, environment, others present, etc. – so THINK before you act!

3 The first step is to be alert to the signs of an emergency: Screams Screams Calls for help Calls for help Breaking glass Breaking glass Screeching tires Screeching tires Empty medicine bottle Empty medicine bottle Damaged electrical wires Damaged electrical wires Smoke or fire Smoke or fire Blood Blood Spilled chemicals Spilled chemicals Difficulty breathing Difficulty breathing Clutching chest or throat Clutching chest or throat Abnormal skin color Abnormal skin color Confusion Confusion Drowsiness Drowsiness Distress Distress

4 Once you determine an emergency exists, take steps to help the victims: Check the scene and make sure it is safe to approach. Check the scene and make sure it is safe to approach. IF the scene is not safe, call for medical help – do not endanger yourself or others. IF the scene is not safe, call for medical help – do not endanger yourself or others. IF the scene is safe, approach the victim and determine consciousness by gently tapping and calling to him/her. IF the scene is safe, approach the victim and determine consciousness by gently tapping and calling to him/her. Never move an injured victim unless the victim is in danger. Never move an injured victim unless the victim is in danger. Call the EMS as soon as possible – 911. Call the EMS as soon as possible – 911. Be prepared to describe location, telephone number (where you are calling from), assistance required, # of people involved, etc. Be prepared to describe location, telephone number (where you are calling from), assistance required, # of people involved, etc. Try to obtain victim’s permission before providing care. (If parent is present and victim a child, get parent’s permission.) Try to obtain victim’s permission before providing care. (If parent is present and victim a child, get parent’s permission.)

5 If person refuses care, do not proceed. If possible, have someone witness the refusal of care. If person refuses care, do not proceed. If possible, have someone witness the refusal of care. Always attend to life threatening emergencies first. Always attend to life threatening emergencies first. If victim conscious, breathing and able to talk, reassure the victim and try to determine what happened. If victim conscious, breathing and able to talk, reassure the victim and try to determine what happened. Check for injuries – examine the victim thoroughly and note any abnormal signs or symptoms. Check for injuries – examine the victim thoroughly and note any abnormal signs or symptoms. Report abnormalities when EMS arrives. Report abnormalities when EMS arrives. Obtain as much information as possible regarding the incident and give the information to the correct authorities. Obtain as much information as possible regarding the incident and give the information to the correct authorities.

6 General Principles of First aid Obtain qualified assistance as soon as possible Obtain qualified assistance as soon as possible Report all information obtained to proper authorities Report all information obtained to proper authorities Avoid unnecessary movement of the victim Avoid unnecessary movement of the victim Reassure the victim Reassure the victim If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, do not give him or her anything to eat or drink If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, do not give him or her anything to eat or drink Protect the victim from cold or chilling, but avoid overheating the victim Protect the victim from cold or chilling, but avoid overheating the victim Work quickly, but in an organized and efficient manner Work quickly, but in an organized and efficient manner Do not make a diagnosis or discuss the victim’s condition with observers at the scene Do not make a diagnosis or discuss the victim’s condition with observers at the scene It is essential to maintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatment It is essential to maintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatment Make every attempt to avoid further injury Make every attempt to avoid further injury PROVIDE ONLY THE TREATMENT THAT YOU ARE QUALIFIED TO PROVIDE PROVIDE ONLY THE TREATMENT THAT YOU ARE QUALIFIED TO PROVIDE

7 Wounds Abrasion - skin scraped off, bleeding limited Abrasion - skin scraped off, bleeding limited Incision – cut with sharp object such as knife, scissors, razor blade, etc., if cut is deep, bleeding can be heavy, also can have damage to muscles and nerves. Incision – cut with sharp object such as knife, scissors, razor blade, etc., if cut is deep, bleeding can be heavy, also can have damage to muscles and nerves. Laceration – tearing of tissues from excessive force, jagged edges, bleeding may be heavy. Deep lacerations may become infected Laceration – tearing of tissues from excessive force, jagged edges, bleeding may be heavy. Deep lacerations may become infected Injury to soft tissue Injury to soft tissue Open: Break in the skin or mucous membrane Open: Break in the skin or mucous membrane Closed: No break in skin, injury to underlying tissues Closed: No break in skin, injury to underlying tissues Opening wounds can result in bleeding, infection, or tetanus Opening wounds can result in bleeding, infection, or tetanus First aid directed toward controlling bleeding and preventing infection First aid directed toward controlling bleeding and preventing infection

