2Principles of Providing First Aid Immediate care that is provided to the victim of injury or illness to minimize the adverse effects until experts take over.Proper first aid can mean the difference between life and death.When you encounter an emergency:REMAIN CALMAvoid panicEvaluate the situationWhat you will do depends on the type of injury, environment, others present, etc. – so THINK before you act!
3The first step is to be alert to the signs of an emergency: ScreamsCalls for helpBreaking glassScreeching tiresEmpty medicine bottleDamaged electrical wiresSmoke or fireBloodSpilled chemicalsDifficulty breathingClutching chest or throatAbnormal skin colorConfusionDrowsinessDistressUnusual SightsUnusual SoundsUnusual Smells
4Once you determine an emergency exists, take steps to help the victims: Check the scene and make sure it is safe to approach.IF the scene is not safe, call for medical help – do not endanger yourself or others.IF the scene is safe, approach the victim and determine consciousness by gently tapping and calling to him/her.Never move an injured victim unless the victim is in danger.Call the EMS as soon as possible – 911.Be prepared to describe location, telephone number (where you are calling from), assistance required, # of people involved, etc.Try to obtain victim’s permission before providing care. (If parent is present and victim a child, get parent’s permission.)
5If person refuses care, do not proceed If person refuses care, do not proceed. If possible, have someone witness the refusal of care.Always attend to life threatening emergencies first.If victim conscious, breathing and able to talk, reassure the victim and try to determine what happened.Check for injuries – examine the victim thoroughly and note any abnormal signs or symptoms.Report abnormalities when EMS arrives.Obtain as much information as possible regarding the incident and give the information to the correct authorities.
6General Principles of First aid Obtain qualified assistance as soon as possibleReport all information obtained to proper authoritiesAvoid unnecessary movement of the victimReassure the victimIf the victim is unconscious or vomiting, do not give him or her anything to eat or drinkProtect the victim from cold or chilling, but avoid overheating the victimWork quickly, but in an organized and efficient mannerDo not make a diagnosis or discuss the victim’s condition with observers at the sceneIt is essential to maintain confidentiality and protect the victim’s right to privacy while providing treatmentMake every attempt to avoid further injuryPROVIDE ONLY THE TREATMENT THAT YOU ARE QUALIFIED TO PROVIDE
7Wounds Injury to soft tissue Open: Break in the skin or mucous membraneClosed: No break in skin, injury to underlying tissuesOpening wounds can result in bleeding, infection, or tetanusFirst aid directed toward controlling bleeding and preventing infectionAbrasion - skin scraped off, bleeding limitedIncision – cut with sharp object such as knife, scissors, razor blade, etc., if cut is deep, bleeding can be heavy, also can have damage to muscles and nerves.Laceration – tearing of tissues from excessive force, jagged edges, bleeding may be heavy. Deep lacerations may become infected
8Wounds cont.Puncture – Caused by sharp object (pin, nail, etc.) External bleeding minimal, may lead to infection or tetanus.Avulsion – Tissue torn or separated from the body, bleeding is heavy, important to preserve the body part because a surgeon may be able to reattach it.Amputation – Body part cut off or separated from the body, bleeding can be extensive, important to preserve separated part for reattachment. Wrap part in cool, moist dressing (sterile water or saline preferred) and place in plastic bag. Keep bag cool or in ice water and transport with the victim. (Don’t placethe body part in directcontact with the ice
9Control Bleeding First Priority – Control the bleeding! Arterial bleeding is bright red in color and life threatening.Venous bleeding is slower and dark red.Control bleeding by:Direct pressureElevationPressure bandagePressure pointsUse protective barrier to control bleeding (gloves) or thick layers of dressings. Avoid direct contact with blood. Wash hands after providing first aid.
10Signs and symptoms of wound infection: SwellingHeatRednessPainFeverPusRed StreaksClosed WoundsIf a bruise, apply coldSigns of internal bleeding – pain, tenderness, swelling, deformity, cold and clammy skin, rapid and weak pulse, uncontrolled restlessness, excessive thirst, vomiting blood, blood in urine or feces.
11TetanusBacterial infections, most common in puncture wounds, be sure to find out when victim last had tetanus shot, advise to consult medical professional about tetanus booster.Object in wound? If on the surface, remove with tweezers. If object embedded, let a physician remove it.
