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STATE/TERRITORY LEVEL REFEREE/JUDGE REFRESHER. Purpose  At the end of this seminar and practical lessons you will:  have the theory knowledge and understanding.

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Presentation on theme: "STATE/TERRITORY LEVEL REFEREE/JUDGE REFRESHER. Purpose  At the end of this seminar and practical lessons you will:  have the theory knowledge and understanding."— Presentation transcript:

1 STATE/TERRITORY LEVEL REFEREE/JUDGE REFRESHER

2 Purpose  At the end of this seminar and practical lessons you will:  have the theory knowledge and understanding of the rules to provide the athletes with fair and consistent rulings, and  have the basic referee practical understanding to perform as a trainee State/Territory Level referee. Horizons

3 Agenda BA structure Expectations Objectives Dress Gloves Bandages Duties Positioning Hints for judges Awarding of points/Scoring blows Fouls Cautions/warnings Decisions Timekeeping Drawing of bouts Age divisions Female boxing Weight divisions Rounds Judge analysis Computer scoring Handheld scoring Scorecards-W/X/J/KDs

4 Agenda #2 Ref Dress/Duties Ref Powers Before bout –Positioning –Seconds –Shaking of hands During bout –Positioning –Hints/movements –Commands –Cautions/warnings –Down –Counts/limits –Decisions –Injuries –Doctors role After bout –Positioning –Role/duties Exhibitions

5 Boxing Australia structure COUNCIL 1 delegate per state & territory Anti-doping Committee Medical Committee Selectors Committee R&J Committee CEO BOARD 5 elected directors National Coach Rules Committee Wayne Rose (Chair) Max Sulejmani (Sec) Ann Tindal Tomis Papak Steve Warn

6 Expectations The expectations of the spectators, competitors and coaches are that the Referees and Judges are totally impartial. Factors that affect R&Js are the four ‘Fs”; that is they are fit, fair, firm and friendly. Judging is only science; refereeing is science as well as art. Fitness MentalPhysical Emotional Spirits Morale Normal sight Not colour blind Person with a disability Fitness above average Fit so you may easily move around the ring with confidence and in touch with the athletes.

7 Expectations cont’ Fairness Intention Fair minded Interpretation of rules Enforcing of rules Consistency Normally R&J are fair but may be affected by the following factors: InternalExternal Reputation of boxer & country Friends Team officials Fair so that it is openly apparent there is no favouritism

8 Firm Expectations cont’ Firmness Firm application of rules Firm decisions Firm action Firm minded Firm so as coaches and boxers can be confident in our actions Friendliness Friendly in character Speak one of AIBA languages (English, French, Russian, Arabic) Sociable Friendly so our sport may flourish and there is all round respect Friendly Fair Fit

9 Objectives The following is a comparison of objectives to make you better understand the role we play and why we have to overcome distractions or disappointments following unpopular decisions.  The objective of an athlete or coach is to:  win the bout [at all cost].  Our objective as officials is to:  ensure we arrive at the correct decision within the boundaries of the rules.

10 Boxers dress  Clothing Light boots or shoes without spikes or heals, socks, shorts not to exceed knee length, and a red or blue vest matching their corner covering the chest and back. Where the vest and shorts are the same colour, the belt line must be clearly indicated. A soft knee brace is acceptable; no metal or hard plastic.  Gum shields Shall be worn and shall be form fitted. Where the gum shield is knocked out the referee shall take the boxer to their corner, have it washed and refitted. While this is being done the seconds are not to talk to the boxer. If the gum shield falls out a third time for any reason the boxer shall be warned and further warned if it happens again. Red coloured gum shields are forbidden  Cup/ breast protectors A cup protector shall be worn by male boxers, a jock strap may be worn in addition. Females shall wear a breast protector.

11 Boxers dress cont’  Head guards Boxers shall wear conforming head guards approved by AIBA, BAI or the state. Head guards should be of the same colour as their corner; in international bouts it is mandatory. National champs only AIBA approved head guards shall be used (Adidas, Everlast, Top Ten or Green Hill are approved). The head guard will be fitted once in the ring and removed at the bout conclusion and before the decision.  Prohibited objects No other objects may be worn during the bout. No type of body piercing and no body accessories shall be worn during the bout. The use of rubbing liniment or products likely to be harmful or objectionable to an opponent, on the face, arms or any part of the body is forbidden. However, grease or vaseline rubbed into the forehead and eyebrows before a contest is allowable to prevent injury.  Dress infractions A referee shall exclude from competition a boxer that does not wear a head guard, a cup-protector, a breast protector (females), and gumshield. Where a boxer’s glove or dress becomes undone during boxing the referee shall stop the contest and have it attended to.

12 Gloves Competitors shall wear red or blue gloves as per the respective boxer’s corner and which are approved by AIBA, BAI or the state. At national champs only Adidas, Everlast or Top Ten are approved. Boxers are not allowed to wear their own gloves. The gloves shall weigh 10oz of which the leather portion shall not weigh more than half of the total weight and the padding not less than half the total weight. The regular hitting surface must be marked on the gloves with a clearly discernible colour. The padding of the gloves shall not be displaced or broken. Only clean and serviceable gloves shall be used. All gloves and bandages shall be fitted under the supervision of two knowledgeable officials appointed for that purpose.

