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© 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning BELLWORK From what you already know, name the 3 major components of the circulatory system.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning BELLWORK From what you already know, name the 3 major components of the circulatory system."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning BELLWORK From what you already know, name the 3 major components of the circulatory system. 1

2 Chapter 15 Bleeding and Shock

3 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 3 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the cardiorespiratory system List the components of the circulatory system Explain how blood circulates throughout the body Explain blood pressure and pulse 3

4 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 4 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives (cont’d.) Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to (cont’d.): Explain what is meant by standard precautions Define the three basic types of bleeding Explain the dangers associated with shock 4

5 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 5 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Cardiorespiratory System Includes functions of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and gas exchange between the blood and atmosphere Heart pumps blood through the body through pathways (e.g., arteries, veins, and capillaries) Blood is enriched with oxygen when it passes through lungs As oxygen enters the bloodstream, carbon dioxide leaves it (i.e., respiration) 5

6 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 6 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System Course taken by blood through arteries, capillaries, and veins and back to the heart Uses blood to transport dissolved materials throughout the body (e.g., oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste) 6

7 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 7 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) The heart Two major circulations Each has its own pump Both pumps are incorporated into the heart Heart structure Primarily a shell with four chambers inside 7

8 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 8 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Heart Facts Right side of heart pumps blood through lungs; left side pumps blood through the body Size of closed fist Weighs less than a pound Beats 100,000 times each day! Pumps 8,000 gallons of blood each day 8

9 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 9 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Structure of the Heart Atria (2)—upper chambers of the heart Ventricles (2)—lower chambers of heart Septum —separates left & right side Aorta —main artery; carries blood to the body Pulmonary artery —connects heart to lungs 9

10 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 10 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Order of Blood Flow 10

11 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) Blood Only tissue that flows throughout the body Carries oxygen and nutrients to all body parts Transports waste products back to the lungs, kidneys, and liver for disposal Crucial for fluid & temperature balance 11

12 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 12 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) Plasma Yellowish liquid part of blood River in which blood cells travel Makes up 55% of blood's total volume Also carries nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers, and proteins 12

13 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 13 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) Red blood cells Highly specialized cells “Stripped” of everything that might get in the way of transporting oxygen Hemoglobin Picks up oxygen in areas where it is abundant and releases it in tissues where oxygen is low 13

14 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 14 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) White blood cells Five kinds: neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils Leave bloodstream to attack site of infection Platelets Release agents to help initiate clotting and protect integrity of the vasculature 14

15 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 15 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) Blood vessels Hollow tubes, running throughout the body, through which blood circulates Types: Arteries: carry blood from heart  organs Arterioles: smallest of the arteries Veins: carry blood back to heart Venules: smallest of the veins Capillaries: tiny vessels that connect arteries to veins 15

16 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 16 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Circulatory System (cont’d.) Coronary arteries Heart’s own system of blood vessels Provide blood & oxygen to the heart

17 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Pulse Points Principal ArteryArea Served Common carotidFace BrachialUpper arm & elbow RadialArm, wrist FemoralGroin PoplitealKnee area Dorsalis pedisAnkle

18 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 18 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning BELLWORK What are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart? What are the upper and lower chambers of the heart called? Describe the order of blood flow, starting in the lungs. 18

19 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 19 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Extra Credit for Chp. 14 Test Monday, immediately after class—30 minutes 20 Fill-in-the-Blank questions ONLY! Must make 80% or higher Average with grade on Chp. 14 Test 15 F’s  2 D’s 2 C’s 4 B’s 19

20 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 20 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning DID YOU KNOW?... The average adult body holds 8-10 pints of blood—a loss of 2 pints can have serious consequences! It takes 5 to 15 minutes for blood to clot If you laid out all the blood vessels in the body from end to end, they would stretch 60,000 miles!