8 Wounds cont. Puncture – Caused by sharp object (pin, nail, etc.) External bleeding minimal, may lead to infection or tetanus. Puncture – Caused by sharp object (pin, nail, etc.) External bleeding minimal, may lead to infection or tetanus. Avulsion – Tissue torn or separated from the body, bleeding is heavy, important to preserve the body part because a surgeon may be able to reattach it. Avulsion – Tissue torn or separated from the body, bleeding is heavy, important to preserve the body part because a surgeon may be able to reattach it. Amputation – Body part cut off or separated from the body, bleeding can be extensive, important to preserve separated part for reattachment. Wrap part in cool, moist dressing (sterile water or saline preferred) and place in plastic bag. Keep bag cool or in ice water and transport with the victim. (Don’t place Amputation – Body part cut off or separated from the body, bleeding can be extensive, important to preserve separated part for reattachment. Wrap part in cool, moist dressing (sterile water or saline preferred) and place in plastic bag. Keep bag cool or in ice water and transport with the victim. (Don’t place the body part in direct the body part in direct contact with the ice contact with the ice

9 Control Bleeding Control bleeding by: Control bleeding by: Direct pressure Direct pressure Elevation Elevation Pressure bandage Pressure bandage Pressure points Pressure points Use protective barrier to control bleeding (gloves) or thick layers of dressings. Avoid direct contact with blood. Wash hands after providing first aid. Use protective barrier to control bleeding (gloves) or thick layers of dressings. Avoid direct contact with blood. Wash hands after providing first aid. First Priority – Control the bleeding! First Priority – Control the bleeding! Arterial bleeding is bright red in color and life threatening. Arterial bleeding is bright red in color and life threatening. Venous bleeding is slower and dark red. Venous bleeding is slower and dark red.

10 Infection Signs and symptoms of wound infection: Swelling Swelling Heat Heat Redness Redness Pain Pain Fever Fever Pus Pus Red Streaks Red Streaks Closed Wounds Closed Wounds If a bruise, apply cold If a bruise, apply cold Signs of internal bleeding – pain, tenderness, swelling, deformity, cold and clammy skin, rapid and weak pulse, uncontrolled restlessness, excessive thirst, vomiting blood, blood in urine or feces. Signs of internal bleeding – pain, tenderness, swelling, deformity, cold and clammy skin, rapid and weak pulse, uncontrolled restlessness, excessive thirst, vomiting blood, blood in urine or feces.

11 Tetanus Bacterial infections, most common in puncture wounds, be sure to find out when victim last had tetanus shot, advise to consult medical professional about tetanus booster. Bacterial infections, most common in puncture wounds, be sure to find out when victim last had tetanus shot, advise to consult medical professional about tetanus booster. Object in wound? If on the surface, remove with tweezers. If object embedded, let a physician remove it. Object in wound? If on the surface, remove with tweezers. If object embedded, let a physician remove it.

12 Shock When caring for bleeding/wounds, or any other injury or illness, be alert for signs of shock. When caring for bleeding/wounds, or any other injury or illness, be alert for signs of shock. Clinical set of signs and symptoms associated with inadequate supply of blood to body organs, especially the brain and heart. Clinical set of signs and symptoms associated with inadequate supply of blood to body organs, especially the brain and heart. If not treated, shock can lead to death, even when the victim’s injuries or illness is not life threatening. If not treated, shock can lead to death, even when the victim’s injuries or illness is not life threatening.

13 SHOCK Cont. Shock caused by: Shock caused by: Hemorrhage Hemorrhage Excessive pain Excessive pain Infection Infection Heart Attack Heart Attack Poisoning by chemicals, drugs or gases Poisoning by chemicals, drugs or gases Lack of oxygen Lack of oxygen Psychological trauma Psychological trauma Dehydration from burns, vomiting, or diarrhea Dehydration from burns, vomiting, or diarrhea

14 Symptoms of Shock Skin pale or cyanotic Skin pale or cyanotic Skin cool to touch Skin cool to touch Diaphoresis Diaphoresis Pulse rapid and weak Pulse rapid and weak Respirations rapid and shallow Respirations rapid and shallow Hypotension Hypotension Victim weak, listless, confused and eventually unconscious Victim weak, listless, confused and eventually unconscious Victim anxious and extremely restless Victim anxious and extremely restless Victim may c/o excessive thirst Victim may c/o excessive thirst Victim may experience N&V Victim may experience N&V Victim may c/o blurred vision as shock progresses, eyes may appear sunken and have vacant, confused expression, pupils dilate Victim may c/o blurred vision as shock progresses, eyes may appear sunken and have vacant, confused expression, pupils dilate