13 Bandages A bandage between 2.5m and 4.5m and 5.7cm wide on each hand will be used. No other kind of bandage may be used. The use of any kind of tapes, rubber or adhesive plaster, as bandages, is strictly forbidden. However, a single strip of adhesive 3” (7.6cm) long and between 1” (2.5cm) and 2” (5cm) wide, may be used at the upper wrist to secure the bandage. At national champs only AIBA bandages will be used. Bandages shall be checked by the referee at the end of the bout.

14 The judge  Attire :  Judges shall officiate in white clothing and black bow-tie.  Participation :  5 judges will officiate at championship and selection events.  In other events 3 judges must be used.  A referee will not judge.  Duties :  The Judges’ primary duty is to independently and without bias judge the bout according to the rules.  Shall use the computer scoring system for judging, or if unavailable a Handheld boxing points calculator or similar; 20:19 scoring is forbidden.  May not speak to anyone during a bout or give any sign to a contestant or judge.  At end of a round, may bring to the referee’s attention anything the referee may not have noticed (eg loose ropes, noisy cornermen).  May not leave seat until the decision is announced.

15 Referees and Judges  This rule deals with the generics of the role. Only AIBA officials shall officiate during Olympic, Worlds, AIBA Challenge matches, Oceania, and other internationals. Referees shall not judge. 5 judges shall be seated at ringside and separate from the public. If 5 is unavailable 3 may be used but not in major AIBA tournaments. Only officials qualified and approved shall be used. Officials acting as referees or judges shall not act as a manager, trainer or second during the same tournament. An official may be suspended if they fail to enforce the rules or their marking or scoring is considered unsatisfactory. If the referee is incapacitated during the contest the timekeeper shall ring the bell to stop the bout and the next available referee will resume the bout. The use of the computer scoring is compulsory for all AIBA tournaments. The 20-point scoring system is forbidden. Judges must score with the computer scoring, the Handheld boxing points calculator or similar.

16 Ring positions JURYTABLEJURYTABLE Docs Ref Includes: Announcer Timekeeper Computer operator Jury Chair Recorder Stairs 1 2 3

17 Hints for judges Direct your gaze on a point midway between the two boxers; this will enable you to see and note the actions of each boxer. Avoid any inclination to watch a particular boxer, who by reason of their style or personality may attract more attention than their opponent. Never rely on past performance, reputations or titles earned by a particular athlete. A boxer who swings his/her blows is liable to contact the target area with the inside of the glove. Considerable proportions of swinging blows do not contact with the knuckle part of the closed glove, and are therefore foul blows, for which the judge must not award points. A guide as to the correctness of a swinging blow is whether a boxer turns the glove when delivering the blow. Unless this occurs the blow will almost certainly be struck with the inside of the glove. Infighting may be described as the exchange of several blows when the boxers are close together. The advantage is usually with the boxer whom has the inside position because she/he can strike straight speedy blows whilst their arms protect them. Don’t give credit for blows delivered whilst the boxer is infringing the rules. Don’t be influenced by the reputation of the boxer; the best champion is liable to be beaten. Award your points for the boxing you see, not for what a boxer can do, or has done on other occasions. Don’t be influenced by the crowd or by the corners. Don’t engage in conversation or other distractions during the contest, but give your undivided attention to the competing boxers, however, be prepared to advise the referee if she/he seeks your advice.

18 Awarding of points Scoring Blow A scoring blow is one, which without being blocked or guarded, lands with the knuckle part of the closed glove of either hand on any part of the front or sides of the head or body above the belt, without infringing the rules. A non-scoring blow is one which infringes the rules, or is struck with the side or back or inside of the glove, or with the open glove, or any part other than the knuckle part of the closed glove; or which lands on the arms; or which merely connects, without the weight of the body or shoulder.

19 Fouls oHitting below the belt, holding, tripping, kicking, and butting with foot or knee. oHits or blows with head, shoulder, forearm, elbow, throttling of the opponent, pressing with arm or elbow in opponent’s face, pressing the head of the opponent back over the ropes. oHitting with open glove, the inside of the glove, wrist or side of the hand. oHits landing on the back of the opponent, and especially any blow on the back of the neck or head and kidney punch. oPivot blows. oAttack whilst holding the ropes or making any unfair use of the ropes. oLying on, wrestling and throwing in the clinch. oAn attack on an opponent who is down or who is in the act of rising. oHolding. oHolding and hitting or pulling and hitting. oHolding, or locking of the opponent’s arm or head, or pushing an arm underneath the arm of an opponent. oDucking below the belt of the opponent in a manner dangerous to an opponent. oCompletely passive defence by double cover and intentionally falling or turning the back to avoid a blow. oUseless, aggressive, or offensive utterances during a round. oNot stepping back when ordered to break. oAttempting to strike an opponent immediately after the referee has ordered “break” and before stepping back. oAssaulting or behaving in an aggressive manner towards a referee at any time. oSpitting out the gumshield. oKeeping the advanced hand straight in order to obstruct the opponent’s vision.  If a referee has any reason to believe a foul has been committed which is unseen, the ref may consult the judges.

