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Lesson Objectives To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration was. To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson Objectives To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration was. To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Lesson Objectives To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration was. To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration was. To gather an insight into the Nationalist and Unionist feelings on the reforms that were suggested. To gather an insight into the Nationalist and Unionist feelings on the reforms that were suggested.

3 Reactions of Westminster & Stormont Using the army might help stop the violence, but it would not solve Northern Ireland’s problems; new political ideas were also needed. The question now was whether such ideas would come from Stormont or Westminster. London had left Northern Ireland to govern them selves for years, could that now be allowed to continue? More importantly, could Westminster introduce policies that would reconcile nationalists and reassure unionists? Using the army might help stop the violence, but it would not solve Northern Ireland’s problems; new political ideas were also needed. The question now was whether such ideas would come from Stormont or Westminster. London had left Northern Ireland to govern them selves for years, could that now be allowed to continue? More importantly, could Westminster introduce policies that would reconcile nationalists and reassure unionists?

4 The Downing Street Declaration On 19 August Chichester Clark travelled to London to meet British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson. The outcome was the signing of the Downing Street Declaration. This Declaration aimed to reassure both communities On 19 August Chichester Clark travelled to London to meet British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson. The outcome was the signing of the Downing Street Declaration. This Declaration aimed to reassure both communities Downing Street Declaration Downing Street Declaration

5 What the declaration told each community… Nationalists were told that ‘every citizen of Northern Ireland is entitled to the same equality of treatment and freedom from discrimination as obtains in the rest of the UK irrespective of political views or religion.’ Nationalists were told that ‘every citizen of Northern Ireland is entitled to the same equality of treatment and freedom from discrimination as obtains in the rest of the UK irrespective of political views or religion.’ Unionists were told that ‘Northern Ireland should not cease to be part of the UK without the consent of the people of Northern Ireland.’ Unionists were told that ‘Northern Ireland should not cease to be part of the UK without the consent of the people of Northern Ireland.’

6 Additional Reforms Further Reforms were introduced in the following weeks: A committee was established under Lord Hunt The Scarman Tribunal was set up to investigate recent disturbances A single housing authority was established, taking over housing functions from local councils Measures to prevent discrimination in public employment were announced. How do you think the Unionist community would react to such proposals?

7 The Economy A £2 Million programme of work-creating schemes A £2 Million programme of work-creating schemes Increases in investment grants Increases in investment grants

8 Reactions to the Reforms Many Unionists were concerned at what they saw as continuing concessions to the nationalists. The final straw came when the Hunt Report was published. Many Unionists were concerned at what they saw as continuing concessions to the nationalists. The final straw came when the Hunt Report was published. It had two main focuses: It had two main focuses: Disarming the RUC Disarming the RUC Disbanding the B Specials and replacing them with the Ulster Defence Regiment, a part-time force under army control. Disbanding the B Specials and replacing them with the Ulster Defence Regiment, a part-time force under army control.

9 The Hunt Report The Hunt Report was published. The Report recommends that: the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) should become an unarmed force; the Ulster Special Constabulary (the 'B Specials') should be disbanded; a new RUC Reserve should be set up; and a new locally recruited part-time force should be established under the control of the British Army [this force was to become the Ulster Defence Regiment, UDR]. Arthur Young was appointed as Chief Constable of the RUC at the request of Harold Wilson, the then British Prime Minister. Young was appointed to oversee the reforms recommended in the Hunt Report. The publication of the report sparked serious rioting by Loyalists in Belfast. The Hunt Report was published. The Report recommends that: the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) should become an unarmed force; the Ulster Special Constabulary (the 'B Specials') should be disbanded; a new RUC Reserve should be set up; and a new locally recruited part-time force should be established under the control of the British Army [this force was to become the Ulster Defence Regiment, UDR]. Arthur Young was appointed as Chief Constable of the RUC at the request of Harold Wilson, the then British Prime Minister. Young was appointed to oversee the reforms recommended in the Hunt Report. The publication of the report sparked serious rioting by Loyalists in Belfast. The Hunt Report The Hunt Report

10 Reactions to the Reforms. On 11 October serious riots followed protests by Loyalists against the disbandment of the 'B Specials'. Later Loyalists open fire on officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) (who were blocking their route to a Catholic area of Belfast) killing the first RUC officer to die in the present 'Troubles'. On 11 October serious riots followed protests by Loyalists against the disbandment of the 'B Specials'. Later Loyalists open fire on officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) (who were blocking their route to a Catholic area of Belfast) killing the first RUC officer to die in the present 'Troubles'.