15 How would you position the following victims when treating for shock? Victim has a broken arm, no other apparent injuries Victim has a broken arm, no other apparent injuries Victim is vomiting and bleeding profusely from a lacerated tongue Victim is vomiting and bleeding profusely from a lacerated tongue Victim has broken ribs and is dyspneic Victim has broken ribs and is dyspneic

16 Get Medical help right away. If possible: 1. Eliminate the cause of shock 2. Improve circulation to the brain and heart 3. Provide oxygen 4. Maintain body temperature 5. Positioning patient depends on injuries

17 Poisoning If poison is ingested, call a poison control center or MD STAT. If not available, call EMS If poison is ingested, call a poison control center or MD STAT. If not available, call EMS Save the label or container of the substance taken Save the label or container of the substance taken It is helpful to know/estimate how much was taken and the time the poisoning occurred It is helpful to know/estimate how much was taken and the time the poisoning occurred If the victim vomits, save a sample If the victim vomits, save a sample If the victim is unconscious check for breathing.l Provide rescue breathing if the victim is not breathing. If the victim is breathing, turn victim on his/her side. If the victim is unconscious check for breathing.l Provide rescue breathing if the victim is not breathing. If the victim is breathing, turn victim on his/her side. If the poison control center tells you to induce vomiting: If the poison control center tells you to induce vomiting: Give syrup of ipecac Give syrup of ipecac Tickle the back of the victim’s throat Tickle the back of the victim’s throat Administer warm salt water Administer warm salt water

18 Poisoning Cont. DO NOT induce vomiting if: DO NOT induce vomiting if: The victim is unconscious The victim is unconscious The victim swallowed acid or alkali The victim swallowed acid or alkali The victim swallowed petroleum The victim swallowed petroleum The victim has burns on the lips or mouth The victim has burns on the lips or mouth The victim is convulsing The victim is convulsing Vomiting only removes ½ the poison, so you may need to administer activated charcoal to counteract the remaining poison Vomiting only removes ½ the poison, so you may need to administer activated charcoal to counteract the remaining poison If poisoning is due to gas inhalation….. Remove victim from area If poisoning is due to gas inhalation….. Remove victim from area

19 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Odorless and colorless gas Odorless and colorless gas Before entering the area, take a deep breath and don’t breathe the gas while removing the victim from the area Before entering the area, take a deep breath and don’t breathe the gas while removing the victim from the area After the rescue, check for breathing and administer CPR if needed After the rescue, check for breathing and administer CPR if needed Obtain medical help immediately Obtain medical help immediately

20 Chemicals or Poison that come in Contact with Skin Wash with large amounts of water Wash with large amounts of water Remove clothing or jewelry that contains the substance Remove clothing or jewelry that contains the substance If poisonous plant, wash with soap and water- use Calamine or Caladryl (or paste made from baking soda and water) If poisonous plant, wash with soap and water- use Calamine or Caladryl (or paste made from baking soda and water) Obtain medical help Obtain medical help

21 For Insect bite, sting or snakebite If possible, hold part below level of the heart If possible, hold part below level of the heart Remove the stinger and wash the area with soap and water Remove the stinger and wash the area with soap and water Apply sterile dressing & cold pack Apply sterile dressing & cold pack Monitor the victim and give CPR if needed Monitor the victim and give CPR if needed Watch for allergic reaction Watch for allergic reaction Treat for shock Treat for shock

22 Providing First Aid for Burns Caused by fire, hear, chemicals, radiation or electricity Caused by fire, hear, chemicals, radiation or electricity First Degree (superficial) First Degree (superficial) Involves only the epidermis Involves only the epidermis Heals in 5-6 days Heals in 5-6 days No scarring No scarring Skin red, mild swelling Skin red, mild swelling Victim feels pain Victim feels pain Usually caused by the sun, hot objects or steam or exposed to weak acid/alkali Usually caused by the sun, hot objects or steam or exposed to weak acid/alkali

23 Second Degree burn Epidermis and dermis Epidermis and dermis Blister or vesicle forms Blister or vesicle forms Skin red and mottled with swelling Skin red and mottled with swelling Surface appears wet Surface appears wet Very painful Very painful Usually caused by sun, sunlamp, contact with hot or boiling liquids, contact with fire. Usually caused by sun, sunlamp, contact with hot or boiling liquids, contact with fire.