20 Cautions and warnings A caution is advice or admonishment for less serious infringements. 3 cautions for the same type of foul shall require a warning to be given. A warning is given where a boxer breaks the rules but does not warrant disqualification. A minor infringement that is not advantageous to the offender does not merit a warning. A caution therefore should be sufficient. Warnings are for dangerous infringements, harm fouls or persistent offences. Cautions and warnings must be given clearly in such a way that the boxer understands the offence and that you are "speaking" to him/her with your signal. Demonstrate by imitating the nature of the infringements. To issue a "warning" the referee must stop the bout by giving the command "stop". Send the victim boxer to the neutral corner, give warning (indicate this with the thumb), clearly showing infringement to boxer, then indicate to each judge in order from No 1 (jury 1 st) to No 5 with the demonstrating thumb. Demonstrate again to boxer the infringement and indicate with thumb that warning has been given, and then order BOX. The command "box" should be given only after you have been satisfied that the offender clearly understands the warning.

21 Cautions and warnings cont’ At the "third" warning, you must disqualify the offender. After you have disqualified the boxer by issuing the warning and then returning the boxers to their respective corners, you must let your decision be known to the Jury/official in charge and to each judge (only for Handheld Boxing Points Calculator scoring). For this purpose, you may lean over the ropes and very clearly indicate which boxer you have disqualified. Do NOT take a disqualified boxer to his/her corner and enter into any discussion with the boxer or the seconds to justify your decision. Judges’ responsibility  Where a judge agrees with a warning the judge will press the ‘warning’ button, whereas if a judge does not agree with the warning he/she simply does nor press any buttons. Where a judge is unsighted they shall agree with the referee.  Where a judge sees a foul where the referee was possibly obstructed or failed to respond, the judge may penalise the boxer by pressing the ‘warning’ button. This will be indicated by a ‘J’ on the bout printout and will increase the judge’s individual score by 2 blows. Boxer down from a foul  Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall be warned, and the victim boxer shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee. Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree with the referee.

22 Decisions (and actions) Win on points. Retirement. RSC:  Outclassed (OC).  Compulsory count limit (CCL).  Injury Next

23 Decisions cont’ Disqualification. Knockout. RSCH (referee stops contest – head injury).  ‘R.S.C.H.’ is a term to be used only when a boxer is being saved from a knockout after having received hard head blows making him defenceless and incapable of continuing.  The term RSCH is not to be used when a boxer is simply outclassed and is receiving too many scoring hits without scoring him/herself. Walkover. No contest. Draw.

24 The timekeeper  The primary duty of the timekeeper is to regulate the number, duration and intervals between the rounds.  The intervals between rounds are one full minute (60 seconds) in duration.  Five seconds before the start of each round, the timekeeper shall signal “seconds out” by use of a whistle, similar device or by informing the announcer to announce “seconds out”.  The timekeeper shall commence and end each round by striking the gong, bell, buzzer or horn, etc.  The Timekeeper shall announce the number of each round prior to the start of the round.  The timekeeper shall regulate all periods of time and counts by a watch or clock.  Stops of the contest for warnings, cautions, bringing the dress or equipment into order, or for any other reason are NOT included in the two minutes, whereas a count IS included in the two minutes. A full one-minute rest shall be given between rounds. No additional round(s) may be given.  In the event of a knockdown, the timekeeper shall:  immediately start the count by raising his/her hand  regulate the passing seconds with movement of the hand in a visual position for the referee’s direction  begin the count from “one” to ten with intervals of one second; and  resume the clock; as any count is part of the duration of the round.  If, at the end of the round, a boxer is ‘down’ and the referee is in the course of counting, the gong or bell will not be sounded until the referee has given the command ‘box’ indicating the continuation of the round.

25 Drawing of bouts  Purpose The draw will take place following the weigh-in and 3 hrs before the first bout of the first session. To reduce the number of boxers in the first series down to 2, 4, 8, etc boxers in the second series. To determine the order of competition Where there is 5 boxers there will be 1 bout, 3 byes as such: Where there is 8 boxers there will be 4 bouts, 0 byes as such: Bout 5 Bout 6 Bout 1 Bout 2 Bout 3 Bout 4 Bout 7 Bout 1 Bout 2 Bout 3 Bout 4

26 Age limits  The boxer’s age is determined by using their age of birth.  At non-championship bouts boxers under 17 years are not permitted to compete against a boxer who is 2 calendar years or more older.  Where a boxer under 17 years competes against a boxer aged over 17 years the under 17 rules apply. Accordingly, where boundaries are crossed the lower age group always applies.  Australian states vary in their age restrictions for boxers to compete. Currently, many states within Australia allow boxers to compete from age 10 years. Due to Government restrictions, boxers in some states can only start competition from age 12 or 14 years.  Divisions within Australia  U11 – 10 years  U13 – 11 or 12 years.  U15 – 13 or 14 years  Junior – 15 or 16 years.  Youth – 17 or 18 years.  Elite – 17 years and 34 years.  Masters – 35 years and over (unlimited)  Australian championship ages at the first weigh-in  Junior – 15 years and 16 years (includes female).  Youth – 17 years and 18 years (includes female).  Elite Male and Female – 17 years and 34 years.

