Presentation on theme: "SPONGE Body Systems, Day 1"— Presentation transcript:
1SPONGEBody Systems, Day 1Which muscle do you think is the most important? Explain why in a sentence.How can you keep your muscles healthy?
2Body Systems and Exercise Section 1:The Muscular System
3The Muscular SystemThere are more than 600 muscles in the body, providing motion and maintaining posture.Muscles are divided into 3 major groups:
4Skeletal MuscleSkeletal, or voluntary muscle, is muscle that a person can control.These muscles are mostly located in the arms, legs and outside the bones of your body.
5Smooth MuscleSmooth, or involuntary muscle, functions without a person thinking about it.For example, your stomach and intestinal muscles move food throughout your body without you thinking about it.
6Cardiac MuscleCardiac muscle is located only in the heart. It looks like skeletal muscle, but is not voluntary.This muscle contracts steadily to keep your heart beating, but can speed up for exercise and emergencies.
8Inside the Muscle Fiber Inside the Muscle FiberThere are many parts of a muscle fiber, but two main parts are involved in flexing:Myosin has “arms” that grab and climb, causing the muscle to contract.Actin acts as a ladder for myosin to climb up.
9What Makes Muscles Move? Muscles use energy in the form of ATP molecules to contract.ATP is short for Adenosine triphosphateATP is a molecule made up of Adenosine and 3 phosphates.AdenosinePhosphate
10ATP Becomes EnergyWhen an ATP molecule is broken, energy is released and used for muscles to move.With only two phosphates left, ATP becomes ADP.AdenosineEnergyPhosphatePhosphatePhosphate
11Free RadicalsWhen you exercise, your muscles break apart many ATP molecules into ADP.All of the extra phosphates, known as Free Radicals, float around in the tissues and damage muscle.Fortunately, your body has ways of preventing the spread of free radicals.
12Removing Free Radicals PhosphateFree RadicalAdenosinePhosphateLacticAcidThere are two ways the body can get rid of free radicals.During exercise, your body pumps Lactic Acid into the bloodstream.The Lactic Acid reconnects the Free Radicals to the ADP, turning it back into ATP. Now the body won’t be harmed and it will have more energy.
13AntioxidantsAntioxidants also bind to free radicals, making them harmless to the body.Antioxidants can be found in colorful fruits like blueberries and strawberries, as well as many types of beans.People, especially athletes, should eat food rich in antioxidants because they produce more free radicals during exercise.
16Flexors and ExtensorsMuscles work in pairs called flexors and extensors.Flexors bend an arm or a leg.Extensors straighten the limb back out.Remember though, both muscles can only shorten.
17Caring for your Muscles To build muscle, you can eat protein but give yourself time between workouts to rest so the muscles can build up.Eat carbohydrates to fuel muscle.Train your muscles aerobically (more than 15 minutes in a row) to build muscle tone and train your heart.
18Muscles and ExerciseThere are two basic muscle types involved in exercise:Fast twitch muscles: Contract quickly for fast, strong movements, but tire quickly.Slow twitch muscles: Contract more slowly, but can exercise for much longer.You are born with a certain number of fast and slow twitch muscles, and cannot grow new ones. You can exercise them to make them work better.
19Exercise in Junior High Female muscle strength will gradually grow in the teen years, while male muscle will grow up to 10 times.Strength training will benefit young teen athletes, but only if done correctly.
20Exercise in Junior High The connections between your bones and muscles do not finish forming until high school. Lifting large amounts of weight in 8th grade can seriously damage your joints and affect your growth plates.Young teens should lift smaller amounts of weight many times. ( reps for each muscle group)Lift no more than 3 – 4 times a week for about 30 – 60 minutes.Increase the maximum weight you lift no more than pounds from day to day.
21Unit ProjectIn groups of two, create a life-sized drawing of a body system. Each group chooses one of the following body systems:MuscularNervousDigestiveSkeletalCirculatoryRespiratory
22Unit Project Once you have chosen a system: Use the provided diagram as a guideUse markers to color body partsLabel body partsProjects are due on the day of the health test and worth 20 points