21 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 21 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Heart’s Conduction System Cardiac conduction system Made up of specialized cells within heart muscle tissue Carries electrical signals to muscle cells throughout the heart Signals trigger muscles to contract and pump blood throughout the body 21

22 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 22 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Heart’s Conduction System (cont’d.) Blood pressure Systolic Highest pressure Corresponds to ventricle contraction Diastolic Lowest pressure Represents ventricle relaxation Pulse pressure Difference between systolic and diastolic 22 Avg. Blood Pressure: 120/80 mm/Hg

23 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 23 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Heart’s Conduction System (cont’d.) Pulse Rhythmical beating of the heart Target heart rate Range of percentages of maximum heart rate safe to reach during exercise *Blood pressure & pulse rate are normally lower in athletes 23

24 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 24 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning BELLWORK What is the top number in a blood pressure reading? What is the bottom number in a blood pressure reading? How do you calculate pulse pressure? 24

25 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 25 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Calculating Target HR 220 – age = Max HR (Max HR) x 50% = lowest target HR (Max HR) x 85% = highest target HR

26 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 26 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Target Heart Rate

27 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 27 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Body Substance Isolation Protective equipment includes: Sterile gloves Protective eyewear Surgical mask 27

28 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 28 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning OSHA Guidelines for Infectious Disease Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Monitors outbreaks of infections Advises on how to handle and control disease spread Standard precautions Infection-control guidelines Designed to protect workers from exposure to diseases spread by blood and bodily fluids 28

29 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 29 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Standard Precautions Wash hands before & after patient contact Treat blood of all patients as infectious Treat all linens soiled with bodily fluid as infectious Wear gloves Place all syringes in Sharps container Wear protective eyewear and masks, if needed Wear a mask if there is a risk of infection by airborne organism

30 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 30 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Wound Care Principles: Irrigate wound with clean, cool water Gently wash with mild soap (superficial cuts) All foreign particles must be removed or infection will result Minor cuts and abrasions should be washed, dried with a sterile gauze sponge, treated with a first-aid cream, and covered with a sterile bandage 30

31 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 31 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Wound Care (cont’d.) Proper bandaging and dressing of a wound will ensure proper healing and infection control Two primary types of dressings: Gauze Occlusive 31

32 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 32 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage LearningBleeding Three basic types of bleeding: - Arterial  bright red, spurting; most severe - Venous  bluish-red, steady; less severe - Capillary  slow, oozing; easy to control 32

33 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 33 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bleeding (con’t) Capillary Venous Arterial

34 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 34 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning *Matching Exercise* Each group will come up with a 10 question matching exercise, using the definitions so far in this chapter. You must submit an answer sheet to Ms. Tillman. Another group will take your “quiz” for up to 5 Eagle Points! 34

35 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 35 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning BELLWORK Name the three different types of bleeding. Name the various types of wound care supplies. 35

36 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 36 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Shock Circulation system fails to send blood to all parts of the body; precursor to death Main types: Hemorrhagic shock Loss of blood from an injury Respiratory shock Lungs are unable to supply enough oxygen to blood 36

37 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 37 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Shock (cont’d.) Main types (cont’d.): Neurogenic shock Loss of vascular control by the nervous system Cardiogenic shock Inadequate functioning of the heart Metabolic shock Severe loss of bodily fluids Heat-related illnesses 37

38 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 38 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Shock (cont’d.) Main types (cont’d.): Anaphylactic shock Severe allergic reaction Septic shock Life-threatening reaction to a severe infection Psychogenic shock Physiological response to fear, stress, or emotional crisis that causes the person to faint 38

39 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 39 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Shock (cont’d.) Signs and symptoms include: Restlessness and anxiety weak and rapid pulse cold and clammy skin profuse sweating pale face or cyanotic (blue) around the mouth shallow respirations dull eyes with dilated pupils thirst nausea and vomiting blood pressure that falls gradually and steadily loss of consciousness 39

40 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 40 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Shock (cont’d.) General care and treatment Critical for the victim’s well-being Follow general guidelines Goal is to keep the victim from getting worse Proper care, and reassuring the victim, will help meet this objective 40

41 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 41 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning General Guidelines for Treating Shock Maintain clear airway Control all bleeding Elevate extremities 12 inches Splint fractures Avoid excessive handling Prevent loss of body heat (blanket) Keep victim in supine position DO NOT give victim food or drink Record vitals every 5 min Keep the victim calm Call 911 immediately!

42 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 42 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Conclusion The cardiorespiratory system is responsible for the function of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and breathing Anyone working with athletes must take preventive measures for protection against bloodborne pathogens and other diseases 42

43 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 43 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Conclusion (cont’d.) There are three basic types of bleeding: arterial, venous, and capillary All types require immediate care to prevent shock and infection 43


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