27 Rounds  Under 15 yrs:  Boys and girls – 3 x 1 ½ min rounds.  Novice – 3 x 1 min rounds.  Junior:  Boys and girls – 3 x 2 min rounds.  Novice – 3 x 1 ½ min rounds.  Youth:  Male – 4 x 2 min rounds.  Female – 3 x 2 min rounds.  Novice – 3 x 2 min rounds.  Elite:  Male – 3 x 3 min rounds.  Female – 4 x 2 min rounds.  Novice – 3 x 2 min rounds.  Masters:  Male and female – 3 x 2 min rounds.  Stopping the contest for warnings, cautions, fixing the dress, fixing equipment, or for any other reason (other than a count), is not included in the duration of the round.  A full one-minute rest period shall be given between rounds.

28 Computer scoring In 1990, AIBA made computerised scoring mandatory for all international tournaments, and BA rules require computerised scoring also for all national competitions in Australia. The main purpose of computerised scoring is to ensure fair, objective and purely technical decisions for the boxers. Other advantages are: Judges are relieved of the tedious calculations to determine points and can concentrate on recognising and recording scoring blows only. Trace recording of all judges actions at every second of the bout are made, and faster, more accurate flow of information and less delay between bouts occurs. All Judges’ reactions are immediately displayed on the screen that is situated in front of the jury. In this manner the jury is able to monitor the effectiveness of each Judge. All data that is collected during the bout is synchronised with the bout clock. This means that each press of a button by a Judge is immediately time stamped and registered. As we do not use a bout clock linked to the computer, our situation is that the computer internally registers this information that can then be extracted. Judges new to computer scoring generally tend to under-press or over-press significantly. It is important to learn to relax and not be trigger-happy, since you cannot “undo” a press of the button. There is plenty of time for you to determine if a punch is valid, and ensure that you press the button for the correct corner (red or blue) promptly but without rushing.

29 Computer scoring cont’ Scoring pad Concept On/off button Scoring buttons Warning buttons Visual display Visual display button Power input

30 Computer scoring cont’ Warnings Judge’s warning Draw If computer malfunctions Judges assessment Individual score Individual accepted score Combined accepted score

31 Computer scoring cont’ If the computer scoring system becomes defective during a bout the Jury shall cease the bout for one minute. Scores retained If, during the one-minute period the system cannot be repaired and the scores at the time of the stoppage are retained, proceed as follows: The judges shall use hand held scoring devices (includes clicker devices) and record the bout for the duration and record the score onto scoring paper. At the end of the contest the jury shall collect the scoring papers from the judges. Add the judges’ individual scores from the computer to the scores from the scoring papers, delete the high and low scores from the red and blue corner to arrive at the winner. Scores not retained If during the one minute period the system cannot be repaired and the scores at the time of the stoppage are not retained, proceed as follows: If the incident occurs in the 1 st, 2 nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3 rd round, and there are at least three more bouts scheduled in that session, the bout shall be rescheduled as the final bout of the session. If the incident occurs in the 1 st, 2 nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3 rd round, and there are less than three more bouts scheduled in that session, the bout shall be rescheduled to the start of the next session; but if there are no further sessions scheduled for the event then the judges will be asked to decide the winner. If the incident occurs after the end of the 2 nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3 rd round, the judges will be asked to decide the winner.

32 Handheld boxing points calculator Concept  Handheld calculators are not connected to a computer, but use the same concept as a simple press of a red or blue button each time a scoring blow has been delivered. This enables the judge to fully concentrate on the bout and to simply react to a scoring punch. On0 = Sum + %123- Box Cal 456X Round 789/ W W Start/ Display On button Boxing mode Start scoring Scoring buttons Warning buttons Round button Stop scoring Display scores

33 Handheld boxing points calculator Scorecard Location: Bout No:Weight Div: Date: Referee:Judge: RED BLUE Boxer’s name: Club/State: Boxer’s name: Club/State: Warnings & counts Warning & counts Points Round Total In case of tied score Most leading off or better style Better defenceOther WINNER RED BLUE ……………………..Signature of Judge Rounds PointsKnockout HB DisqRetired RSC Head RSC Out- class RSC Injury RSC Comp Count Limit WalkoverNo Contest W J-OG KDH Scorecard Warnings Judge’s warnings Knockdowns Procedure at end of bout Points equal at end of bout If handheld malfunctions X

34 Judge’s analysis

35 Referee’s duties  Dress: White pants and shirt with black bowtie. Flat soled shoes. Disposable gloves. Surgical swabs.  Duties:  The referee’s primary duty is the safety of the boxers.  The referee’s secondary duties are to: maintain control of the bout and ensure rules and fair play are adhered to, and ensure a boxer does not take unnecessary or excessive punishment.  Check the gloves and dress.  Use three words of command: “stop” when ordering the boxers to stop boxing. “box” when ordering them to continue. “break” when breaking a clinch, at which stage each boxer shall step back a full pace before continuing boxing.  Indicate by suitable signs or gestures any infringement of the rules.  When the winner of the bout is announced, raise the hand of the winning boxer; not before.  Where a disqualification or stoppage has occurred a referee will first notify the jury, and if the judges are using the ‘Handhelds or similar’, notify the judges.

