Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Processor Technology and Architecture Introduction : In November, 1971, a company called Intel publicly introduced the world's first single chip."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Processor Technology and Architecture Introduction : In November, 1971, a company called Intel publicly introduced the world's first single chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004 (U.S. Patent #3,821,715), invented by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stan Mazor. After the invention of integrated circuits revolutionized computer design, the only place to go was down -- in size that is. The Intel 4004 chip took the integrated circuit down one step further by placing all the parts that made a computer think (i.e. central processing unit, memory, input and output controls) on one small chip. Programming intelligence into inanimate objects had now become possible. Intel engineersintegrated circuits Intel engineersintegrated circuits
Subject Presentation CPU Operation There are three primary components of CPU Control Unit: contain circuitry that uses electrical signals to direct the entire computer system to carry out, or execute, stored program instructions and data between main memory and registers Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): contain circuitry that performs all computation and comparison operations (arithmetic and logical operations) Registration: temporary storage locations that hold inputs and outputs for the ALU
CPU Diagram Control Unit ALU Regis ters Primary Storage I/O Unit Second ary Storage I/O Unit System Bus
During the fetch cycle, the control unit: Fetches an instruction from primary storage Increments a pointer to the location of the next instruction Separates the instruction into components ‑ the instruction code (or number) and the data inputs to the instruction Stores each component in a separate register During the execution cycle, the ALU: Retrieves the instruction code from a register Retrieves data inputs from registers Passes data inputs through internal circuits to perform the addition, subtraction, or other data transformation Stores the result in a register
Central Processing Unit Control Unit (Fetch) ALU (ExecuteRegisters Instruction Data 1 Fetch Instruction and data Retrieve instruction and data Execute instruction Store result Increment pointer Store instruction and data Pointer Result Data 2 Primary memory
Type of Processor Kinds of CPU: Pentium, 1,2,3,4, Celeron, Xeon, Itanium, Cyrix, AMD (Apple, and IBM: Motorola, Alpha) Intel(R) Introduces new 3.6 Ghz Xeon(TM) Processor and Two new Chipsets speeds - up to 3.60 GHz. Memory - 64 – bit (Intel ฎ EM64T) Eliminate system bottlenecks Increase the speed, storage and support DDR2 memory technology Provide power up to 40 pecent
The Intel Xeon processor will be used in the next generation of dual-processor server platforms, which will be available soon based on the validation schedules of system manufacturers. The new platforms will be based on two advanced chipsets, the Intel ฎ E7520 and Intel ฎ E7320 (formerly codenamed "Lindenhurst" and "Lindenhurst-VS," respectively), and the new Intel ฎ IOP332 I/O processor (formerly codenamed "Dobson"). The server platforms will take advantage of the same new technologies as the workstation platform introduced today, including PCI Express technology, DDR2 memory support and Intel EM64T. The platforms will be available soon from leading system manufacturers worldwide and will offer improved performance, reliability, serviceability and power savings for enterprise solutions.
Intel Introduces New Pentium ฎ 4 Processors SANTA CLARA, Calif., Feb. 2, 2004 Intel Corporation is delivering four new processors (formerly codenamed Prescott) 90-nanometer (nm) manufacturing technology. These processors are among six new offerings in Intel's line of desktop chips, bringing new features and high performance to a wide range of PC users, from mainstream consumers and businesspeople to gaming enthusiasts and computer power users.
Intel's 90 nm (a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter) process technology is the most advanced semiconductor manufacturing process in the industry, built exclusively on 300 mm wafers. This new process combines high performance, low-power transistors, strained silicon, high- speed copper interconnects and a new low-k dielectric material. This is the first time all of these technologies have been integrated into a single manufacturing process.
Intel Celeron M Processor Debuts SANTA CLARA, Calif., Jan. 5, 2004 – Intel ฎ Celeron M processor for mobile PCs This processor line represents a new generation of Intel technology for the mobility value market segment. Intel has also unveiled a new brand and logo for this product line. In 1,000-unit quantities, the Intel Celeron M processors at 1.30 GHz and 1.20 GHz are priced at $134 and $107, respectively; the ULV Intel Celeron M processor at 800 MHz is priced at $161.
AMD releases new CPUs SUNNYVALE, CA -- January 6, 2004 – AMD (NYSE: AMD) - introduce Mobile AMD Athlon 64 processors 3200+, and 2800+, the world’s only Windows ฎ -compatible 64-bit mobile PC processors for mainstream notebook computers. The new mobile processors mark the latest addition to the award-winning AMD Athlon 64 processor family and feature outstanding mobility, industry-leading 32-bit performance and 64-bit capability. AMD also announced the addition of the AMD Athlon 64 processor for desktop PCs and desktop- replacement notebooks, designed to give customers the ultimate experience on today’s digital media applications.
64-Bit Processor VendorsMajor developers/suppliers of 64-bit chips: Vendor Processor Features Availability CompaqAlphaHighest performanceAvailable on Compaq servers IntelIA-64Supports NT and Available in limited Unixquantities on Windows.NET servers IBMPowerPCTailored to run Available on AIX UnixRS/6000HP HP PA-RISCTailored to run HP-UX SunUltraSPARCTailored to run Solaris Available on Sun servers
PICTURES ITANIUM SUN COMPAQ IBM AMD
In the future the technician predict that the technology will meet the “wall” When the limits of current microprocessor design and fabrication will be reach in year 2010 and In the future people predict that the speed and the function will be more faster and stronger as the price of it will decrease. Moore’s Law: the rate of increase in transistor density on microchips had increased steadily, roughly doubling every 18 to 24 months. Rock’s Law: the cost of fabrication facilities for the latest generation of chips doubles every four years. Conclusion
References: Text Book: Burd, Stephen D. Systems Architecture. Third edition. Course Technology, ISBN Capron H.L, Johnson J.A, Computers Tools for an Information Age. Edition ISBN ure7/Burd-pp html ure7/Burd-pp html ure7/Burd-pp html (http://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,3973,23 1,00.asp) 1,00.asphttp://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,3973,23 1,00.asp