12ShockShockWhen caring for bleeding/wounds, or any other injury or illness, be alert for signs of shock.Clinical set of signs and symptoms associated with inadequate supply of blood to body organs, especially the brain and heart.If not treated, shock can lead to death, even when the victim’s injuries or illness is not life threatening.
13SHOCK Cont. Shock caused by: Hemorrhage Excessive pain Infection Heart AttackPoisoning by chemicals, drugs or gasesLack of oxygenPsychological traumaDehydration from burns, vomiting, or diarrhea
14Symptoms of Shock Skin pale or cyanotic Skin cool to touch Diaphoresis Pulse rapid and weakRespirations rapid and shallowHypotensionVictim weak, listless, confused and eventually unconsciousVictim anxious and extremely restlessVictim may c/o excessive thirstVictim may experience N&VVictim may c/o blurred vision as shock progresses, eyes may appear sunken and have vacant, confused expression, pupils dilate
15How would you position the following victims when treating for shock? Victim has a broken arm, no other apparent injuriesVictim is vomiting and bleeding profusely from a lacerated tongueVictim has broken ribs and is dyspneic
16Get Medical help right away. If possible: Eliminate the cause of shockImprove circulation to the brain and heartProvide oxygenMaintain body temperaturePositioning patient depends on injuries
17PoisoningIf poison is ingested, call a poison control center or MD STAT. If not available, call EMSSave the label or container of the substance takenIt is helpful to know/estimate how much was taken and the time the poisoning occurredIf the victim vomits, save a sampleIf the victim is unconscious check for breathing.l Provide rescue breathing if the victim is not breathing. If the victim is breathing, turn victim on his/her side.If the poison control center tells you to induce vomiting:Give syrup of ipecacTickle the back of the victim’s throatAdminister warm salt water
18Poisoning Cont. DO NOT induce vomiting if: The victim is unconscious The victim swallowed acid or alkaliThe victim swallowed petroleumThe victim has burns on the lips or mouthThe victim is convulsingVomiting only removes ½ the poison, so you may need to administer activated charcoal to counteract the remaining poisonIf poisoning is due to gas inhalation….. Remove victim from area
19Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Odorless and colorless gasBefore entering the area, take a deep breath and don’t breathe the gas while removing the victim from the areaAfter the rescue, check for breathing and administer CPR if neededObtain medical help immediately
20Chemicals or Poison that come in Contact with Skin Wash with large amounts of waterRemove clothing or jewelry that contains the substanceIf poisonous plant, wash with soap and water- use Calamine or Caladryl (or paste made from baking soda and water)Obtain medical help
21For Insect bite, sting or snakebite If possible, hold part below level of the heartRemove the stinger and wash the area with soap and waterApply sterile dressing & cold packMonitor the victim and give CPR if neededWatch for allergic reactionTreat for shock
22Providing First Aid for Burns Caused by fire, hear, chemicals, radiation or electricityFirst Degree (superficial)Involves only the epidermisHeals in 5-6 daysNo scarringSkin red, mild swellingVictim feels painUsually caused by the sun, hot objects or steam or exposed to weak acid/alkaliUnusual SightsUnusual SoundsUnusual Smells
23Second Degree burn Epidermis and dermis Blister or vesicle forms Skin red and mottled with swellingSurface appears wetVery painfulUsually caused by sun, sunlamp, contact with hot or boiling liquids, contact with fire.
24Third-degree (Full thickness) Injury to all layers and underlying tissueArea had white or charred appearanceCan be extremely painful or painless (if nerve endings destroyed)Usually caused by flames, prolonged contact with hot objects, contact with electricity, immersion in hot or boiling liquids
25Treatment for Burns Remove source of heat Cool affected skin area Cover the burnRelieve painObserve and treat for shockMedical care should be obtained if more than 15% of adult body burned (10% of a child)
26TX Cont. Call for help immediately if 3rd degree burns DO NOT apply cotton, tissues, ointment, powders, oils, grease, butter, or other substances to the burned area unless you are instructed to do so by a physicianDO NOT break open blisters (Why?)Be alert to signs of shockRemain calm and reassure burn vicitmCall for help immediately if 3rd degree burnsDehydration can occur quickly with burns.