36 The referee cont’  Powers Terminate a contest if it is too one-sided. Terminate if one or both boxers are injured or can’t continue. Terminate if one or both boxers are not in earnest, in which case the referee may disqualify one or both boxers. Caution a boxer or stop a contest and give a warning. Disqualify a boxer who fails to comply immediately with orders or behaves aggressively or offensively towards referee. Caution or remove a second who infringes rules, and disqualify a boxer if the second does not comply with orders. Disqualify for a foul, with or without a previous warning. Suspend a count if other boxer deliberately fails to retire to neutral corner, delays so doing, or seconds are talking or gesturing to their boxer or crowd. Interpret rules and take action on any matter not covered by a rule.

37 Before bout ring positioning JURYTABLEJURYTABLE Docs Ref Includes: Announcer Timekeeper Computer operator Jury Chair Recorder Stairs

38 The coach Each competitor is entitled to one coach and one assistant coach. Only the two coaches shall mount the ring and only one shall enter the ring during the interval. Coaches are not to enter before or at the end of a contest. During the bout no coaches shall remain on the platform. Before the bout begins they shall remove everything from the platform. A coach may retire their boxer, but not whilst the referee is counting. No advice or encouragement shall be given to a competitor by the coaches during the bout. Nor shall they encourage spectators to act on their behalf. A coach may be cautioned or removed for their actions. A boxer may also be cautioned, warned or disqualified for offences committed by the coach. Where a coach is removed from the corner they shall not act again in that session. If it occurs a second time the coach shall not act again during that tournament.

39 Shaking of hands  Purpose  Boxers shall shake hands as a sign of sportsmanship and friendly rivalry in accordance with the rules of boxing.  Authorised times  Takes place before the beginning of the first round and after the result has been given. No other shaking of hands is permitted.

40 The Jury – positioning JURYTABLEJURYTABLE Docs Ref Includes: Announcer Timekeeper Computer operator Jury Chair Recorder Stairs

41 The Jury’s role At national champs the jury will consist of not less than three persons who will be at least Aust qualified RJ; each bout conducted at state level will not have less than one who will be at least a state qualified RJ. The duties of the jury will be to:  Oversee the scoring and decisions of the referees and judges.  Recommend to the RJ Committee to suspend or disqualify referees and judges.  Hear protests.  Cease boxing where circumstances should arise that require action.  Stopping the bout on the recommendation from the ringside physician.  Overturn boxing contests or change boxing decisions where appropriate.

42 The Jury cont’ Protests The team manager can lodge a protest within 30 minutes of bout termination, and within 5 minutes for championship final bouts with a protest fee of $A220. If upheld, the fee is refunded. Overriding a decision The Jury can overturn a decision only where they consider the Referee has made a decision against the rules and articles of AIBA/BAI or where there has been obvious cheating or, where Handheld Boxing Points Calculator Scoring, or similar, is used, the score has been incorrectly added.

43 During bout ring positioning JURYTABLEJURYTABLE Docs Ref Includes: Announcer Timekeeper Computer operator Jury Chair Recorder Stairs

44 Hints for referees The first and most important duty of the referee is the safety of the boxers; then to uphold the rules and to prevent either boxer from receiving unnecessary and excessive blows. The referee must immediately stop the boxing when a boxer appears unable to properly defend him/herself. Consideration of pleasing the public or disappointing a gallant loser must never influence a referee or judge. Be strict without being severe. Boxing is a sport. Never try to intimidate a boxer by ‘finger pointing’ when issuing a caution or warning. Be sure to use the ‘whole’ hand as this projects a better image and will maintain respect from the competitors. Forget the public who may "boo" when you issue a caution, warning or count. The "third man" in the ring risks more criticism than anyone else. Never try to get into the act! A good referee makes the boxers feel his/her presence. But the audience hardly realises he/she is in the ring. Deal with the serious offences at the very outset with proper cautions and warnings. Your demeanour should impress on the boxers that they are not inside the ring for the purpose of fighting but for a game of skill strictly according to the rules. Move alertly around the ring and avoid remaining in one position for a long period thus obstructing the view of the judges and onlookers.

45 Hints for referees cont’ If the contest is fought at close quarters the referee should be up close in a position where ‘break’ can be enforced and at all times ensuring both boxers hear the call. If a boxer is hurt or suspected of being hurt and the bout is continuing remain close to the action so you are in a position that immediate action to cease the contest can occur. Never give commands if the boxer has their back to the referee. Ensure you are in a correct position where the boxer fully understands your instructions, actions or gestures. If the contest is fought at a fast pace, follow the aggressor and work around the boxers always endeavouring to watch both of the contestants. Don’t walk backwards; always move in a forward direction where possible. Where a southpaw is competing against an orthodox boxer ensure you stay on the open side. Distinguish between "infighting" and "clinching". A clinch occurs when one or both boxers lead and for a moment their arms become locked together. This is not an offence, but an offence does occur when a boxer does not make an attempt to disengage from the clinch and continues to hold. Do not give the command "break" too quickly or too often. This order should be given when the boxers are slow in getting out of a clinch. At the command "break” insist on both the boxers taking one full step backward with both feet before resuming boxing. At the end of the round call ‘STOP’ and await for the boxers to retire to their corners. Do not turn your back on the boxers, but move to the centre of the ring, turn and back into the neutral corner.

