Presentation on theme: "An introduction to sociology"— Presentation transcript:
1An introduction to sociology Figueroa’s frameworkAn introduction to sociology
2Chapter overview Sociology and sport page 295 Equity and access page 298Figueroa’s framework page 299Now that you’ve finished … answers
3What is it?“Figueroa’s framework is a useful tool for examining the socio-cultural factors influencing equity and access to sport and physical activity in Australia.”Senior Syllabus 2010 page 12
4Back tochapter overviewSociology and sportPage 295
5SociologySociology is the scientific study of how human society and culture are developed and organised.Sports sociologists analyse social and cultural influences through a sports perspective.
6Identify and understand social problems and issues in sport Figueroa’s framework is a tool to examine issues in sociology of sport:Identify and understand social problems and issues in sportDrugsViolenceRacismCommodification of sportAllocation of funding and facilitiesMarketing of sportSexploitationDiscuss how aspects within society can increase access and opportunities to physical activities.
8Equity and accessEquity: whether resources are distributed fairly to all members of societyAccess: opportunities to participate in sports of their choice
9What opportunities do you need to succeed in your chosen sport? The study of equity and access in sport is primarily about reducing and removing the unreasonable and irrelevant barriers to participation:DiscriminationPrejudicesStereotypingThis may require a shift in current attitudes to determine:Formation of barriersReinforcing of barriersPersonal reflectionHave any barriers prevented you from participating in a particular sport or activity?What opportunities do you need to succeed in your chosen sport?
13Cultural level Socially shared set of values, beliefs and assumptions Influenced by historical opinions and eventsHegemonic (voice of the dominant group over others)Enshrined racism and sexismStereotypical views:Tall poppy syndrome
14Socio-cultural influences on sports participation Australian sporting identityRegional sporting cultureSocialisation (cultural)StereotypesHegemonic masculinity (cultural)EthnicityReligion
15Structural levelThe structural level looks at the distribution of resources. This covers the allocation of funding through government and how the corporate sectors influence the opportunities experienced by an individual.Government fundingDevelopment programsGovernment policiesMediaMarketing of sportsSponsorship
16Institutional levelExamines institutions within society and what rules and regulations they impose which affect access and opportunities for sport and recreational activity.Sporting associations and funding (institutional level)Community groupsSchools (a significant institution)FacilitiesRules and regulationsTraditionsReligious groups
17Interpersonal levelThe influence of relationships, both positive and negative, that affect whether an individual will develop a lifelong association with sport.ParentsPeersSiblingsTeachersCoachesRole modelsPersonal reflectionWhich three people have had the greatest influence on your sports participation?
18Individual levelPersonal reasons that affect an individual’s involvement in physical activity.GeneticsValuesAttitudesPersonalityExperiences
19How have Figueroa’s levels affected how you participate in sport? Personal reflectionHow have Figueroa’s levels affected how you participate in sport?
20Now that you have finished ... Back tochapter overviewNow that you have finished ...Answers
211a. Sociologists study human society 1a. Sociologists study human society. List features of our society that can have an effect on sports participation.Sport is a microcosm of society. Many aspects that impact on society, can also have an impact on sport. Examples of societal issues that effect sport are:Socio-economic statusDistribution of resources (access and opportunities)Religion and cultural influencesStereotypingMedia representationRacismViolenceDrugsValues and beliefsPeer pressureGender
221b. Of the features you listed above, which might have a negative effect on an individual’s decision to participate in sport? Suggest ways to reduce these barriers.Each factor can have either a positive or negative effect on an individual’s decision to play sport. An example of this can be socio-economic status: Due to family circumstances (family size, cost of living or income), a lack of money to purchase equipment and pay the affiliation fees could be a major factor for an individual. This could be overcome if sports reduced their costs, the individual chose a different sport that meets their financial situation, or equipment was donated to the club. If financial consideration is not a concern, opportunities may be found with private coaching, purchase of better equipment, and access to more competitions.
231b. Continued Religious and cultural beliefs Barriers Possible solutionsCannot play on certain days of religious significanceIncrease awarenessStructure format to cater for thisClothing and modestyNew outfits have been made to reflect religious beliefs and allow for greater movement (see swimming costumes)Ignorance of cultural sportsIncrease community and school opportunities to promote different sports through open days
241b. Continued Media representation Values Barriers Possible Solutions Lack of publicityGender imbalance in coverageActivities promotedAdvocate for your sport by developing articles for local media outlets promoting positive aspects.ValuesBarriersPossible SolutionsDrugs and cheatingReduce societal pressure on winning.ViolenceReduce “air time” provided by the various media promoting negative behaviours.
252. List the five levels of Figueroa’s framework. CulturalStructuralInstitutionalInterpersonalIndividualCulturalStructuralInstitutionalInterpersonalIndividual
263. Explain why Figueroa’s framework is a useful tool to analyse sport in society. One advantage of using Figueroa’s framework is that it provides a structure to analyse sport within society. This structure looks at five different levels.Each level has its own range of issues that allows for a deeper analysis of how sport affects an individual and their decision to participate.Each level influences other levels. This allows for an understanding of the complexity of many sociological issues within sport and explains why some existing practices actually reinforce barriers and inequities.Due to the values, beliefs and experiences of each individual, the impact of each level may be different.