11 Unionist Politicians 'Sell-out' Unionist backbench MPs voted by 28 votes to seven to support the Hunt report but opposition MPs in Stormont have attacked it. The Rev Ian Paisley described it as: He also called on the prime minister to resign “An absolute sell-out to the republicans and the so- called civil rights movement which is only a smokescreen for the republican movement".

12 Tasks Read through pages of your CCEA textbooks Read through pages of your CCEA textbooks Answer questions 2, 3, 4, 5 Answer questions 2, 3, 4, 5 Debate- Read question 6- You will must take on the role of a Unionist or a Nationalist-(I will give you your role) Debate- Read question 6- You will must take on the role of a Unionist or a Nationalist-(I will give you your role) How do you feel about the conclusions of the Cameron Report and the Hunt Report? How do you feel about the conclusions of the Cameron Report and the Hunt Report? Summary: Have we reached our lesson objectives? Lets refer back to what we hoped to achieve: Summary: Have we reached our lesson objectives? Lets refer back to what we hoped to achieve: To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration was. To gather an understanding of what the Downing Street Declaration was. To gather an insight into the Nationalist and Unionist feelings on the reforms that were suggested. To gather an insight into the Nationalist and Unionist feelings on the reforms that were suggested.

13 Learning Objectives To gather an understanding of why the IRA split and why the Unionist paramilitaries became more popular at this time. To gather an understanding of why the IRA split and why the Unionist paramilitaries became more popular at this time. What was internment and why was it reintroduced in 1971? What was internment and why was it reintroduced in 1971?

14 Military and Paramilitaries Reactions Where was the IRA? Where was the IRA? ‘I Ran Away’ was the accusation most frequently levelled at the IRA because of its failure to defend Catholics during the violence of July and August Since the ending of it border campaign in 1962, due to the lack of Nationalist support. ‘I Ran Away’ was the accusation most frequently levelled at the IRA because of its failure to defend Catholics during the violence of July and August Since the ending of it border campaign in 1962, due to the lack of Nationalist support. Border Campaign (IRA) Border Campaign (IRA)Border Campaign (IRA)Border Campaign (IRA) It seemed as if the IRA were more interested in Marxism (the economic and political theories of Karl Marx 1818–83, German political philosopher, which argue that class struggle is the basic agency of historical change, and that capitalism will be superseded by communism) However, some of its members were unhappy with the situation. This led to a split of the IRA

15 Split of the IRA The Official IRA, which continued to focus on establishing a socialist Ireland. At the same time violence was still used until a ceasefire was called in May In 1974 the movement split again with the emergence of the Irish Republican Socialist Party and the militant Irish Nationalist Liberation Army. The Official IRA, which continued to focus on establishing a socialist Ireland. At the same time violence was still used until a ceasefire was called in May In 1974 the movement split again with the emergence of the Irish Republican Socialist Party and the militant Irish Nationalist Liberation Army. From the split the Provisional IRA formed. They claimed the traditional role of defender of the Nationalist community. From the split the Provisional IRA formed. They claimed the traditional role of defender of the Nationalist community.

16 IRA OBJECTIVES Civil Rights Civil Rights Defence of the Catholic population Defence of the Catholic population The destruction of the Stormont Government The destruction of the Stormont Government The removal of ‘British imperialism’ from Ireland. The removal of ‘British imperialism’ from Ireland.

17 The IRA and the British Army The last aim meant that the IRA would come into conflict with the British army. Ironically up to this point the army had been more acceptable to the nationalists, as a source of protection, than it was to the unionists. However, the army found themselves in a difficult situation, i.e. trying to maintain order while a political solution was imposed. The last aim meant that the IRA would come into conflict with the British army. Ironically up to this point the army had been more acceptable to the nationalists, as a source of protection, than it was to the unionists. However, the army found themselves in a difficult situation, i.e. trying to maintain order while a political solution was imposed. The IRA’s campaign began to take off in earnest in the middle of The British army responded in July by imposing a 34-hour curfew on the Lower Falls area while a house-to-house search for weapons was carried out. The IRA’s campaign began to take off in earnest in the middle of The British army responded in July by imposing a 34-hour curfew on the Lower Falls area while a house-to-house search for weapons was carried out. How do you think the Nationalist community reacted to these actions of the British Army? How do you think the Nationalist community reacted to these actions of the British Army?