46 Cautions and warnings A caution is advice or admonishment for less serious infringements. 3 cautions for the same type of foul shall require a warning to be given. A warning is given where a boxer breaks the rules but does not warrant disqualification. A minor infringement that is not advantageous to the offender does not merit a warning. A caution therefore should be sufficient. Warnings are for dangerous infringements, harm fouls or persistent offences. Cautions and warnings must be given clearly in such a way that the boxer understands the offence and that you are "speaking" to him/her with your signal. Demonstrate by imitating the nature of the infringements. To issue a "warning" you must stop the bout by giving the command "stop". Send the victim boxer to the neutral corner, give warning (indicate this with the thumb), clearly showing infringement to boxer, then indicate to each judge in order from No 1 (jury first) to No 5 with the demonstrating thumb. Demonstrate again to boxer the infringement and indicate with thumb that warning has been given, and then order BOX. The command "box" should be given only after you have been satisfied that the offender clearly understands the warning.

47 Cautions and warnings cont’ At the "third" warning, you must disqualify the offender. After you have disqualified the boxer by issuing the warning and then returning the boxers to their respective corners, you must let your decision be known to the Jury/official in charge and to each judge (only for Handheld Boxing Points Calculator scoring). For this purpose, you may lean over the ropes and very clearly indicate which boxer you have disqualified. Do NOT take a disqualified boxer to his/her corner and enter into any discussion with the boxer or the seconds to justify your decision. Boxer down from a foul  Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall be warned, and the victim boxer shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee. Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree with the referee.

48 Down A knockdown is the result of a blow or series of blows. No extra points are awarded for a knockdown, only the blow that landed. Where a boxer is down the opponent must retire to the neutral corner. However, at all times your first priority and consideration is the downed boxer.  Definition of down:  if any part of the body other than the soles of the feet touche the floor from a blow or series of blows,  if the boxer hangs helplessly on the ropes from a blow or series of blows,  if the boxer is outside or partly outside the ropes from a blow or series of blows, or  if following a hard blow the boxer has not fallen or hanging helplessly on the ropes, but is in a semi-conscience state and in the opinion of the Referee is unable to continue.

49 Down cont’  The count  The referee shall immediately start the count.  Before “one” is counted an interval of one second must have lapsed.  The referee shall count aloud from one to ten with a second between the numbers, and indicate the passing of the seconds with the fingers in a manner that the down boxer is aware.  Where an opponent fails to retire to a neutral corner the referee shall stop counting, until the opponent has done so, and then resume where it was stopped.  Number of counts  For males and females who box as ‘Elites’ (aged inclusive), a contest shall be terminated as Referee Stopped Contest if there are three counts in any one round or four counts in the bout.  Male, 3x3 min rounds  Female, 4x2 min rounds  For all other divisions, a contest will be terminated as Referee Stopped Contest if there are two counts in any one round or three counts in the bout.  Opponent’s responsibility  If a boxer is down, the opponent must at once go to a neutral corner, and only continue on the command box.  Mandatory eight count  If a boxer is down as a result of a blow the bout shall not continue until the count of eight is reached.

50 Down cont’  The knockout  After the referee has said “ten” and the word “out”, the bout ends and shall be decided as a “knockout”. Nevertheless, where a boxer is unconscious the referee shall say “one” and “out” and a knockout shall apply.  Boxer down at end of round  In the event of a boxer being down at the end of any round the referee shall continue to count. If the boxer is fit to resume boxing before the count of ten is reached, the referee shall immediately command “box”. The bell cannot save a boxer.  Boxer down a second time without a fresh blow  Where a bout is continued after the count of eight, and the boxer falls again without receiving a fresh blow, the referee shall continue counting from the count of eight.  Both boxers down  If both boxers go down at the same time, counting will be continued as long as one is still down. If both boxers remain down until “ten” both boxers will lose by KO and the mandatory probation period will apply.  KO and win by disqualification  Where a boxer receives a blow to the head illegally after the referee has called ‘break’ or ‘stop’ and the boxer is counted out, the boxer cannot continue to compete at the event even if awarded the bout by disqualification as the mandatory probation period would apply.

51 Down cont’  Boxer fails to resume  A boxer who fails to resume after the interval or fails to resume within ten seconds following a down situation shall lose the contest.  Boxer down from a foul  Count to eight and if the ‘down’ boxer is unable to continue have the Ringside Physician attend immediately to the down boxer. The referee will then consult the judges and if the majority consider it a foul then the offender will be warned and disqualified. Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee. Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree with the referee.  Count limits  Elite – 3 counts in one round, 4 for the whole contest  All others – 2 counts in one round, 3 for the whole contest.  Count limit when boxer down from a foul  Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul that count will not count towards the compulsory count limit.