274. Read the following statements and: agree or disagreeidentify the relevant levels from Figueroa’s frameworklist the social aspects that make these statements difficult to solve.
284a. Problems in sport have steadily increased since more athletes turned professional. AgreeNational expectations for winning (cultural level) to maintain and/or develop national pride (e.g., Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games) has lead to increased pressures on athletes to consider performance-enhancing drugs (personal level).Recognition and financial gain for wining national competitions has seen NRL teams try to manipulate their playing roster as in the Melbourne Storm salary cap scandal 2010 (structural level).Only a few Australian sports allow athletes to be full-time professionals (cultural). Within these sports, only a small percentage are on significant wages. Opportunities are there for others to make extra money through “match fixing”. This issue has arisen in cricket, horse racing and rugby league. The choice to do this can be linked to both individual level (beliefs) and interpersonal level through pressure from peers.Role models (interpersonal) and the saturation of sports on TV and other media outlets (structural), highlighting negative sportsmanship (swearing, arguing).
294a. ContinuedDisagreeSport is a microcosm of society (cultural). Hence, issues that cause concern within society will also be evident in sport across all levels. Examples of these are:Violence: games were more violent in the 50s but rule changes and better equipment have minimised this. The concern here is the increase in violence amongst spectators (sport can be a cathartic release for both players and spectators).Drugs: increased opportunities and accessibilityRacism: greater multicultural population, therefore, more education is required to increase understanding of different customs.Alcohol culture associated with sporting teams. This culture is present in all levels within society, and as such is a societal problem.Equal promotion of male and female sports in the media will not occur while the controlling bodies are male dominated (cultural, structural).Societal values (cultural level) have changed and the cultural belief of “winning at all costs” is also evident in amateur sports. See articles discussing great public schools rugby debate (pages 366–8).
30Agree: Interpersonal level 4b. Parents are the real role models, not sport stars! Sports stars are just talented athletes and should not be placed on a pedestal for children to emulate.Agree: Interpersonal levelThe family is the earliest and most significant influence on an individual’s attitude towards sport. Research indicates that about one child in three states that parents are the main influence on their activity choices.Parents who value sport will positively influence their children’s participation.Not all successful sport stars are excellent role models. Some elite athletes, although successful, can become known for inappropriate temper tantrums. Others are exposed by the media (structural level) for acting immorally in their private lives.Australians idolise their sporting heroes (cultural) and will often ignore indiscretions mentioned above (e.g. Shane Warne).
314c. The easiest way to reduce obesity and inactivity is to provide more sporting facilities in each community.Is the provision of facilities the dominant factor in increasing participation rates and reducing obesity?AgreePossible factors which would increase chances of success are:Opportunity to use new facilities (institutional)Friends are keen to try and possibly form a team (interpersonal)Organised competition structure provided (institutional and individual)Parents have an interest in this activity (interpersonal)You have played this activity at school and enjoyed this experience (institutional)Cheap fees to use facility (individual)You live within walking distance from the venue (individual)Free coaching clinics (structural)Equipment provided (institutional)Uniforms are excellent (individual)
324c. ContinuedDisagreePossible factors which would decrease chances of success are:Costs for fees and/or equipment (individual)Peers not interested (interpersonal)(More relevant to adolescents)Work commitments (individual)Negative experiences at school (institutional)Facilities are not culturally aligned with community strengths (cultural)Lack of competition or social avenues catered for (structural)Distance from facility (institutional)Opening hours of facility
334d. The media should provide equal coverage when representing male and female sport Agree50% of population are females and would like to see more of their sports in the media.Consistent sport coverage can benefit the sport and promote positive role models (interpersonal and individual).Media reinforces stereotypes and affects our values. There is an increase in the manner and representation of female sports, but this change is very slow (cultural, structural).Australian women have won a greater percentage of gold medals and world championships than males, yet media reports will focus on the failures of the men’s teams rather than successes from women’s sport (cultural).
344d. ContinuedDisagreeDominant sports in the media are male (cultural).Stereotype of male sport is more aggressive (cultural).Hegemony: men have held the power and authority to influence society and set rules that govern behaviour and promotion of sport (cultural, structural).Commodification of sport: sport is a business, and the sports which have yielded the best business opportunities are male dominated (cultural).
354e. Change can only occur when it begins at the cultural level AgreeThe cultural level refers to the development of society’s beliefs, attitudes and values. Australians are proud when Australia is identified as a sporting nation. Sport has long been a central feature of Australian culture—so much so that enthusiasm for sport has widely been described as a characteristic of Australians (page 313).Dominant sports are closely linked to our international success, which has led to increases in funding and development of business opportunities for these sports.Despite an increase in tolerance, multiculturalism, and understanding of the benefits of many sports, stereotypical views about certain sports has still seen some sports marginalised because of “cultural views”, and the dominant sports still receive most of the funding and promotion opportunities.
365. Discuss how the following social determinants have influenced your opinions, beliefs and values: familypeersschoolgendermediaethnic background
375. Discuss how the following social determinants have influenced your opinions, beliefs and values Answers will vary.