18 Political Disaster Although some weapons were found politically it was PR disaster and has been credited with helping to increase the membership of the IRA. In addition it weakened the good relationship that had been built up between the army and the nationalist community. Although some weapons were found politically it was PR disaster and has been credited with helping to increase the membership of the IRA. In addition it weakened the good relationship that had been built up between the army and the nationalist community.

19 As Professor JJ Lee has highlighted ‘If the army did nothing but wait, the IRA might gradually acquire the resources to mount an aggressive campaign against it. If it seized the initiative through ‘arms searches’ it would inevitably foster IRA recruitment among outraged Catholics whose homes it had vandalised…The ‘arms searches’ came as a godsend to the IRA.’ Why do you think Lee has described it as a ‘God send to the IRA’?

20 Protestant Paramilitaries The Protestant Paramilitaries also wanted to see the end of the Stormont government but for very different reasons. The Protestant Paramilitaries also wanted to see the end of the Stormont government but for very different reasons. They sought a return to the old days of Unionist domination. The UVF had grown and prospered against the background of NICRA’s campaign and O’Neill’s perceived appeasement of Catholics. It had developed a military style organisation and had ‘increasingly found reasons to pre- empt the counter IRA violence.’ (Wichert) They sought a return to the old days of Unionist domination. The UVF had grown and prospered against the background of NICRA’s campaign and O’Neill’s perceived appeasement of Catholics. It had developed a military style organisation and had ‘increasingly found reasons to pre- empt the counter IRA violence.’ (Wichert) September 1971 saw the formation of the UDA to fill a gap in the defences of the loyalist community. It saw itself as a defensive grouping that would resist republican aggression. With over 30,000 members within a year, it was viewed by the authorities as too large to ban. September 1971 saw the formation of the UDA to fill a gap in the defences of the loyalist community. It saw itself as a defensive grouping that would resist republican aggression. With over 30,000 members within a year, it was viewed by the authorities as too large to ban.

21 Faulkner replaces Chichester-Clark The levels of violence and destruction shot up during the remaining months of 1970 and The Stormont Government demanded a stronger response from Britain’s new Conservative Government, but little happened, as the London Government didn’t want to alienate the nationalist community even more. In despair, Chichester- Clark resigned and he was replaced by Brian Faulkner The levels of violence and destruction shot up during the remaining months of 1970 and The Stormont Government demanded a stronger response from Britain’s new Conservative Government, but little happened, as the London Government didn’t want to alienate the nationalist community even more. In despair, Chichester- Clark resigned and he was replaced by Brian Faulkner

22 Faulkner’s response Faulkner appeared to have a better grasp of the situation than his predecessor, however, he too was unable to reduce the levels of violence. By the time marching season had arrived in July/August 1971, violence was at an all time high, particularly in Derry. The Government’s response was the reintroduction of internment: the arrest and detention without trial those suspected o working for the destruction of the state. Faulkner appeared to have a better grasp of the situation than his predecessor, however, he too was unable to reduce the levels of violence. By the time marching season had arrived in July/August 1971, violence was at an all time high, particularly in Derry. The Government’s response was the reintroduction of internment: the arrest and detention without trial those suspected o working for the destruction of the state. Check out the following hyperlink to see and hear Faulkner’s speech. Check out the following hyperlink to see and hear Faulkner’s speech. Faulkner's Speech Faulkner's Speech Faulkner's Speech Faulkner's Speech

23 Tasks Read pages Read pages Answer questions 3-7. Answer questions 3-7. Also try the extension activity. ‘Who was responsible for the growth of the IRA?’ Also try the extension activity. ‘Who was responsible for the growth of the IRA?’ Think about this question from the following perspectives Think about this question from the following perspectives The IRA The IRA A Nationalist civilian A Nationalist civilian A Unionist civilian A Unionist civilian The British Army The British Army How do you think they feel about the growing popularity of the IRA? How do you think they feel about the growing popularity of the IRA?


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