52 Down cont’  Boxer possibly unconscious  In this situation there is no need to count to eight or ten. After giving the order ‘stop’, the referee will order one-out and immediately call the Ringside Physician to the stricken boxer. Do not touch the boxer, do not remove the mouthguard or place boxer in coma position. Only if the mouthguard is partially out, then remove it; otherwise let the Ringside Physician only attend to boxer. No one else is allowed into the ring.  Bell sounds during count  If the bell sounds during the count, continue to count the boxer. Remember you are still in control of the bout. If the boxer is fit to continue at the count of eight (8) instruct BOX and immediately STOP. This effectively means that the bout can be continued. If the boxer is unable to continue at the count of 8 call STOP and then inform jury either RSC or RSC(H). If Handheld Boxing Points Calculator Scoring or similar is in place inform the jury firstly and then the judges of your decision.  Saved by the bell  A boxer cannot be saved by the bell at any time.

53 Down cont’  While counting a boxer the opponent goes down  Continue to count first boxer while observing the condition of the opponent who has gone ‘down’. However, if either boxer falls unconscious, or appears in an unconscious state, the bout is to be stopped immediately irrespective of the count, i.e. if at ‘4’ the opponent goes down unconscious do not continue to count, stop the boxing immediately.  If at ‘eight’ first boxer is able to continue and opponent is still considered ‘down’, continue count nine, ten out for the opponent and give the appropriate decision. If first boxer is unable to continue at eight and opponent is still ‘down’, continue to count to ten for both boxers and the decision will be given as a double knockout and both boxers given probation periods.  Boxer knocked out of the ring  According to the rules a boxer who has fallen out of the ring should not be assisted. But it is the basic duty of the referee to preserve and protect the boxers’ health. So, when a boxer is falling out of the ring, the referee may hold him/her. The same applies to the judges, seconds or spectators, and this assistance is not deemed outside help and will not be punished. However, it is deemed outside help:  a.if seconds or friends help a boxer who has fallen out of the ring to stand up and get back into the ring, or  b.if seconds or friends give a boxer in question any restorative or stimulating substance. In such a case the boxer will be disqualified.

54 Down cont’ Low blow criteria  Referee saw the blow  The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue  Call ‘stop’ and direct victim boxer to the neutral corner. Call offending boxer to the centre of the ring and issue a warning. ‘Box’.  The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue  ‘Stop’. Call doctor to the victim boxer. Call offending boxer to the centre of the ring and issue a warning and then disqualify.  The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue  ‘Box’.  The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue  9-10-out. Call doctor to down boxer. Send other boxer to his/her corner and advise jury RSC.

55 Down cont’ Low blow criteria  Referee did not see the blow  The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue  ‘Stop’ and direct down boxer to the neutral corner; direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If majority of judges say low, call offending boxer to the centre of the ring and issue a warning and direct ‘box’.  The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue  ‘Stop’. Call doctor to the down boxer. Direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If low, call offending boxer to the centre of the ring, issue a warning and disqualify.  The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue  ‘Stop’ and direct down boxer to the neutral corner; direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If majority of judges say ‘body’, call ‘box’.  The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue  ‘Stop’. Call doctor to the down boxer. Direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If majority of judges say ‘body’ send other boxer to his/her corner and advise jury RSC.

56 Break  Do not give the command "break" too quickly or too often. This order should be given when the boxers are slow in getting out of a clinch. It must be noted that if one of the boxers has his/her hands free there is no clinch. Therefore, the command "break" need not be given, but the bout may be stopped and the other boxer cautioned for holding. Remember that fouls should be dealt with by cautions and warnings and not by always ordering “break”. At the command "break” insist on both the boxers taking one full step backward with both feet before resuming boxing.  Break when one boxer is up against the ropes  Do not give the command too quickly; ensure you are in the correct position before doing so. Call ‘stop and insert your arm between the boxers with the palm of your hand facing the boxer on the ropes. Move the boxers to the centre of the ring and instruct ‘box’. Never call break while the boxers are on the ropes without taking appropriate action. The boxer on the ropes cannot take a step back and could therefore be potentially at risk.  Never push or pull the boxers apart or step between them when breaking the clinch. They must respond to your vocal command.

57 Infighting  Distinguish between "infighting" and "clinching". A clinch occurs when one or both boxers lead and for a moment their arms become locked together. This is not an offence, but an offence does occur when a boxer does not make an attempt to disengage from the clinch and continues to hold  You must be able to differentiate between infighting and lying on. A proper infighter balances steadily on his/her own feet without leaning on his/her opponent and can take an upright position anytime without falling forward.

58 Injury It is not mandatory, but it is strongly suggested that a referee has Hepatitis B inoculations. The referee, upon noticing any bleeding about the head, shall give the command "stop". The referee will have on their person a gauze pad to clean the injured area. Once the injured boxer is cleaned the gauze pad or swab is to be discarded in the plastic bags in the neutral corners. The referee is not to reuse the pad or swab on an opponent, or carry the pad or swab. If an opponent requires cleaning a new pad or swab is to be used. If the area continues to bleed, the referee will consult the ringside physician. The physician will inform the referee whether the bout is to continue or issue an RSC. Always check the condition of the opponent when a bout is stopped due to excessive bleeding. It’s possible that the opponent has also been injured and the decision could be a double injury and result in a points decision.