24 Third-degree (Full thickness) Injury to all layers and underlying tissue Injury to all layers and underlying tissue Area had white or charred appearance Area had white or charred appearance Can be extremely painful or painless (if nerve endings destroyed) Can be extremely painful or painless (if nerve endings destroyed) Usually caused by flames, prolonged contact with hot objects, contact with electricity, immersion in hot or boiling liquids Usually caused by flames, prolonged contact with hot objects, contact with electricity, immersion in hot or boiling liquids

25 Treatment for Burns Remove source of heat Remove source of heat Cool affected skin area Cool affected skin area Cover the burn Cover the burn Relieve pain Relieve pain Observe and treat for shock Observe and treat for shock Medical care should be obtained if more than 15% of adult body burned (10% of a child) Medical care should be obtained if more than 15% of adult body burned (10% of a child)

26 TX Cont. DO NOT apply cotton, tissues, ointment, powders, oils, grease, butter, or other substances to the burned area unless you are instructed to do so by a physician DO NOT apply cotton, tissues, ointment, powders, oils, grease, butter, or other substances to the burned area unless you are instructed to do so by a physician DO NOT break open blisters (Why?) DO NOT break open blisters (Why?) Be alert to signs of shock Be alert to signs of shock Remain calm and reassure burn vicitm Remain calm and reassure burn vicitm Call for help immediately if 3 rd degree burns Call for help immediately if 3 rd degree burns Dehydration can occur quickly with burns. Dehydration can occur quickly with burns.

27 Bone and Joint Injuries Fracture Fracture Break in a bone Break in a bone Closed or simple – does not break the skin Closed or simple – does not break the skin Compound or open – accompanied by open wound on skin Compound or open – accompanied by open wound on skin

28 Main Facts regarding Fractures 1. Signs and symptoms vary 2. Common signs and symptoms include deformity, limited (loss of) motion, pain and tenderness at fracture site, swelling an discoloration, protrusion of bone ends 1. Victim may have heard a snap or feel a grating sensation 2. Treatment includes immobilizing above and below fracture, treat for shock

29 Dislocation When the end of a bone moves out of the joint When the end of a bone moves out of the joint “Usually accompanied by tearing/stretching of ligaments “Usually accompanied by tearing/stretching of ligaments S&S include deformity, limited or abnormal movement, swelling, discoloration, pain, tenderness, shortening or lengthening of affected arm or leg S&S include deformity, limited or abnormal movement, swelling, discoloration, pain, tenderness, shortening or lengthening of affected arm or leg Treatment similar to fractures – immobilize affected area, do not attempt to reduce the discoloration Treatment similar to fractures – immobilize affected area, do not attempt to reduce the discoloration

30 Sprain Injury to tissues surrounding a joint when the part is forced beyond its normal ROM Injury to tissues surrounding a joint when the part is forced beyond its normal ROM Ligaments, tendons, and other tissues stretched or torn Ligaments, tendons, and other tissues stretched or torn Usually ankle or wrist Usually ankle or wrist Symptoms similar to fracture and dislocation Symptoms similar to fracture and dislocation Treatment includes application of cold, elevation of affected part, and rest Treatment includes application of cold, elevation of affected part, and rest

31 Strain Overstretching of muscle – frequently the back Overstretching of muscle – frequently the back S&S include: sudden pain, swelling and/or bruising S&S include: sudden pain, swelling and/or bruising Treatment aimed at resting affect muscle Treatment aimed at resting affect muscle

32 Heart Attack Also called coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion or myocardial infarction Also called coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion or myocardial infarction Blood supply to heart is blocked Blood supply to heart is blocked If heart stops beating CPR must be preformed If heart stops beating CPR must be preformed S&S may include- chest pain or pressure, pain radiating to shoulders, arms, neck, or jaw S&S may include- chest pain or pressure, pain radiating to shoulders, arms, neck, or jaw SOB SOB Cyanosis Cyanosis Victim weak and apprehensive Victim weak and apprehensive May also have N&V, diaphoresis, loss of consciousness May also have N&V, diaphoresis, loss of consciousness Encourage the victim to relax, place him/her in a comfortable position, and obtain medical help Encourage the victim to relax, place him/her in a comfortable position, and obtain medical help

33 Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) Also called CVA, apoplexy, or cerebral thrombosis Also called CVA, apoplexy, or cerebral thrombosis Either a clot in a cerebral artery or hemorrhage of a blood vessel in the brain Either a clot in a cerebral artery or hemorrhage of a blood vessel in the brain Signs/symptoms include numbness, paralysis, pupils unequal in size, mental confusion, slurred speech, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and swallowing, and loss of consciousness Signs/symptoms include numbness, paralysis, pupils unequal in size, mental confusion, slurred speech, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and swallowing, and loss of consciousness

34 Always remember that although the patient may be unable to speak or may be unconscious, he/she may be able to hear and understand what is going on!