27Bone and Joint Injuries FractureBreak in a boneClosed or simple – does not break the skinCompound or open – accompanied by open wound on skin
28Main Facts regarding Fractures Signs and symptoms varyCommon signs and symptoms include deformity, limited (loss of) motion, pain and tenderness at fracture site, swelling an discoloration, protrusion of bone endsVictim may have heard a snap or feel a grating sensationTreatment includes immobilizing above and below fracture, treat for shock
29Dislocation When the end of a bone moves out of the joint “Usually accompanied by tearing/stretching of ligamentsS&S include deformity, limited or abnormal movement, swelling, discoloration, pain, tenderness, shortening or lengthening of affected arm or legTreatment similar to fractures – immobilize affected area, do not attempt to reduce the discoloration
30SprainInjury to tissues surrounding a joint when the part is forced beyond its normal ROMLigaments, tendons, and other tissues stretched or tornUsually ankle or wristSymptoms similar to fracture and dislocationTreatment includes application of cold, elevation of affected part, and rest
31Strain Overstretching of muscle – frequently the back S&S include: sudden pain, swelling and/or bruisingTreatment aimed at resting affect muscle
32Heart AttackAlso called coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion or myocardial infarctionBlood supply to heart is blockedIf heart stops beating CPR must be preformedS&S may include- chest pain or pressure, pain radiating to shoulders, arms, neck, or jawSOBCyanosisVictim weak and apprehensiveMay also have N&V, diaphoresis, loss of consciousnessEncourage the victim to relax, place him/her in a comfortable position, and obtain medical help
33Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) Also called CVA, apoplexy, or cerebral thrombosisEither a clot in a cerebral artery or hemorrhage of a blood vessel in the brainSigns/symptoms include numbness, paralysis, pupils unequal in size, mental confusion, slurred speech, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and swallowing, and loss of consciousness
34Always remember that although the patient may be unable to speak or may be unconscious, he/she may be able to hear and understand what is going on!
35FaintingTemporary reduction of blood supply to the brainVictim regains consciousness after being in a supine positionEarly signs- dizziness, extreme pallor, diaphoresis, coldness of the skin, nausea, numbness and tingling of hands and feetWhen symptoms noticed, help the victim sit with head at the level of the kneesIf the victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injuring, loosen clothing, maintain open airway
36ConvulsionSeizureOccurs in conjunction with high body temperature, head injuries, brain disease, and brain disorders such as epilepsyBody muscles become rigid followed by jerking movementsDuring the seizure, victim may stop breathing, bite their tongue, lose bladder and bowel control, and injure body partsFace and lips develop a bluish colorVictim loses consciousness
37Convulsion Cont.When victim regains consciousness, he/she may be confused, disoriented and c/o HAFA directed toward preventing self injury-remove dangerous objects, provide pillow under the headDo NOT place anything between the victims teethDo NOT use force to restrain or stop muscle movementWhen the convulsion is over, allow the victim to restObtain medical help if seizure lasts more than one minute or injury occurs.
38Diabetic Coma Victim will lose consciousness and die if not treated Caused by an increase in the level of glucose in the bloodstreamA result of an excess intake of sugar, failure to take insulin, or sufficient production of insulinSigns: Confusion, weakness or dizziness, nausea or vomiting, rapid, deep respirations, flushed skin, and fruity smelling breathVictim will lose consciousness and die if not treatedObtain medical treatment as quickly as possible
39Insulin ShockCaused by an excess amount of insulin (low level of glucose in bloodstream)A result of failure to eat or too much insulinSigns: Muscle weakness, mental confusion, restlessness, or anxiety, diaphoresis, pale, moist skin, hunger pains, palpationsIf victim conscious, give sweetened drink or sugarAvoid giving victim hard candy if confusedIf victim loses consciousness, get medical help
40Dressings and Dressings=sterile covering over wound or injured part Bandages=materials to hold dressing in place, secure splints, and support body partsRoller gauze bandagesTriangular bandagesElastic (ACE) bandages
41Bandages Cont.After bandage applied, check to be sure it is not too tight(Check circulation by pressing lightly on nailbeds to make then turn white. Color should return to nailbeds immediately)
42Until Medical Help arrives… Cover the pt with blankets or additional clothing. Blankets may also be placed between the ground and the victimAvoid giving the pt. anything to eat or drink. A wet cloth may be used to moisten the lips and mouth.If help won’t arrive for more than an hour and dehydration is evident, provide fluids.