59 Injury cont’ The referee may summon the Ringside Physician as often as necessary during a bout, and this may include between rounds if the boxer is distressed or in need of medical attention, in which case the bout shall be stopped. The referee has the sole right to decide whether the boxer is fit to continue or not, but when in doubt, be on the safe side. Safeguard your position, consult the Ringside Physician and thereby avoid unnecessary demonstration from the audience and the concerned boxer's camp. Once you consult the Ringside Physician, you are duty bound to follow his/her advice. Following the nursing of injuries it is important to ensure no blood is still on the gloves. Check both boxers to ensure all blood is removed, thereby promoting the image of a clean and competitive sport. Once you have wiped a boxer, never use the same pad or swab to wipe an opponent.  Finals of championships  In the finals of a championship the uninjured boxer will be determined the winner irrespective of the round.

60 Attendance of doctor  Attendance A qualified doctor of medicine shall be in attendance throughout the competition and should not leave the place where it is held before the end of the last bout. Doctors may wear surgical gloves; referees shall wear surgical gloves.  Seating The doctor should be seated at ringside.  Doctor intervention Where the doctor believes the bout should be stopped because of severe punches they shall advise the jury chair who shall press a bell, raise a flag, or get the attention of the referee to stop the bout. The doctor will then mount the ring and examine the boxer and advise the referee whether to box or stop. The doctor shall have one minute to decide.

61 Doctor’s role The doctor, or ringside physician, has arguably one of the most important roles before, during and after a boxing contest. The doctor shall:  Check the boxer before each contest and sign their Competition Record Book.  Sit at ringside and be prepared to interject if required.  Has the right to request suspension of up to one minute to examine a boxer or stop the bout.  If called into the ring by the referee, no other personnel are to enter the ring.  Inform the referee whether the bout is to continue (box) or stop (RSC) following a request from the referee to check a boxer. Referee may consult the Ringside Physician and, if does so, must follow the Ringside Physician’s advice.  Not interfere during the one-minute interval unless the boxer is distressed or in need of medical attention, at which stage the bout should be terminated.  Sign a boxer’s Competition Record Book next to the decision where a boxer has been KO-H, RSCH or has been concussed to verify a probation period. The referee may summon the Ringside Physician as often as necessary during a bout, and this may include between rounds. The referee has the sole right to decide whether the boxer is fit to continue or not, but when in doubt, be on the safe side. Safeguard your position, consult the Ringside Physician and thereby avoid unnecessary demonstration from the audience and the concerned boxer's camp. Once you consult the Ringside Physician, you are duty bound to follow his/her advice. If a boxer continues to bleed, the referee will consult the ringside physician.

62 After bout ring positioning JURYTABLEJURYTABLE Docs Ref Includes: Announcer Timekeeper Computer operator Jury Chair Recorder Stairs

63 After bout roles/duties At the bell, command ‘STOP’. Do not turn your back on the boxers, but wait for the boxers to retire to their respective corners before returning to your position in the neutral corner. During this, do not turn your back as it shows disrespect to the boxers, and you lose sight of what’s happening; walk to the centre of the ring, turn, and then back into the neutral corner. Await for each boxer to remove their gloves AND headgear. Where Handheld or similar scoring is used collect each judges scorecard, ensuring the scorecard is complete, it is tallied correct, a winner is nominated and the scorecard is signed. Hand the scorecards to the jury member in charge or announcer. Where trophies are given, collect the trophies and move to the centre of the ring facing the jury or main table and call the boxers to the centre. Place the trophies in front of you awaiting the decision. If there is a sponsor(s) awarding prizes then hand them trophies. At this stage you will shake the hand of each boxer in recognition of their efforts, courage and sportsmanship. At this stage check the bandages. Take each boxer’s wrist and await the decision. At the decision raise the winner’s arm and award their trophy. When the boxers have left the ring you exit (first in, last out).

64 Exhibitions Exhibitions are less intense where boxers punch lighter and where no result is given. Exhibitions are a way for boxers to demonstrate their style or gain useful learning experiences. Exhibition bouts between novices can be extremely frustrating and you as a referee need to take complete control to ensure the bout does not get out of hand. It is acceptable that the boxers wear larger gloves, but they must be identical, and head guards may be full-face or more protective. During exhibition bouts there will be no judging and the judges will not be seated at ringside. Whilst checking the boxers it is a great opportunity to explain the tempo of the bout that you expect. Explain to the boxers the speed of the bout and the weight of the punches that you expect. Boxers will not touch gloves during the contest other than at the start and conclusion. During the contest don’t be afraid to talk to the boxers and encourage them, plus give direction where necessary. Don’t get into the habit of continually stopping the contest; remember it is an exhibition and it is best to allow the bout to progress without menial stops. If during the contest a situation presents itself where a boxer has been put into a ‘down’ situation then the bout will be terminated as it’s evident that one the boxers has taken advantage of the other boxer. This can be relaxed during ‘elite boxer’ competition sparring, at which time a count will be applied. During the contest it is acceptable that the coach’s instruct the boxers, however, ensure their participation does not become excessive; if it does take appropriate action.

65 Drugs Any substance used by a competing boxer that is foreign to the body is prohibited (refer BAI by-law Anti Doping Policy and BAI web page). Cannabinoid's (marijuana) is considered a banned substance in all testing. Boxers testing positive in this regard are automatically suspended for a period of one (1) year. The IOC banned list of substances constitutes AIBA ’ s list of banned substances.


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