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The Settlement of Kansai International Airport Mantas Enceris Athar Aziz.

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Presentation on theme: "The Settlement of Kansai International Airport Mantas Enceris Athar Aziz."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Settlement of Kansai International Airport Mantas Enceris Athar Aziz

2 INTRODUCTION  Kansai International Airport is located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay, Japan  The island is 4km long and 1km wide  Construction started in 1987  The sea wall was finished in 1989  In km bridge was completed to connect the island to the main land  The airport opened in 1994

3 FORMATION OF THE SEA BED  The undersea floor bed of Kansai International Airport is made up of sand and clay. The thickness of the layers increases as the sea deepens  At the top of the formation the Holocene clay layer is approximately 20m in thickness  The Holocene layer accumulated in the fourth Alluvial epoch 10,000 years ago to the present day always laying under the sea  The Pleistocene layer consists of alternating layers of hard clay and gravel goes deep to hundreds of meters  The Pleistocene layer can bedivided into upper and lower parts  The Pleistocene layer accumulated in the fourth Pleistocene epoch from approximately 2 million years ago to 10,000 years ago

4 THE SOIL OF THE SEA BED  Clay layers accumulate on the seabed when the soil is under the sea  Sand layers accumulate on the soil when the water level decreases and the soil emerges from the water

5 WHY SETTLEMENT OCCURS  Approximately 70 percent of the soft alluvial clay contains water  Even the hard Pleistocene clay contains 40 percent of water  The weight of the artificial island presses the water out of the clay layers of the seabed, and causes the land to settle

6 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE HOLOCENE LAYER  The settlement of the Holocene clay layer beneath the airport was stopped by artificially speeding up the process in less than a year  The Sand Drain method was the solution to let the water out of the clay layer as fast as possible  A million of sand drains (20m long and 40cm in diameter) were driven at 2.5m intervals into the clay layer under the island

7 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE HOLOCENE LAYER  The settlement data of the Holocene clay layer shows that the settlement ended in less that a year after the reclamation land was loaded on and the Sand Drain method was employed  The airport reclamation land has sunk very little since the alluvial settlement ended. Now settlement has completely ended

8 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE PLEISTOCENE LAYER  The long-lasting, and ongoing settlement under the airport since its opening is still taking place in the Pleistocene layer  The Pleistocene layer is sinks slowly and naturally over the long term

9 SETTLEMENT OF THE GROUND SURFACE  The settlement of the man-made island can be almost attributed to the settlement of the settlement of the Pleistocene layer  The settlement across the island varies depend on the thickness of the clay layer and the weight of the reclamation material  The degree of the settlement decrease year by year and tending steadily towards an end

10 METHODS EMPLOYED AGAINST UNEQUAL SETTLEMENT  Balance established by soil removal  Compaction of the reclaimed layers  Raft foundation  Jack-up system

11 JACK-UP SYSTEM  Main building is lighter then the adjacent structures  The difference in the depth of the settlement generate slight tilts between the main building and the adjacent structures  The pillars are jacked up under the main building in order to level the floor of the terminal


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