35 Fainting Temporary reduction of blood supply to the brain Temporary reduction of blood supply to the brain Victim regains consciousness after being in a supine position Victim regains consciousness after being in a supine position Early signs- dizziness, extreme pallor, diaphoresis, coldness of the skin, nausea, numbness and tingling of hands and feet Early signs- dizziness, extreme pallor, diaphoresis, coldness of the skin, nausea, numbness and tingling of hands and feet When symptoms noticed, help the victim sit with head at the level of the knees When symptoms noticed, help the victim sit with head at the level of the knees If the victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injuring, loosen clothing, maintain open airway If the victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injuring, loosen clothing, maintain open airway

36 Convulsion Seizure Seizure Occurs in conjunction with high body temperature, head injuries, brain disease, and brain disorders such as epilepsy Occurs in conjunction with high body temperature, head injuries, brain disease, and brain disorders such as epilepsy Body muscles become rigid followed by jerking movements Body muscles become rigid followed by jerking movements During the seizure, victim may stop breathing, bite their tongue, lose bladder and bowel control, and injure body parts During the seizure, victim may stop breathing, bite their tongue, lose bladder and bowel control, and injure body parts Face and lips develop a bluish color Face and lips develop a bluish color Victim loses consciousness Victim loses consciousness

37 Convulsion Cont. When victim regains consciousness, he/she may be confused, disoriented and c/o HA When victim regains consciousness, he/she may be confused, disoriented and c/o HA FA directed toward preventing self injury-remove dangerous objects, provide pillow under the head FA directed toward preventing self injury-remove dangerous objects, provide pillow under the head Do NOT place anything between the victims teeth Do NOT place anything between the victims teeth Do NOT use force to restrain or stop muscle movement Do NOT use force to restrain or stop muscle movement When the convulsion is over, allow the victim to rest When the convulsion is over, allow the victim to rest Obtain medical help if seizure lasts more than one minute or injury occurs. Obtain medical help if seizure lasts more than one minute or injury occurs.

38 Diabetic Coma Caused by an increase in the level of glucose in the bloodstream Caused by an increase in the level of glucose in the bloodstream A result of an excess intake of sugar, failure to take insulin, or sufficient production of insulin A result of an excess intake of sugar, failure to take insulin, or sufficient production of insulin Signs: Confusion, weakness or dizziness, nausea or vomiting, rapid, deep respirations, flushed skin, and fruity smelling breath Signs: Confusion, weakness or dizziness, nausea or vomiting, rapid, deep respirations, flushed skin, and fruity smelling breath Victim will lose consciousness and die if not treated Victim will lose consciousness and die if not treated Obtain medical treatment as quickly as possible Obtain medical treatment as quickly as possible

39 Insulin Shock Caused by an excess amount of insulin (low level of glucose in bloodstream) Caused by an excess amount of insulin (low level of glucose in bloodstream) A result of failure to eat or too much insulin A result of failure to eat or too much insulin Signs: Muscle weakness, mental confusion, restlessness, or anxiety, diaphoresis, pale, moist skin, hunger pains, palpations Signs: Muscle weakness, mental confusion, restlessness, or anxiety, diaphoresis, pale, moist skin, hunger pains, palpations If victim conscious, give sweetened drink or sugar If victim conscious, give sweetened drink or sugar Avoid giving victim hard candy if confused Avoid giving victim hard candy if confused If victim loses consciousness, get medical help If victim loses consciousness, get medical help

40 Dressings and Dressings=sterile covering over wound or injured part Dressings=sterile covering over wound or injured part Bandages=materials to hold dressing in place, secure splints, and support body parts Bandages=materials to hold dressing in place, secure splints, and support body parts Roller gauze bandages Roller gauze bandages Triangular bandages Triangular bandages Elastic (ACE) bandages Elastic (ACE) bandages

41 Bandages Cont. After bandage applied, check to be sure it is not too tight After bandage applied, check to be sure it is not too tight (Check circulation by pressing lightly on nailbeds to make then turn white. Color should return to nailbeds immediately) (Check circulation by pressing lightly on nailbeds to make then turn white. Color should return to nailbeds immediately)

42 Until Medical Help arrives… Cover the pt with blankets or additional clothing. Blankets may also be placed between the ground and the victim Cover the pt with blankets or additional clothing. Blankets may also be placed between the ground and the victim Avoid giving the pt. anything to eat or drink. A wet cloth may be used to moisten the lips and mouth. Avoid giving the pt. anything to eat or drink. A wet cloth may be used to moisten the lips and mouth. If help won’t arrive for more than an hour and dehydration is evident, provide fluids. If help won’t arrive for more than an hour and dehydration is evident, provide fluids.


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