2 I.Origins and Myths a)Three Sovereigns b)Xia II.Early Chinese Civilization III.Shang Dynasty a)Origins b)Political c)Economic d)Religious e)Social Structure IV.Zhou Dynasty a)Political and Social Structure b)Rites of Zhou c)Culture and Society d)Economic e)Religious
3 V.Spring and Autumn, Warring States a)Sub periods b)Warring States c)Emperor Zhou d)The Wall VI.Hundred Schools of Ancient Philosophy a)Confucianism b)Legalism c)Daoism VII.Rise of the Qin and Han Dynasty a)Qin b)Han
4 VIII. Daily Life and Culture in Ancient China - Confucianism a)Society and Economy in the Han Empire i.Peasants ii.Trade and manufacturing iii.Technology I.Sculpture, Metals, Music, Literature b)Family c)Humble Estate: Women d)Decline and Fall of the Han i.Wang Mang ii.Cao Cao
5 I.Myths and Origins a)Three Sovereigns i.Fu Xi (Fu Hsi) ii.Shen Nong (Shen Nung) iii.Huang Di (Huang Ti)
7 Origins of Chinese civilization predates the Xia 4000 years ago. Irrigation Chariots – around mid 2000 BC Myth, oral history, no archaeological evidence 1959 - Excavations at the city of Yanshi, Lungshan agrarian people bronze weapons and pottery rulers often acted as shamans, communicating with spirits for help and guidance.
8 II.Early Chinese Civilization several hundred thousand years. Yellow River –Yangshao –Longshan The Yellow and the Yangtze rivers is where Chinese civilization is thought to have begun. 12 percent of the total land is arable
10 III.Dawn of Chinese Civilization: Shang Dynasty (1580 -1050 B.C.)
11 Origins: –Perhaps Indo-European Political: –Centralized monarchy –Bureaucracy –Ruled by aristocratic class –Territories governed by aristocratic bureaucracy –War – important component, using chariots. Economic:
12 Religious –Sacrifice –Supernatural beliefs –Universe divided into two primary forces –Belief in a hear after –Ancestor worship Social Structures –Farm unit – basic social unit –Clans = village –Village = many farm units –Communal structure and the importance of –DURING SHANG dynasty, the structure was well established – villages organized around clans
13 IV.The Zhou Dynasty (1045-221 B.C.E.) a)Political and Social Structures Rites of Zhou –idea of the Mandate of Heaven. –Mandate of Heaven had been removed - if they were overthrown. –Dao, The Way –Right of Revolution
14 c)Culture and Society –Zhou adopted much of the Shang lifestyle –bronze vessels –adopted much of the Shang writing system –rituals and administration techniques. Zhou began a different form of governing, which was basically feudal.
15 d)Economy “Well field system” –Communal land organization Trade and manufacturing –Silk Agricultural advances –Land fallow –wet rice –Population growth Money economy
16 e)Religion: –banned human sacrifice. –practiced the cult of Heaven.
17 V.Spring and Autumn / Warring States Zhou Dynasty is divided into subperiods. Zhou emperor steadily lost power Last stage of the Northern Song (1100-1127) was the darkest and most corrupt period of the entire dynasty. Warring States is considered the classical age –great philosophers –One Hundred Schools Period –Confucianism –Taoism –Legalism –poetry and prose –writing down of the laws –development of iron, and tools made of iron, greatly increased agriculture and thus population exploded. Last emperor of the zhou apparently forgot this. If a king ruled well, natural disasters would befall the people and the people could theoretically overthrow the emperor to serve heavens purpose.
19 VI.Hundred Schools of Ancient Philosophy –Shang Di – Shang god presiding over forces of nature –Tian (T’ien) or Heaven –Yang (sun) and Yin (moon) –Yi Jing (I Ching), Book of Changes a)Confucianism –Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) –Dao (The Way) –Analects –Mencius (370-29 B.C.E.)
20 b)Legalism c)Daoism Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Dao De Jing (The Way of the Tao) –Popular Daoism
21 VII.Rise of the Chinese Empire: Qin and Han –Period of Warring States, 403-221 B.C.E. a)Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.E.) –Qin Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E.) –Legalism –Centralized state –Military expansion –
22 b)The Glorious Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.-221 C.E.) Fall of the Qin –Liu Bang (Liu Pang) - AKA Emperor Gao or Han Gaozu (Han Kao Tsu) The Han period produced China's most famous historian, Sima Qian (145-87 B.C.?), whose Shiji (Historical Records) provides a detailed chronicle from the time of a legendary Xia emperor to that of the Han emperor Wu Di (141-87 B.C.). Technological advances also marked this period. ethnic majority in China - "people of Han" Silk Road Chinese armies invaded and annexed parts of northern Vietnam and northern Korea "tributary system" - Non-Chinese states were allowed to remain autonomous in exchange for symbolic acceptance of Han overlordship. Several great Chinese inventions, paper and porcelain, the rudder and fore-aft rigging all date from Han times.
23 Confucianism and the State CONFUCIUS and who gets to be in govt / and on what basis? a)Society and Economy in the Han Empire i.Peasants »Taxes »Farm plots »Sold »Housing »Diets »Urban or rural »Chang’an ii.Trade and manufacturing »Silk Road »Guangzhou (Canton) iii.Technology »textile manufacturing, water mills, and iron casting VIII. Daily Life in Ancient China
24 –Metalwork and sculpture Bronze –Lacquerware and ceramics –Language and Literature Writing Literary Chinese –Music Flutes, stringed instruments, bells and chimes, drums and gourds
25 b)Family –Filial piety –Five relationships –Qin attempt to reduce importance of family
26 c)The Humble Estate: Women in Ancient China Subservience Confucian thought accepted dual roles of men and women Some women were a force at court
27 d)Decline and Fall of the Han –Wang Mang, 9-23 C.E. –Cao Cao (Ts’ao Ts’ao)